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Biology for AP® Courses

Test Prep for AP® Courses

Biology for AP® CoursesTest Prep for AP® Courses

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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. The Chemistry of Life
    1. 1 The Study of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Science of Biology
      3. 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 2 The Chemical Foundation of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Carbon
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 3 Biological Macromolecules
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
      3. 3.2 Carbohydrates
      4. 3.3 Lipids
      5. 3.4 Proteins
      6. 3.5 Nucleic Acids
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  3. The Cell
    1. 4 Cell Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Studying Cells
      3. 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
      4. 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
      6. 4.5 Cytoskeleton
      7. 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 5 Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Components and Structure
      3. 5.2 Passive Transport
      4. 5.3 Active Transport
      5. 5.4 Bulk Transport
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 6 Metabolism
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy
      4. 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics
      5. 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
      6. 6.5 Enzymes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 7 Cellular Respiration
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
      3. 7.2 Glycolysis
      4. 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle
      5. 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation
      6. 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
      7. 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
      8. 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 8 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reaction of Photosynthesis
      4. 8.3 Using Light to Make Organic Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 9 Cell Communication
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
      3. 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
      4. 9.3 Response to the Signal
      5. 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 10 Cell Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cell Division
      3. 10.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
      5. 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      6. 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  4. Genetics
    1. 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
      3. 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 12 Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
      3. 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
      4. 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 13 Modern Understandings of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkages
      3. 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 14 DNA Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding
      3. 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing
      4. 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication
      5. 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
      6. 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
      7. 14.6 DNA Repair
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 15 Genes and Proteins
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Genetic Code
      3. 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
      4. 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription
      5. 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
      6. 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 16 Gene Regulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression
      3. 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
      4. 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation
      5. 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcriptional Gene Regulation
      6. 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
      7. 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation
      8. 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 17 Biotechnology and Genomics
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Biotechnology
      3. 17.2 Mapping Genomes
      4. 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
      5. 17.4 Applying Genomics
      6. 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  5. Evolutionary Processes
    1. 18 Evolution and Origin of Species
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 Understanding Evolution
      3. 18.2 Formation of New Species
      4. 18.3 Reconnection and Rates of Speciation
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 19 The Evolution of Populations
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Evolution
      3. 19.2 Population Genetics
      4. 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 20 Phylogenies and the History of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  6. Biological Diversity
    1. 21 Viruses
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification
      3. 21.2 Virus Infection and Hosts
      4. 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections
      5. 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 22 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes
      4. 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
      5. 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
      6. 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  7. Plant Structure and Function
    1. 23 Plant Form and Physiology
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 The Plant Body
      3. 23.2 Stems
      4. 23.3 Roots
      5. 23.4 Leaves
      6. 23.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants
      7. 23.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  8. Animal Structure and Function
    1. 24 The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Animal Form and Function
      3. 24.2 Animal Primary Tissues
      4. 24.3 Homeostasis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 25 Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Digestive Systems
      3. 25.2 Nutrition and Energy Production
      4. 25.3 Digestive System Processes
      5. 25.4 Digestive System Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 26 The Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
      3. 26.2 How Neurons Communicate
      4. 26.3 The Central Nervous System
      5. 26.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. 26.5 Nervous System Disorders
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 27 Sensory Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Sensory Processes
      3. 27.2 Somatosensation
      4. 27.3 Taste and Smell
      5. 27.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation
      6. 27.5 Vision
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 28 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Types of Hormones
