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Biology for AP® Courses

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Biology for AP® CoursesCritical Thinking Questions
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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1
    1. 1 The Study of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Science of Biology
      3. 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 2 The Chemical Foundation of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Carbon
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 3 Biological Macromolecules
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
      3. 3.2 Carbohydrates
      4. 3.3 Lipids
      5. 3.4 Proteins
      6. 3.5 Nucleic Acids
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  3. Unit 2
    1. 4 Cell Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Studying Cells
      3. 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
      4. 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
      6. 4.5 Cytoskeleton
      7. 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 5 Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Components and Structure
      3. 5.2 Passive Transport
      4. 5.3 Active Transport
      5. 5.4 Bulk Transport
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 6 Metabolism
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy
      4. 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics
      5. 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
      6. 6.5 Enzymes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 7 Cellular Respiration
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
      3. 7.2 Glycolysis
      4. 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle
      5. 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation
      6. 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
      7. 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
      8. 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 8 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reaction of Photosynthesis
      4. 8.3 Using Light to Make Organic Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 9 Cell Communication
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
      3. 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
      4. 9.3 Response to the Signal
      5. 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 10 Cell Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cell Division
      3. 10.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
      5. 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      6. 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  4. Unit 3
    1. 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
      3. 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 12 Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
      3. 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
      4. 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 13 Modern Understandings of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkages
      3. 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 14 DNA Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding
      3. 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing
      4. 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication
      5. 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
      6. 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
      7. 14.6 DNA Repair
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 15 Genes and Proteins
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Genetic Code
      3. 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
      4. 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription
      5. 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
      6. 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 16 Gene Regulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression
      3. 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
      4. 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation
      5. 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcriptional Gene Regulation
      6. 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
      7. 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation
      8. 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 17 Biotechnology and Genomics
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Biotechnology
      3. 17.2 Mapping Genomes
      4. 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
      5. 17.4 Applying Genomics
      6. 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  5. Unit 4
    1. 18 Evolution and Origin of Species
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 Understanding Evolution
      3. 18.2 Formation of New Species
      4. 18.3 Reconnection and Rates of Speciation
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 19 The Evolution of Populations
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Evolution
      3. 19.2 Population Genetics
      4. 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 20 Phylogenies and the History of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  6. Unit 5
    1. 21 Viruses
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification
      3. 21.2 Virus Infection and Hosts
      4. 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections
      5. 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 22 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes
      4. 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
      5. 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
      6. 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  7. Unit 6
    1. 23 Plant Form and Physiology
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 The Plant Body
      3. 23.2 Stems
      4. 23.3 Roots
      5. 23.4 Leaves
      6. 23.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants
      7. 23.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  8. Unit 7
    1. 24 The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Animal Form and Function
      3. 24.2 Animal Primary Tissues
      4. 24.3 Homeostasis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 25 Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Digestive Systems
      3. 25.2 Nutrition and Energy Production
      4. 25.3 Digestive System Processes
      5. 25.4 Digestive System Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 26 The Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
      3. 26.2 How Neurons Communicate
      4. 26.3 The Central Nervous System
      5. 26.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. 26.5 Nervous System Disorders
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 27 Sensory Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Sensory Processes
      3. 27.2 Somatosensation
      4. 27.3 Taste and Smell
      5. 27.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation
      6. 27.5 Vision
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 28 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Types of Hormones
      3. 28.2 How Hormones Work
      4. 28.3 Regulation of Body Processes
      5. 28.4 Regulation of Hormone Production
      6. 28.5 Endocrine Glands
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 29 The Musculoskeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 29.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
      3. 29.2 Bone
      4. 29.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
      5. 29.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 30 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 30.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
      3. 30.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
      4. 30.3 Breathing
      5. 30.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    8. 31 The Circulatory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 31.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
      3. 31.2 Components of the Blood
      4. 31.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
      5. 31.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    9. 32 Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
      1. Introduction
      2. 32.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
      3. 32.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
      4. 32.3 Excretion Systems
      5. 32.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
      6. 32.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    10. 33 The Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 33.1 Innate Immune Response
      3. 33.2 Adaptive Immune Response
      4. 33.3 Antibodies
      5. 33.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    11. 34 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 34.1 Reproduction Methods
      3. 34.2 Fertilization
      4. 34.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis
      5. 34.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
      6. 34.5 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development
      7. 34.6 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation
      8. 34.7 Human Pregnancy and Birth
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  9. Unit 8
    1. 35 Ecology and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 35.1 The Scope of Ecology
      3. 35.2 Biogeography
      4. 35.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 35.4 Aquatic Biomes
      6. 35.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 36 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 36.1 Population Demography
      3. 36.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection
      4. 36.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth
      5. 36.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
      6. 36.5 Human Population Growth
      7. 36.6 Community Ecology
      8. 36.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 37 Ecosystems
      1. Introduction
      2. 37.1 Ecology for Ecosystems
      3. 37.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      4. 37.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 38 Conservation Biology and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 38.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
      3. 38.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life
      4. 38.3 Threats to Biodiversity
      5. 38.4 Preserving Biodiversity
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  11. B | Geological Time
  12. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  13. Index
39.
