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Biology for AP® Courses

Test Prep for AP® Courses

Biology for AP® CoursesTest Prep for AP® Courses
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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1
    1. 1 The Study of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Science of Biology
      3. 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 2 The Chemical Foundation of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Carbon
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 3 Biological Macromolecules
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
      3. 3.2 Carbohydrates
      4. 3.3 Lipids
      5. 3.4 Proteins
      6. 3.5 Nucleic Acids
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  3. Unit 2
    1. 4 Cell Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Studying Cells
      3. 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
      4. 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
      6. 4.5 Cytoskeleton
      7. 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 5 Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Components and Structure
      3. 5.2 Passive Transport
      4. 5.3 Active Transport
      5. 5.4 Bulk Transport
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 6 Metabolism
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy
      4. 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics
      5. 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
      6. 6.5 Enzymes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 7 Cellular Respiration
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
      3. 7.2 Glycolysis
      4. 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle
      5. 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation
      6. 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
      7. 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
      8. 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 8 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reaction of Photosynthesis
      4. 8.3 Using Light to Make Organic Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 9 Cell Communication
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
      3. 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
      4. 9.3 Response to the Signal
      5. 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 10 Cell Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cell Division
      3. 10.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
      5. 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      6. 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  4. Unit 3
    1. 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
      3. 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 12 Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
      3. 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
      4. 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 13 Modern Understandings of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkages
      3. 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 14 DNA Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding
      3. 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing
      4. 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication
      5. 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
      6. 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
      7. 14.6 DNA Repair
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 15 Genes and Proteins
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Genetic Code
      3. 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
      4. 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription
      5. 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
      6. 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 16 Gene Regulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression
      3. 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
      4. 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation
      5. 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcriptional Gene Regulation
      6. 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
      7. 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation
      8. 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 17 Biotechnology and Genomics
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Biotechnology
      3. 17.2 Mapping Genomes
      4. 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
      5. 17.4 Applying Genomics
      6. 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  5. Unit 4
    1. 18 Evolution and Origin of Species
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 Understanding Evolution
      3. 18.2 Formation of New Species
      4. 18.3 Reconnection and Rates of Speciation
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 19 The Evolution of Populations
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Evolution
      3. 19.2 Population Genetics
      4. 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 20 Phylogenies and the History of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  6. Unit 5
    1. 21 Viruses
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification
      3. 21.2 Virus Infection and Hosts
      4. 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections
      5. 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 22 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes
      4. 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
      5. 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
      6. 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  7. Unit 6
    1. 23 Plant Form and Physiology
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 The Plant Body
      3. 23.2 Stems
      4. 23.3 Roots
      5. 23.4 Leaves
      6. 23.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants
      7. 23.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  8. Unit 7
    1. 24 The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Animal Form and Function
      3. 24.2 Animal Primary Tissues
      4. 24.3 Homeostasis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 25 Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Digestive Systems
      3. 25.2 Nutrition and Energy Production
      4. 25.3 Digestive System Processes
      5. 25.4 Digestive System Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 26 The Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
      3. 26.2 How Neurons Communicate
      4. 26.3 The Central Nervous System
      5. 26.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. 26.5 Nervous System Disorders
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 27 Sensory Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Sensory Processes
      3. 27.2 Somatosensation
      4. 27.3 Taste and Smell
      5. 27.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation
      6. 27.5 Vision