      3. 28.2 How Hormones Work
      4. 28.3 Regulation of Body Processes
      5. 28.4 Regulation of Hormone Production
      6. 28.5 Endocrine Glands
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 29 The Musculoskeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 29.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
      3. 29.2 Bone
      4. 29.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
      5. 29.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 30 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 30.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
      3. 30.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
      4. 30.3 Breathing
      5. 30.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    8. 31 The Circulatory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 31.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
      3. 31.2 Components of the Blood
      4. 31.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
      5. 31.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    9. 32 Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
      1. Introduction
      2. 32.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
      3. 32.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
      4. 32.3 Excretion Systems
      5. 32.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
      6. 32.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    10. 33 The Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 33.1 Innate Immune Response
      3. 33.2 Adaptive Immune Response
      4. 33.3 Antibodies
      5. 33.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    11. 34 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 34.1 Reproduction Methods
      3. 34.2 Fertilization
      4. 34.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis
      5. 34.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
      6. 34.5 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development
      7. 34.6 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation
      8. 34.7 Human Pregnancy and Birth
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  9. Ecology
    1. 35 Ecology and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 35.1 The Scope of Ecology
      3. 35.2 Biogeography
      4. 35.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 35.4 Aquatic Biomes
      6. 35.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 36 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 36.1 Population Demography
      3. 36.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection
      4. 36.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth
      5. 36.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
      6. 36.5 Human Population Growth
      7. 36.6 Community Ecology
      8. 36.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 37 Ecosystems
      1. Introduction
      2. 37.1 Ecology for Ecosystems
      3. 37.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      4. 37.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 38 Conservation Biology and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 38.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
      3. 38.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life
      4. 38.3 Threats to Biodiversity
      5. 38.4 Preserving Biodiversity
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  11. B | Geological Time
  12. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  13. Index
52.
A figure shows two graphs that illustrate changes in epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations, respectively, during exercise and recovery. In both graphs, the horizontal axis is labeled time (min) and is divided into two halves. The left half, labeled exercise, ranges from 9 to 120 before meeting a vertical line from 0 marking the end of a period labeled exercise. This axis is labeled in increments of 20. The right half, labeled recovery, ranges from 0 at the vertical line that marks the transition between the halves of the horizontal axis and 250, labeled in increments of 50. In the upper graph, the vertical axis is labeled epinephrine (p g/m L) and ranges from 0 to 500, labeled in increments of 500. Three curves are shown on the graph. The red curve begins at (0, 20), drops slightly, rises to a peak at (2, 290) then decreases to (52, 80) before descending slowly to end at (249, 2). The blue curve follows a similar trajectory but is generally slightly lower and peaks at (2, 250) before descending. The green curve follows a similar pattern but begins above the other two lines at (0, 50) before dropping beneath them to peak at (2, 160). Points on the graph with error bars shown to the extent visible are as follows. Red curve: (0, 20), (8, 5), (64, 140 plus or minus 2); (2, 290 plus or minus 159), (35, 60); (52, 80 plus or minus 2); (86, 80 plus or minus 5); (130, 79 plus or minus 4); (180, 50, plus or minus 2); (210, 30, plus or minus 2); (249, 2 plus or minus 2). Green curve: (0, 50 plus or minus 25); (8, 5 plus or minus 1); (64, 60 plus or minus 10); (2, 160 plus or minus 20); (35, 50 plus or minus 2); (52, 80 plus or minus 20); (86, 20 plus or minus 3); (130, 18 plus or minus 3); (180, 20 plus or minus 3); (210, 60 plus or minus 3); (249, 60 plus or minus 4). Blue curve: (0, 39 plus or minus 1); (8, 5 plus or minus 2); (64, 180 plus or minus 8); (2, 250 plus or minute 20); (35, 70); (52, 60 plus or minus 4); (130, 60 plus or minus 2); (180, 25 plus or minus 2); (210, 59 plus or minus 4); (249, 60 plus or minus 4). The second curve is labeled norepinephrine (p g/m l) and the vertical axis ranges from 0 to 1600, labeled in increments of 200. Three curves are shown. The red curve begins at (0, 200) and curves up to peak at (64, 1250), then descends to end at (250, 290). The blue curve starts at (0, 300) drops slightly, then rises to peak at (65, 1300) before dropping to end at (240, 250), The green curve starts at (0, 210), drops slightly, then rises to peak at (64, 780) before descending in a slightly zigzag pattern to end at (260, 390). Points on the graph with error bars shown to the extent visible are as follows. Red curve: (0, 200), (9, 430), (64, 1260 plus or minus 150), (2, 840 plus or minus 100); (35, 790 plus or minus 100); (52, 650 plus or minus 100); (85, 450 plus or minus 5); (125, 450 plus or minus 4); (190, 450 plus or minus 5); (210, 540 plus or minus 2); (240, 420). The blue curve starts at (0, 300), drops slightly to (9, 200), then rises to peak at (64, 780) before descending to (2, 890 plus or minus 10); (35, 700 plus or minus 10); (52, 700 plus or minus 10); (85, 580 plus or minus 10); (190, 500 plus or minus 10); (130, 390 plus or minus 10); (160, 420 plus or minus 10); (210, 280 plus or minus 5); (240,220 plus or minus 5). Green curve: (0, 210), (9, 180), (64, 780 plus or minus 150), (2, 590 plus or minus 8); (35, 390 plus or minus 8); (52, 420 plus or minus 8); (85, 230); (125, 220); (190, 300 plus or minus 2); (210, 380 plus or minus 2); (260, 390 plus or minus 2). All data is approximate.
(credit: modification of work by Thomas B Price/ResearchGate)