The word hydrolysis is defined as the lysis of water. How does this apply to polymers?
  1. Polymers break by separating water into hydrogen and hydroxyl group that are added to the monomers.
  2. Polymers are synthesized by using the energy released by the breaking of water molecules into hydrogen and hydroxyl group.
  3. Polymers are separated into monomers producing energy and water molecules.
  4. Polymers are hydrolyzed into monomers using water in the process and are called as dehydration synthesis.
40.
What role do electrons play in dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis?
  1. Electrons are added to OH and H ion in the dehydration synthesis. They are removed from OH and H in hydrolysis.
  2. Electrons are transferred from OH and H ions to the monomers in dehydration synthesis. They are taken up by the H and OH ions from the monomers in hydrolysis.
  3. Electrons are removed from OH and H in the dehydration synthesis. They are added to OH and H in hydrolysis.
  4. Electrons are transferred from monomers to H and OH ions in hydrolysis and from OH and H to monomers in dehydration synthesis.
41.
Which of the following bodily process would most likely be hindered by a lack of water in the body?
  1. digestion
  2. protein synthesis
  3. copying DNA
  4. breathing
42.
Why is it impossible for humans to digest food that contains cellulose?
  1. There is no energy available in fiber.
  2. An inactive form of cellulase in human digestive tract renders it undigested and removes it as waste.
  3. The acidic environment in the human stomach makes it impossible to break the bonds in cellulose.
  4. Human digestive enzymes cannot break down the β -1,4 glycosidic linkage in cellulose, which requires a special enzyme that is absent in humans.
43.
Which of these describe some of the similarities and differences between glycogen and starch?
  1. Glycogen is less branched than starch and is found in animals.
  2. Glycogen is more highly branched than starch and is found in plants.
  3. Starch is less branched than glycogen and is found in plants.
  4. Starch is more branched than glycogen and is found in animals.
44.
Which of these best describes the production of sucrose, maltose, and lactose?
  1. Glucose and fructose combine to form sucrose. Glucose and galactose combine to form lactose. Two glucose monomers combine to form maltose.
  2. Glucose and fructose combine to form sucrose. Glucose and galactose combine to form maltose. Two glucose combine to form lactose.
  3. Two glucose combine to form lactose. Glucose and galactose combine to form sucrose. Glucose and fructose combine to form maltose.
  4. Two galactose combine to form sucrose. Fructose and glucose combine to form lactose. Two glucose combine to form maltose.
45.
What are the four classes of lipids and what is an example of each?
    1. lipids like margarine
    2. wax like the coating on feathers
    3. phospholipids like cell membrane constituents
    4. steroid like cholesterol
    1. lipids like phosphatidylserine
    2. wax like phosphatidic acid
    3. phospholipids like oleic acid
    4. steroid like epinephrine
    1. lipids like phosphatidic acid
    2. waxes like margarine
    3. phospholipids like phosphatidylcholine
    4. steroids like testosterone
    1. lipids like cholesterol
    2. waxes like the coating on feathers
    3. phospholipids like phosphatidylserine
    4. steroids like margarine
46.
What are three functions that lipids serve in plants and/or animals?
  1. Lipids serve in the storage of energy, as a structural component of hormones, and also as signaling molecules.
  2. Lipids serve in the storage of energy, as carriers for the transport of proteins across the membrane, and as signaling molecules.
  3. Lipids serve in the breakdown of stored energy molecules, as signaling molecules, and as structural components of hormones.
  4. Lipids serve in the breakdown of stored energy molecules, as signaling molecules, and as channels for protein transport.
47.
Why have trans fats been banned from some restaurants? How are they created?
  1. Trans fat is produced by the hydrogenation of oil that makes it more saturated and isomerized. It increases LDL amounts.
