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Biology for AP® Courses

Test Prep for AP® Courses

Biology for AP® CoursesTest Prep for AP® Courses
  1. Preface
  2. The Chemistry of Life
    1. 1 The Study of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Science of Biology
      3. 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 2 The Chemical Foundation of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Carbon
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 3 Biological Macromolecules
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
      3. 3.2 Carbohydrates
      4. 3.3 Lipids
      5. 3.4 Proteins
      6. 3.5 Nucleic Acids
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  3. The Cell
    1. 4 Cell Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Studying Cells
      3. 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
      4. 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
      6. 4.5 Cytoskeleton
      7. 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 5 Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Components and Structure
      3. 5.2 Passive Transport
      4. 5.3 Active Transport
      5. 5.4 Bulk Transport
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 6 Metabolism
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy
      4. 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics
      5. 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
      6. 6.5 Enzymes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 7 Cellular Respiration
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
      3. 7.2 Glycolysis
      4. 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle
      5. 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation
      6. 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
      7. 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
      8. 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 8 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reaction of Photosynthesis
      4. 8.3 Using Light to Make Organic Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 9 Cell Communication
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
      3. 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
      4. 9.3 Response to the Signal
      5. 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 10 Cell Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cell Division
      3. 10.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
      5. 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      6. 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  4. Genetics
    1. 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
      3. 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 12 Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
      3. 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
      4. 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 13 Modern Understandings of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkages
      3. 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 14 DNA Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding
      3. 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing
      4. 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication
      5. 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
      6. 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
      7. 14.6 DNA Repair
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 15 Genes and Proteins
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Genetic Code
      3. 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
      4. 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription
      5. 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
      6. 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 16 Gene Regulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression
      3. 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
      4. 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation
      5. 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcriptional Gene Regulation
      6. 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
      7. 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation
      8. 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 17 Biotechnology and Genomics
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Biotechnology
      3. 17.2 Mapping Genomes
      4. 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
      5. 17.4 Applying Genomics
      6. 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  5. Evolutionary Processes
    1. 18 Evolution and Origin of Species
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 Understanding Evolution
      3. 18.2 Formation of New Species
      4. 18.3 Reconnection and Rates of Speciation
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 19 The Evolution of Populations
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Evolution
      3. 19.2 Population Genetics
      4. 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 20 Phylogenies and the History of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  6. Biological Diversity
    1. 21 Viruses
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification
      3. 21.2 Virus Infection and Hosts
      4. 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections
      5. 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 22 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes
      4. 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
      5. 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
      6. 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  7. Plant Structure and Function
    1. 23 Plant Form and Physiology
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 The Plant Body
      3. 23.2 Stems
      4. 23.3 Roots
      5. 23.4 Leaves
      6. 23.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants
      7. 23.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  8. Animal Structure and Function
    1. 24 The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Animal Form and Function
      3. 24.2 Animal Primary Tissues
      4. 24.3 Homeostasis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 25 Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Digestive Systems
      3. 25.2 Nutrition and Energy Production
      4. 25.3 Digestive System Processes
      5. 25.4 Digestive System Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 26 The Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
      3. 26.2 How Neurons Communicate
      4. 26.3 The Central Nervous System
      5. 26.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. 26.5 Nervous System Disorders
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 27 Sensory Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Sensory Processes
      3. 27.2 Somatosensation
      4. 27.3 Taste and Smell