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 28 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Types of Hormones
      3. 28.2 How Hormones Work
      4. 28.3 Regulation of Body Processes
      5. 28.4 Regulation of Hormone Production
      6. 28.5 Endocrine Glands
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 29 The Musculoskeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 29.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
      3. 29.2 Bone
      4. 29.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
      5. 29.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 30 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 30.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
      3. 30.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
      4. 30.3 Breathing
      5. 30.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    8. 31 The Circulatory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 31.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
      3. 31.2 Components of the Blood
      4. 31.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
      5. 31.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    9. 32 Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
      1. Introduction
      2. 32.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
      3. 32.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
      4. 32.3 Excretion Systems
      5. 32.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
      6. 32.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    10. 33 The Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 33.1 Innate Immune Response
      3. 33.2 Adaptive Immune Response
      4. 33.3 Antibodies
      5. 33.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    11. 34 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 34.1 Reproduction Methods
      3. 34.2 Fertilization
      4. 34.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis
      5. 34.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
      6. 34.5 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development
      7. 34.6 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation
      8. 34.7 Human Pregnancy and Birth
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  9. Unit 8
    1. 35 Ecology and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 35.1 The Scope of Ecology
      3. 35.2 Biogeography
      4. 35.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 35.4 Aquatic Biomes
      6. 35.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 36 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 36.1 Population Demography
      3. 36.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection
      4. 36.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth
      5. 36.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
      6. 36.5 Human Population Growth
      7. 36.6 Community Ecology
      8. 36.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 37 Ecosystems
      1. Introduction
      2. 37.1 Ecology for Ecosystems
      3. 37.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      4. 37.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 38 Conservation Biology and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 38.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
      3. 38.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life
      4. 38.3 Threats to Biodiversity
      5. 38.4 Preserving Biodiversity
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  11. B | Geological Time
  12. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  13. Index
58.
Urey and Miller constructed an experiment to illustrate the early atmosphere of the Earth and possible development of organic molecules in the absence of living cells. Which assumption did Urey and Miller make regarding conditions on Earth?
  1. electric sparks occurred to catalyze the reaction
  2. the composition of the gases in the atmosphere
  3. there was sufficient oxygen for creating life
  4. it produced water-soluble organic molecules
59.
Urey and Miller proposed that a series of reactions occurred, which ultimately resulted in amino acid formation. Which of the following is true based upon their theory?
  1. Hydrogen and nitrogen combined to create amino acids.
  2. Hydrogen and oxygen combined to create macromolecules.
  3. Nitrogenous bases combined to form monomers then RNA.
  4. Periodic elements combined to create molecules then DNA.
60.
How does Stanley Miller and Harold Urey’s model support the claim that simple precursors present on early Earth could have assembled into complex molecules necessary for life?
  1. The simple molecules assembled to form amino acids and nucleic acids.
  2. The organic molecules assembled to form the large complexes such as water and methane.
  3. The inorganic molecules assembled to form the amino acids and nucleic acids.
  4. The inorganic molecules assembled to form the large complexes such as water and methane.
61.
Which statement most accurately describes the importance of the condensation stage during Urey and Miller’s experiment?
  1. Condensed water enabled the formation of monomers.
  2. Condensation and evaporation simulated lightning storms.
  3. Condensation and evaporation simulated the water cycle.
  4. Condensed water enabled the formation of polymers.
62.
According to the findings of the Urey and Miller experiment, the primitive atmosphere consisted of water in the form of steam, methane, ammonia, and hydrogen gases. If there was so much hydrogen gas in the early atmosphere, why is there so little now?
  1. Hydrogen gas is so light with a molecular weight of 1 that the excess diffused into space over time and is now absent from the atmosphere.
  2. Hydrogen combined with ammonia to make ammonium.
  3. It was all used up in the production of organic molecules.
  4. The excess hydrogen gas was dissolved in the early oceans.
63.
Could the primitive atmosphere illustrated by the Urey and Miller experiment be reproduced on today’s Earth? Why or why not?
  1. The primitive atmosphere cannot be created due to the oxidizing atmosphere and lack of hydrogen.
  2. The primitive atmosphere can be created as the atmosphere is reducing and the Earth has sufficient hydrogen to reproduce the conditions.
  3. The primitive atmosphere cannot be created due to the presence of abundant water and hydrogen in the atmosphere.
  4. The primitive atmosphere can be created as the atmosphere is oxidizing and has less of hydrogen.
64.
What is structurally different between starch and cellulose that gives them different physical properties?
  1. Cellulose is formed by β -1,4 glycosidic linkages and crosslinks, making it rigid. Starch has α -1.4 and α -1.6 glycosidic linkages without the tight crosslinks of cellulose.
  2. Cellulose has rigid α -1,4 glycosidic linkages while starch has less rigid β -1,4 glycosidic linkages
  3. Cellulose has amylose and amylopectin, making it more rigid than starch.
  4. Starch has amylose and amylopectin that make it more rigid than cellulose.
65.