The graph shows the concentrations of two hormones, epinephrine and noepinephrine, in the blood during and after exercise. Different lines represent different people. Note the y-axes of the two graphs have different scales.

Make a claim based on these graphs.

  1. The concentrations of both hormones peak at the same time during exercise.
  2. There is more noephinephrine in blood than ephinephrine during exercise.
  3. The concentrations of both hormones drop gradually.
  4. There is about equal amounts of ephinephrine and noephinephrine in blood during exercise.
53.
(credit: modification of work by Sverre E. Kjeldsen, et al./Hypertension, under CC BY 4.0 license)

Platelets are small cell fragments present in blood which play a role in blood clotting. The graph shows a research study on the effect of the hormone epinephrine on the platelet count in blood. The epinephrine IV part of the graph shows where epinephrine was injected into the blood sample. Consider the ACD line and ignore the EDTA line in the graph.

Which option describes the effect of epinephrine on platelet count?

  1. Epinephrine increases platelet count in a J-shaped curve.
  2. Epinephrine increaes platelet count in an S-shaped curve.
  3. Epinephrine causes an initial spike ine platelet count. After the spike, platelet count drops even when epinephrine injection continues.
  4. Epinephrine causes an initial spike ine platelet count. After the spike, platelet count remains constant as long as epinephrine injection continues.
54.
Steroid hormones are known to circulate in the blood longer than peptide hormones. Describe why this occurs.
  1. Peptide hormones cannot pass through cell membranes.
  2. Steroid hormones are water insoluble.
  3. Peptide hormones are water insoluble.
  4. Steroid hormones cannot pass through cell membranes.
55.
Explain why lipid-derived hormones, such as steroid hormones, and peptide and amino acid-derived hormones utilize different types of receptors. Identify the receptor type each hormone group uses.
  1. Lipid-derived hormones have receptors located in the nucleus, and thus utilize intracellular receptors, whereas peptide and amino acid-derived hormones have receptors only on the surface of the cell and thus utilize cell surface receptors.
  2. Lipid-derived hormones can permeate the plasma membrane and thus utilize intracellular receptors. Peptide and amino acid- derived hormones are lipid insoluble and thus require cell surface receptors.
  3. Lipid-derived hormones can permeate plasma membranes as they need to remain in circulation for a longer duration, and thus utilize intracellular receptors. Peptide and amino acid-derived hormones are lipid insoluble and need surface receptors.
  4. Lipid-derived hormones can permeate plasma membranes and thus utilize cell surface receptors. Some peptide and amino acid-derived hormones can cross the membrane but most are lipid insoluble and thus require intracellular receptors.
56.
A figure shows a graph that illustrates changes in epinephrine concentrations during exercise and recovery. In the graph, the horizontal axis is labeled time (min) and is divided into two halves. The left half, labeled exercise, ranges from 9 to 120 before meeting a vertical line from 0 marking the end of a period labeled exercise. This axis is labeled in increments of 20. The right half, labeled recovery, ranges from 0 at the vertical line that marks the transition between the halves of the horizontal axis and 250, labeled in increments of 50. In the graph, the vertical axis is labeled epinephrine (p g/m L) and ranges from 0 to 500, labeled in increments