  2. The dehydrogenation of oil forms the trans fat, which contains single bonds in its structure. This increases HDL in the body and has been banned.
  3. Trans fat is produced by dehydrogenation of oils, which makes it unsaturated. It increases LDL in body.
  4. The hydrogenation of oil makes the trans fat, which increases the number of double bonds in its structure. It decreases HDL in the body.
48.
How do phospholipids contribute to cell membrane structure?
  1. Phospholipids orient their heads towards the polar molecules and tails in the interior of the membrane, thus forming a bilayer.
  2. Phospholipids orient their tails towards the polar molecules of water solutions, and heads in the interior of the membrane, thus forming a bilayer.
  3. Phospholipids orient their heads towards the non-polar molecules and tails in the interior of the membrane, forming a bilayer.
  4. Phospholipids orient their tails towards the polar molecules and heads in the non-polar side of the membrane, forming a bilayer.
49.
What type of compound functions in hormone production, contributes to membrane flexibility, and is the starting molecule for bile salts?
  1. All steroid molecules help in the mentioned functions.
  2. Cholesterol, which is a lipid and also a steroid, functions here.
  3. Glycogen, which is a multi-branched polysaccharide of glucose, is the compound.
  4. Phosphatidylcholine that is a phospholipid with a choline head group, which serves the functions.
50.
What part of cell membranes gives flexibility to the structure?
  1. carbohydrates
  2. cytoskeleton filaments
  3. lipids
  4. proteins
51.
How do the differences in amino acid sequences lead to different protein functions?
  1. Different amino acids produce different proteins based on the bonds formed between them.
  2. Differences in amino acids lead to the recycling of proteins, which produces other functional proteins.
  3. Different amino acids cause rearrangements of amino acids to produce a functional protein.
  4. Differences in the amino acids cause post-translational modification of the protein, which reassembles to produce a functional protein.
52.
What causes the changes in protein structure through the three or four levels of structure?
  1. The primary chain forms secondary α-helix and β-pleated sheets which fold onto each other forming the tertiary structure.
  2. The primary structure undergoes alternative splicing to form secondary structures, which fold on other protein chains to form tertiary structures.
  3. The primary structure forms secondary α-helix and β-pleated sheets. This further undergoes phosphorylation and acetylation to form the tertiary structure.
  4. The primary structure undergoes alternative splicing to form a secondary structure, and then disulfide bonds give way to tertiary structures.
53.
What structural level of proteins is functional? Why?
  1. The secondary structure is functional as it attains its 2-dimensional shape which has the necessary bonds.
  2. The tertiary structure is functional as it possesses the geometric shape showing the necessary loops and bends.
  3. The tertiary structure is functional as it has the non-covalent and covalent bonds along with the subunits attached at the right places, which help it function properly.
  4. Quaternary structure is functional as it has the essential set of subunits.
54.
How does a chaperone work with proteins?
  1. Chaperones assist proteins in folding.
  2. Chaperones cause the aggregation of polypeptides.
  3. Chaperones associate with proteins once the target protein is folded.
  4. Chaperones escort proteins during translation.
55.
What are some differences between DNA and RNA?
  1. DNA is made from nucleotides; RNA is not.
  2. DNA contains deoxyribose and thymine, while RNA contains ribose and uracil.
  3. DNA contains adenine, while RNA contains guanine.
  4. DNA is double stranded, while RNA may be double stranded in animals.
56.
Which molecule carries information in a form that is inherited from one generation to another?
  1. Hereditary information is stored in DNA.
  2. Hereditary information is stored in mRNA.
  3. Hereditary information is stored in proteins.
  4. Hereditary information is stored in tRNA.
57.
What are the four types and functions of RNA?
  1. mRNA is a single stranded transcript of DNA. rRNA is found in ribosomes. tRNA transfers specific amino acids to a developing protein strand. miRNA regulates the expression of mRNA strands.
  2. mRNA is a single stranded transcript of rRNA. rRNA is translated in ribosomes to make proteins. tRNA transfers specific amino acids to a developing protein strand. microRNA (miRNA) regulates the expression of the mRNA strand.
  3. mRNA regulates the expression of the miRNA strand. rRNA are found in ribosomes. tRNA transfers specific amino acids to a developing protein strand. miRNA is a single stranded transcript of DNA.
  4. mRNA is a single stranded transcript of DNA. rRNA transfers specific amino acids to a developing protein strand. tRNA is found in ribosomes. miRNA regulates the expression of the mRNA strand.
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