Two six carbon rings with hydroxyl groups are shown. The hydroxyl group on one is highlighted red, the hydrogen of a hydroxyl group of the other is highlighted red. An arrow points to two five carbon rings connected by an oxygen.

Complex polymers are built from combinations of smaller monomers. What type of reaction is shown, and what is a product of the following reaction? Assume water is also produced.

  1. a synthesis reaction producing glucose and water
  2. a hydrolysis reaction producing fructose and water
  3. a condensation reaction producing lactose and water
  4. a dehydration reaction producing sucrose and water
66.
The fatty acids of triglycerides are classified as saturated, unsaturated, or trans fats. What is it about the structure of these compounds that gives them their physical characteristics?
  1. Saturated fats and trans fats contain the greatest possible number of hydrogen atoms, while unsaturated fats do not.
  2. Saturated and unsaturated fats have stable configurations, while trans fats are transient.
  3. Unsaturated fats and trans fats have some double bonded carbon atoms, while saturated fats do not.
  4. Unsaturated and trans fats are the same; the fatty acids are just found on opposite sides of a trans fat.
67.
Carbohydrates serve various functions in different animals. Arthropods like insects, crustaceans, and others, have an outer layer, called the exoskeleton, which protects their internal body parts. This exoskeleton is made mostly of chitin. Chitin is also a major component of the cell walls of fungi, the kingdom that includes molds and mushrooms. Chitin is a polysaccharide. What is the major difference between chitin and other types of polysaccharides?
  1. Chitin is a nitrogen-containing polysaccharide, with repeating units of N-acetyl- β -D-glucosamine, a modified sugar.
  2. Chitin is similar to amylase, but with sulfur linkages between the monomers.
  3. Chitin is similar to inulin, a polysaccharide with fructose, but with additional glucose monomers.
  4. Chitin contains phosphate groups that give it a stiffness not found in other polysaccharides.
68.
What categories of amino acids would you expect to find on the surface of a soluble protein and which would you expect to find in the interior? Which of these are some examples for each part of the answer?
  1. Non-polar and charged amino acids will be present on the surface and polar in the interior of the membrane whereas non-polar will be found in the membrane embedded proteins.
  2. Non-polar and uncharged proteins will be found on the surface with non-polar in the interior, while only non-polar will be found in the embedded proteins.
  3. Polar and charged amino acids will be found on the surface whereas non-polar in the interior.
  4. Polar and charged amino acids will be found on the surface of a membrane protein whereas non-polar in the interior. The membrane protein will be polar and hydrophobic.
69.
You have been identifying the sequence of a segment of a protein. The sequence to date is: leucine-methionine-tyrosine-alanine-glutamine-lysine-glutamate. You insert arginine between the leucine and methionine. What effect would this have on the segment?
  1. Arginine is a negatively charged amino acid and could attach to the glutamate at the end of the segment
  2. Inserting arginine places a positively charged amino acid in a portion that is non-polar, creating the possibility of a hydrogen bond in this area.
  3. There would be no effect other than an additional amino acid.
  4. The arginine could attach to the lysine and bend the protein chain at this point.
70.
What would happen if even one amino acid is substituted for another in a polypeptide? What would be an example?
  1. The change will definitely not be sufficient to have any effect on the function and structure of the protein.
  2. The amino acid may not show any significant effect the protein structure and function or it may have a significant effect, as in the case of hemoglobin in individuals with sickle cell trait.
  3. These changes would increase the possibility of having extra bends and loops in the proteins as in Leber congenital disease.
  4. These changes would modify the structures of proteins making them nonfunctional.
71.
HIV is an RNA virus that affects CD4 cells, also known as T cells, in the human body. Which mechanism is most likely responsible for the fast rate at which HIV can spread?
  1. recombination
  2. mutation
  3. reassortment
  4. formation errors
72.
For many years, scientist believed that proteins were the source of heritable information. There are many thousands of different proteins in a cell, and they mediate the cell’s metabolism, producing the traits and characteristics of a species. Researchers working with DNA viruses proved that it is DNA that stores and passes on genes. They worked with viruses with an outer coat of protein and a DNA strand inside. How did they prove that it was DNA, not protein, which is the primary source of heritable information?
  1. The DNA and protein of the virus were tagged with different isotopes and exposed to host cell where only the DNA was transferred to the host.
  2. The DNA was tagged with an isotope, which was retained in the virus, proving it to be the genetic material.
  3. The viral protein was tagged with an isotope, and the host cell was infected by it. This protein was transferred to the host.
  4. The viral DNA, when sequenced, was found to be present in the host cell proving it to be the hereditary material instead of protein.
73.

The genetic code is based on each amino acid being coded for by a distinctive series of three nucleic acid bases called a codon. The following is a short segment of DNA using the slash symbol ( / ) to separate the codons for easy viewing:

ATC/GTT/GAA/CTG/TAG/GAT/AAA

A change has occurred in the segment resulting in the following:

ATC/GTT/GTA/CTG/TAG/GAT/AAA

What kind of change has occurred?

  1. A substitution of T for A , changing the coding for the third codon
  2. An addition of C for G , lengthening the strand and changing every codon past the addition
  3. A deletion of an A , resulting in a shortening and changing every codon past the deletion
  4. No change has occurred; the same one base was replaced with the same one
74.
A change in DNA on a chromosome affects all proteins made from that gene for the life of the cell. A change in the RNA involved in protein production is short lived. What is the difference between the effects of the changes in the two types of nucleic acids?
  1. DNA is the genetic material that is passed from parent cells to daughter cells and to future generations.
  2. DNA would not affect the individuals as the proteins made are finally altered and modified. RNA would cause harm to the person as the RNA is encoded by the DNA and is not altered.
  3. DNA is the genetic material and is transferred from one generation to another making use of repair mechanisms for every mutation. The RNA does not use a repair mechanism.
  4. DNA, when mutated, makes use of the repair mechanisms and can be repaired whereas RNA is not repaired and is transferred in generations.
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