      5. 27.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation
      6. 27.5 Vision
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 28 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Types of Hormones
      3. 28.2 How Hormones Work
      4. 28.3 Regulation of Body Processes
      5. 28.4 Regulation of Hormone Production
      6. 28.5 Endocrine Glands
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 29 The Musculoskeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 29.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
      3. 29.2 Bone
      4. 29.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
      5. 29.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 30 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 30.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
      3. 30.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
      4. 30.3 Breathing
      5. 30.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    8. 31 The Circulatory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 31.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
      3. 31.2 Components of the Blood
      4. 31.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
      5. 31.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    9. 32 Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
      1. Introduction
      2. 32.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
      3. 32.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
      4. 32.3 Excretion Systems
      5. 32.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
      6. 32.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    10. 33 The Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 33.1 Innate Immune Response
      3. 33.2 Adaptive Immune Response
      4. 33.3 Antibodies
      5. 33.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    11. 34 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 34.1 Reproduction Methods
      3. 34.2 Fertilization
      4. 34.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis
      5. 34.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
      6. 34.5 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development
      7. 34.6 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation
      8. 34.7 Human Pregnancy and Birth
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  9. Ecology
    1. 35 Ecology and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 35.1 The Scope of Ecology
      3. 35.2 Biogeography
      4. 35.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 35.4 Aquatic Biomes
      6. 35.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 36 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 36.1 Population Demography
      3. 36.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection
      4. 36.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth
      5. 36.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
      6. 36.5 Human Population Growth
      7. 36.6 Community Ecology
      8. 36.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 37 Ecosystems
      1. Introduction
      2. 37.1 Ecology for Ecosystems
      3. 37.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      4. 37.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 38 Conservation Biology and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 38.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
      3. 38.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life
      4. 38.3 Threats to Biodiversity
      5. 38.4 Preserving Biodiversity
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  11. B | Geological Time
  12. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  13. Index
52.
There are three types of hormones based on chemical structure: lipid-derived, amino acid-derived, and peptide hormones. Compare the images to identify the hormone that is lipid-derived.
53.
Hormones are essential for facilitating communication between cells, which can help maintain homeostasis within the body. Make a claim that explains how hormones facilitate communication on a molecular level.
  1. A hormone is released in response to a stimulus, travels through the body, and then binds to receptors of the target cell to elicit a response.
  2. A hormone is released from the pituitary gland in response to a stimulus, travels through the body, and then binds to a receptor of a target cell to elicit response.
  3. A hormone is released in response to a stimulus, travels through the body, and then binds to receptors to stimulate the signaling pathway.
  4. A hormone is released in response to a stimulus, travels through the body and then binds to the intracellular receptors of target cells to elicit a response.
54.
Steroid hormones are known to circulate in the blood longer than peptide hormones. Describe why this occurs.
  1. Peptide hormones cannot pass through cell membranes.
  2. Steroid hormones are water insoluble.
  3. Peptide hormones are water insoluble.
  4. Steroid hormones cannot pass through cell membranes.
55.
Explain why lipid-derived hormones, such as steroid hormones, and peptide and amino acid-derived hormones utilize different types of receptors. Identify the receptor type each hormone group uses.
  1. Lipid-derived hormones have receptors located in the nucleus, and thus utilize intracellular receptors, whereas peptide and amino acid-derived hormones have receptors only on the surface of the cell and thus utilize cell surface receptors.
  2. Lipid-derived hormones can permeate the plasma membrane and thus utilize intracellular receptors. Peptide and amino acid- derived hormones are lipid insoluble and thus require cell surface receptors.
  3. Lipid-derived hormones can permeate plasma membranes as they need to remain in circulation for a longer duration, and thus utilize intracellular receptors. Peptide and amino acid-derived hormones are lipid insoluble and need surface receptors.
  4. Lipid-derived hormones can permeate plasma membranes and thus utilize cell surface receptors. Some peptide and amino acid-derived hormones can cross the membrane but most are lipid insoluble and thus require intracellular receptors.
56.
There are three types of hormones based on chemical structure: lipid-derived, amino acid-derived, and peptide hormones. Compare the images below to identify the peptide hormone.
57.
Cellular activity can vary based on sensitivity to hormones, and cellular activity can therefore either be up-regulated or down-regulated by those hormones. Make a claim to describe a scenario that would likely cause a greater response from cells controlled by a hormone.
  1. Hormone levels increase and the number of target cell receptors increases.
  2. Hormone levels decrease and the number of target cell receptors increases.
  3. Hormone levels increase and the number of target cell receptors decreases.
  4. Hormone levels decrease and the number of target cell receptors decreases.
58.

