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Biology for AP® Courses

Review Questions

Biology for AP® CoursesReview Questions

1 .
Dehydration synthesis leads to the formation of what?
  1. monomers
  2. polymers
  3. carbohydrates only
  4. water only
2 .
What is removed during the formation of nucleic acid polymers?
  1. carbon
  2. hydroxyl groups
  3. phosphates
  4. amino acids
3 .
During the breakdown of polymers, which of the following reactions takes place?
  1. condensation
  2. covalent bond
  3. dehydration
  4. hydrolysis
4 .
Energy is released as a result of which of the following chemical reactions?
  1. condensation
  2. dehydration synthesis
  3. hydrolysis
  4. dissolution
5 .
In the metabolism of a cell, why is hydrolysis used?
  1. Hydrolysis breaks down polymers.
  2. Hydrolysis is used to form linkages in DNA.
  3. Hydrolysis is used to produce proteins.
  4. Hydrolysis synthesizes new macromolecules.
6 .
Plant cell walls contain which of the following in abundance?
  1. cellulose
  2. glycogen
  3. lactose
  4. starch
7 .
What makes up the outer layer of some insects?
  1. carbohydrate
  2. protein
  3. RNA
  4. triglyceride
8 .
What is an example of a monosaccharide?
  1. cellulose
  2. fructose
  3. lactose
  4. sucrose
9 .
Cellulose and starch are examples of ________.
  1. disaccharides
  2. lipids
  3. monosaccharides
  4. polysaccharides
10 .
What molecule is joined with glucose to form the disaccharide lactose, and what type of bond joins these molecules?
  1. a glycosidic bond between glucose and lactose
  2. a glycosidic bond between glucose and galactose
  3. a hydrogen bond between glucose and sucrose
  4. a hydrogen bond between glucose and fructose
11 .
What is structurally different about cellulose when compared to starch?
  1. an extra hydrogen atom is left on the monomer
  2. β -1,4 glycosidic linkages are used
  3. α -1,6 glycosidic linkages are used
  4. an extra hydroxyl group is removed during synthesis
12 .
Which of the following are classified as lipids?
  1. disaccharides and cellulose
  2. essential amino acids
  3. mRNA and DNA
  4. oils and waxes
13 .
What is cholesterol specifically classified as?
  1. a triglyceride
  2. a phospholipid
  3. a steroid
  4. a wax
14 .
Which fat serves as an animal’s major form of energy storage?
  1. cholesterol
  2. glycerol
  3. phospholipid
  4. triglycerides
15 .
Which hormones are made from cholesterol?
  1. estradiol and testosterone
  2. insulin and growth hormone
  3. progesterone and glucagon
  4. prolactin and thyroid hormone
16 .
Which of the following characteristics is not true for saturated fats?
  1. They are solid at room temperature.
  2. They have single bonds within the carbon chain.
  3. They tend to dissolve in water easily.
17 .
Which fat has the least number of hydrogen atoms?
  1. trans fat
  2. saturated fat
  3. unsaturated fat
  4. wax
18 .
Of what are phospholipids important components?
  1. the double bond in hydrocarbon chains
  2. the plasma membrane of animal cells
  3. the ring structure of steroids
  4. the waxy covering on leaves
19 .
What is a diacylglycerol 3-phosphate?
  1. phospholipid
  2. phosphatidylcholine
  3. phosphatidylserine
  4. phosphatidate
20 .
What is the basic structure of a steroid?
  1. four fused hydrocarbon rings
  2. glycerol with three fatty acid chains
  3. two fatty acid chains and a phosphate group
  4. two six carbon rings
21 .
Besides its use in hormone production, for what does the body use cholesterol?
  1. mRNA transport
  2. production of bile salts
  3. water reabsorption in the kidney
  4. wax production
22 .
Where is cholesterol found in cell membranes?
  1. attached to the inner side of the membrane
  2. attached to the outer side of the membrane
  3. floating in the phospholipid tail layer
  4. penetrating both lipid layers
23 .
Which type of body cell would have a higher amount of cholesterol in its membrane?
  1. a cartilage cell
  2. a liver cell
  3. a red blood cell
  4. a spleen cell
24 .
Which of the following is a function of proteins in cells?
  1. energy storage
  2. gene storage and access
  3. membrane fluidity
  4. structure
25 .
What type of protein facilitates or accelerates chemical reactions?
  1. an enzyme
  2. a hormone
  3. a membrane transport protein
  4. a tRNA molecule

What type of amino acids would you expect to find on the surface of proteins that must interact closely with water?

27 .
What are the monomers that make up proteins called?
  1. amino acids
  2. chaperones
  3. disaccharides
  4. nucleotides
28 .
Where is the linkage made that combines two amino acids?
  1. between the R group of one amino acid and the R group of the second
  2. between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of the other
  3. between the 6 carbon of both amino acids
  4. between the nitrogen atoms of the amino groups in the amino acids
29 .
The α -helix and the β -pleated sheet are part of which protein structure?
  1. the primary structure
  2. the secondary structure
  3. the tertiary structure
  4. the quaternary structure
30 .
Which structural level of proteins is most often associated with their biological function?
  1. the primary structure
  2. the secondary structure
  3. the tertiary structure
  4. the quaternary structure
31 .
Which of the following may cause a protein to denature?
  1. changes in pH
  2. high temperatures
  3. the addition of some chemicals
  4. all of the above
32 .
What is a protein’s chaperone?
  1. a chemical that assists the protein in its enzymatic functions
  2. a second protein that completes the quaternary structure
  3. a chemical that helps the protein fold properly
  4. a chemical that functions as a cofactor for the protein
33 .
What are the building blocks of nucleic acids?
  1. nitrogenous bases
  2. nucleotides
  3. peptides
  4. sugars
34 .
What may a nucleotide of DNA contain?
  1. ribose, uracil, and a phosphate group
  2. deoxyribose, uracil, and a phosphate group
  3. deoxyribose, thymine, and a phosphate group
  4. ribose, thymine, and a phosphate group
35 .
What is DNA’s structure described as?
  1. a step ladder
  2. a double helix
  3. a tertiary protein-like structure
  4. a barber pole
36 .
What is found in RNA that is not in DNA?
  1. deoxyribose and adenine
  2. fructose and thymine
  3. glucose and quinine
  4. ribose and uracil
37 .
What is the smallest type of RNA?
  1. mRNA
  2. microRNA
  3. rRNA
  4. tRNA
38 .
Where is the largest amount of DNA found in a eukaryotic cell?
  1. attached to the inner layer of the cell membrane
  2. in the nucleus
  3. in the cytoplasm
  4. on ribosomes
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