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Biology for AP® Courses

Test Prep for AP® Courses

Biology for AP® CoursesTest Prep for AP® Courses

44 .
Given that primitive Earth was high in inorganic molecules, but low in oxygen, which of the following organisms would we expect to appear first in the fossil record?
  1. archaea
  2. fish
  3. protists
  4. plants
45 .
Why is it challenging to study the biochemistry of bacterial fossils and determine if the fossils are members of the domain archaea, rather than bacteria?
  1. Bacteria lack rigid structures, thus make the study of fossils difficult.
  2. Bacteria have rigid structures, but their fossil impression is scarce.
  3. Fossils of bacteria are rarely found because bacteria were not abundant in the past.
  4. A fossil of bacteria changes overtime due to the presence of new bacteria living on them.
46 .

Two spheres, A and B, are illustrated. A is labelled with a radius of 5 microns. B is much larger and is labelled with a radius of 50 microns.

Pictured are two cells along with their radius. What does cell B likely have when compared to cell A?

  1. smaller surface area and larger volume
  2. larger surface area and smaller volume
  3. smaller surface area-to-volume ratio
  4. larger surface area-to-volume ratio
47 .

A sphere and a cube are illustrated. They appear to be equal in size

Consider the shapes. The diameter of the sphere is equal to 1mm and the side of the cube is also equal to 1mm. Which has a greater volume? Which has a greater surface area?

  1. The cube has the greater volume and greater surface area.
  2. The sphere has greater surface area and the cube has the greater volume.
  3. The sphere has the greater surface area and greater volume
  4. The cube has the greater volume, and they have the same surface area.
48 .

A sphere and a cube are illustrated. They appear to be equal in size

Which of the following is true regarding the surface-to-volume ratios of the cube and the sphere when the diameter of the sphere is equal to the side of the cube?

  1. The sphere will have a higher surface area than the cube.
  2. The cube will have twice the surface area of the sphere.
  3. The sphere will have a higher surface area-to-volume ratio than the cube.
  4. The surface area to volume ratios will be equal
  5. The sphere will have a lower surface area-to-volume ratio than the cube.
49 .
This figure shows the relative sizes of microbes on a logarithmic scale. What is the major consideration in setting the lower limit of cell size? Relative sizes on a logarithmic scale, from 0.1 n m to 1 m, are shown. Objects are shown from smallest to largest. The smallest object shown, an atom, is about 1 n m in size. The next largest objects shown are lipids and proteins; these molecules are between 1 and 10 n m. Bacteria are about 100 n m, and mitochondria are about 1 greek mu m. Plant and animal cells are both between 10 and 100 greek mu m. A human egg is between 100 greek mu m and 1 m m. A frog egg is about 1 m m, A chicken egg and an ostrich egg are both between 10 and 100 m m, but a chicken egg is larger. For comparison, a human is approximately 1 m tall.
  1. The cell must be large enough to fight the pathogens
  2. The cell must be large enough to attach to a substrate.
  3. The lower limit should be small enough, for the cell to move in the fluid efficiently.
  4. The cell size must be large enough to fit all the processes and structures to support life.
50 .
Which of the following structures has the same general structure in Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya, pointing to a common origin?
  1. centriole
  2. cytoplasmic membrane
  3. Golgi apparatus
  4. nucleus
51 .

Why does the structure of the cytoplasmic membrane point to a common ancestor of all life?

The plasma membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer. In the bilayer, the two long hydrophobic tails of phospholipids face toward the center, and the hydrophilic head group faces the exterior. Integral membrane proteins and protein channels span the entire bilayer. Protein channels have a pore in the middle. Peripheral membrane proteins sit on the surface of the phospholipids, and are associated with the phospholipid head groups. On the exterior side of the membrane, carbohydrates are attached to certain proteins and lipids. Filaments of the cytoskeleton line the interior of the membrane.

  1. All living cells use ATP.
  2. There is a similar arrangement of phospholipids and proteins in all branches of life.
  3. The lipid nature of the membrane makes it the most primitive trait because lipids are the most basic macromolecule.
  4. It does not. Archaea broke off first from all other life as evidenced by their lack of a cytoplasmic membrane.
52 .
Which organelles would be present in high numbers in the leg muscles of a marathon runner?
  1. centrioles
  2. chloroplasts
  3. mitochondria
  4. peroxisome
53 .
Macrophages ingest and digest many pathogens. Which organelle plays a major role in the activity of macrophages?
  1. chloroplast
  2. lysosome
  3. nucleus
  4. peroxisome
54 .
You are looking at a sample under a light microscope and observe a new type of cell. You come to the conclusion that it is a bacterium and not a eukaryotic cell. What would you observe to come to this conclusion?
  1. The cell has a cell wall.
  2. The cell has a flagellum.
  3. The cell does not have a nucleus.
  4. The cell has a negative gram stain.
55 .
Thiomargarita namibiensis is a large single cell organism, which can reach lengths of 700μm. The cell is classified as a bacterium. What is the main argument to justify the classification?
  1. This organism shows simple diffusion for the uptake of nutrients, and is thus classified as a bacterium.
  2. This organism does not show presence of any membranous cell organelles, and thus is classified as a bacterium.
  3. The existence of these organisms in long chains and pearl appearance classifies them as bacteria.
  4. The organism has chloroplasts but lacks mitochondria, and therefore is classified as a bacterium.
56 .
Radioactive amino acids are fed to a cell in culture for a short amount of time. This is called a pulse. You follow the appearance of radioactive proteins in the cell compartments. In which organelles and in what order does radioactivity appear?
  1. endoplasmic reticulum - lysosomes - Golgi body - vesicle - extracellular region
  2. endoplasmic reticulum - vesicles - Golgi body - vesicles - extracellular region
  3. Golgi Body - vesicles - endoplasmic reticulum - vesicles - extracellular region
  4. nucleus - endoplasmic reticulum - Golgi body - vesicle - extracellular region
57 .
With which cellular structure does the extracellular matrix interact?
  1. cytoskeleton
  2. nucleus
  3. smooth endoplasmic reticulum
58 .
Which structure or structures allow bacteria to move about?
  1. fimbriae only
  2. flagella only
  3. flagella and fimbriae
  4. plasmid and capsule
59 .
Cells lining the intestine absorb a lot of nutrients. How did those cells adapt to their function?
  1. Cells use cilia to move nutrients to their surface.
  2. Cells grow much larger than adjacent cells to increase intake
  3. Cells are flat and thin to absorb more nutrients.
  4. Membrane folds called microvilli increase the surface area.
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