The illustration shows a hormone crossing the cellular membrane and attaching to the NR/HSP complex. The complex dissociates, releasing the heat shock protein and a NR/hormone complex. The complex dimerizes, enters the nucleus, and attaches to an HRE element on DNA, triggering transcription of certain genes.

Examine the illustration provided. Determine what kind of hormone is undergoing binding in this figure and describe the evidence in the figure that supports your answer.

  1. A lipid-derived hormone is undergoing binding; this is evident because it is fat insoluble and therefore able to bind to receptors on the outer surface of the plasma membrane.
  2. A lipid-derived hormone is undergoing binding; this is evident because it is fat soluble and therefore able to pass through the cell membrane to reach intracellular receptors.
  3. A polypeptide-derived hormone is undergoing binding; this is evident because it is fat soluble and therefore able to pass through the cell membrane to reach intracellular receptors.
  4. A polypeptide-derived hormone is undergoing binding; this is evident because it is fat insoluble and therefore binds to receptors on the outer surface of the plasma membrane.
59.

The illustration shows a hormone bound to the extracellular surface of a beta-adrenergic receptor. A G-protein associated with the intracellular surface of the receptor is activated when the GTP associated with it is replaced with GDP. The G protein activates the enzyme adenylyl cyclase, which converts ATP to cAMP, triggering a cellular response.

Evaluate the process illustrated in the diagram. What kind of hormone is bound to the target cell receptor?

  1. steroid
  2. lipid-derived
  3. estradiol
  4. amino acid-derived
60.
Blood pressure and blood volume are increased by the production of the hormones antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and aldosterone. Describe how renin promotes release of ADH and aldosterone.
  1. Renin cleaves angiotensinogen.
  2. Renin directly simulates ADH and aldosterone production.
  3. Renin produces angiotensin II.
  4. Angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II.
61.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is essential for water regulation in the kidneys. Once released from the pituitary, ADH travels through to the kidneys. Make a claim that correctly explains specifically how ADH promotes water reabsorption.
  1. ADH initiates a series of events that lead to the release of more vasopressin hormone in the kidney, leading to the movement of water out of kidneys.
  2. ADH initiates a series of events that lead to the temporary insertion of aquaporins in the kidney, through which water moves into the kidneys.
  3. ADH initiates a series of events leading to the temporary insertion of aquaporins in the kidney, through which water moves out of the kidneys.
  4. ADH initiates a series of events that leads to the movement of water out of the kidneys through simple diffusion.
62.
David, an athlete, wants to enhance his baseball performance by taking erythropoietin. Apply your understanding of the role of erythropoietin to identify what physical change David is trying to make.
  1. He hopes to build more muscle.
  2. He wants to improve endurance.
  3. He hopes to reduce his body fat.
  4. He wants to decrease his need to urinate.
63.
Some athletes may want to take synthetic hormones to improve their performance in their given sport. However, the use of certain synthetic hormones is banned in many professional sports. Support the legitimacy of these common bans by providing reasoning to explain why they are needed.
  1. Synthetic hormones can produce severe side effects such as insomnia, depression, and prostate enlargement. These side effects are often severe and irreversible.
  2. Synthetic hormones can produce severe severe side effects such as impaired heart function, testicular atrophy, and depression. These side effects can be cured through surgeries.
  3. Synthetic hormones can produce severe severe side effects such as impaired heart function, testicular atrophy, and prostate enlargement. These side effects are often severe and irreversible.
  4. Synthetic hormones can produce severe severe side effects such as insomnia, depression, and prostate enlargement. These side effects can be cured through surgeries.
64.

Choice A represents the hormone released from the pituitary gland that stimulates bone and muscle growth. Choice B represents the hormone that inhibits these actions. Choice C represents the liver and the breakdown of glycogen. Choice D represents the release of insulin-like growth factors that cause target cells to take up amino acids.

This figure shows how growth hormone communicates with cells to promote muscle and bone growth. Evaluate the processes illustrated, and summarize them to identify growth hormone’s exact role.

  1. Growth hormone inhibits growth hormone-inhibiting hormone release.
  2. Growth hormone stimulates growth hormone-releasing hormone release.
  3. Growth hormone breaks down glycogen.
  4. Growth hormone activates insulin-like growth factors.
65.
Growth hormone helps promote growth by accelerating the rate of protein synthesis. Explain the mechanism by which growth hormone switches the energy source of most cells, and identify that energy source.
  1. Growth hormone is able to break down triglycerides through lipogenesis. When triglycerides are released, most tissues switch to fatty acids as energy sources.
  2. Growth hormone is able to break down triglycerides through lipolysis. When triglycerides are released, most tissues switch to fatty acids as an energy source.
  3. Growth hormone is able to break down triglycerides through lipolysis. When triglycerides are released, most tissues switch to glucose as an energy source.
  4. Growth hormone is able to break down triglycerides through lipogenesis. When triglycerides are released, most tissues switch to glucose as an energy source
66.
Positive feedback loops are rare in the endocrine system but some do exist. Compare the cause-and-effect situations described below to identify which is an example of a positive feedback loop.
  1. Insulin facilitates decrease of blood sugar levels.
  2. Oxytocin release stimulates milk release.
  3. Increased blood calcium levels halt PTH production.
  4. Increased amounts of T3 and T4 inhibit further production.
67.
Although positive feedback loops are rare in the endocrine system, they are present in childbirth. Support this statement by correctly explaining the steps of the positive feedback loop that controls childbirth.
  1. When a child pushes on the cervix, a signal is sent to stimulate oxytocin release, which stimulates more contractions. This promotes more oxytocin release that allows the child to be pushed through the birth canal.
  2. When a child pushes on the cervix, a signal is sent to stimulate oxytocin release, which stimulates contractions. This promotes release of progesterone that allows the child to be pushed through the birth canal.
  3. When a child pushes on the cervix, a signal is sent to stimulate prolactin release, which stimulates more contractions. This promotes release of more prolactin that allows the child to be pushed through the birth canal.
  4. When a child pushes on the cervix, a signal is sent to stimulate progesterone release, which stimulates contractions. This promotes release of oxytocin that allows the child to be pushed through the birth canal.
68.
Osmoreceptors are essential for monitoring water concentrations within the body. Describe how osmoreceptors complete this task.
  1. Osmoreceptors insert aquaporins in the kidneys.
  2. Osmoreceptors signal increase sodium reabsorption.
  3. Osmoreceptors detect when blood electrolyte levels change.
  4. Osmoreceptors signal increased sodium reabsorption.
69.
Laura has Type 1 diabetes, so her body cannot properly produce insulin in response to elevated blood glucose levels. Identify from the options provided which type of endocrine stimulus Laura is unable to respond to.
  1. humoral
  2. hormonal
  3. neural
  4. negative
70.
Terry recently gained weight and has been more tired than usual. Terry’s doctor suggested that he might not produce enough thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Evaluate the diagram to justify the doctor's claim by explaining why a TSH deficiency could cause Terry’s weight gain and fatigue.
  1. Without TSH, there would be excessive production of T3 and T4, leading to a high metabolic rate that would cause weight gain and fatigue.
  2. Without TSH, there would be excessive production of T3 and T4, leading to a low metabolic rate that would cause weight gain and fatigue.
  3. Without TSH, T3 and T4 cannot be properly produced, leading to a high metabolic rate that would cause weight gain and fatigue.
  4. Without TSH, T3 and T4 cannot be properly produced, leading to a low metabolic rate that would cause weight gain and fatigue.
71.
Marcus experienced nervous system damage in a car accident. Make a claim for which of the following endocrine-related body functions will be most likely impaired as a result.
  1. ability to lower blood glucose levels
  2. fight-or-flight response
  3. urine production
  4. body heat regulation
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