of 500. Three curves are shown on the graph. The red curve begins at (0, 20), drops slightly, rises to a peak at (2, 290) then decreases to (52, 80) before descending slowly to end at (249, 2). The blue curve follows a similar trajectory but is generally slightly lower and peaks at (2, 250) before descending. The green curve follows a similar pattern but begins above the other two lines at (0, 50) before dropping beneath them to peak at (2, 160). Points on the graph with error bars shown to the extent visible are as follows. Red curve: (0, 20), (8, 5), (64, 140 plus or minus 2); (2, 290 plus or minus 159), (35, 60); (52, 80 plus or minus 2); (86, 80 plus or minus 5); (130, 79 plus or minus 4); (180, 50, plus or minus 2); (210, 30, plus or minus 2); (249, 2 plus or minus 2). Green curve: (0, 50 plus or minus 25); (8, 5 plus or minus 1); (64, 60 plus or minus 10); (2, 160 plus or minus 20); (35, 50 plus or minus 2); (52, 80 plus or minus 20); (86, 20 plus or minus 3); (130, 18 plus or minus 3); (180, 20 plus or minus 3); (210, 60 plus or minus 3); (249, 60 plus or minus 4). Blue curve: (0, 39 plus or minus 1); (8, 5 plus or minus 2); (64, 180 plus or minus 8); (2, 250 plus or minute 20); (35, 70); (52, 60 plus or minus 4); (130, 60 plus or minus 2); (180, 25 plus or minus 2); (210, 59 plus or minus 4); (249, 60 plus or minus 4).
(credit: modification of work by Thomas B Price/ResearchGate)

The graph shows the concentrations of the hormone epinephrine in blood during and after exercise. Different lines represent different people.

Make a claim based on this graph.,/p>

  1. Epinephrine concentration gradually increases during the exercise and gradually decreases after the exercise.
  2. Epinephrine concentration sharply increases at the beginning of the exercise and remains at high levels. After the exercise it suddenly drops.
  3. Epinephrine concentration sharply increases at the beginning of the exercise and remains at high levels. After the exercise it gradually decreases.
  4. Epinephrine concentration gradually increases during the exercise and suddenly decreases after the exercise.
57.
(credit: modification of work from ResearchGate, under CC BY 4.0 license)

The image shows how insulin hormone triggers translocation of GLUT4 proteins from inside the cell to the cell membrane. This increases glucose intake by the cell.

A research study found out excess fatty acids in metabolism, which can be caused by being obese, interferes with the function of PI3K enzyme.

Make a claim based on this information.<,/p>

  1. GLUT4 proteins are not translocated to the cell membrane. The cell does not increase its glucose intake and is insulin-resistant.
  2. GLUT4 proteins are on the cell memberane, but cannot function. The cell does not increase its glucose intake and is insulin resistant.
  3. GLUT4 proteins remain open, instead of controlling glucose intake. The cell takes excess amounts of glucose in and cannot process it all.
  4. Extra GLUT4 proteins are produced and sent to the cell membrane. The cell takes excess amounts of glucose in and cannot process it all.
58.

The illustration shows a hormone crossing the cellular membrane and attaching to the NR/HSP complex. The complex dissociates, releasing the heat shock protein and a NR/hormone complex. The complex dimerizes, enters the nucleus, and attaches to an HRE element on DNA, triggering transcription of certain genes.

Examine the illustration provided. Determine what kind of hormone is undergoing binding in this figure and describe the evidence in the figure that supports your answer.

  1. A lipid-derived hormone is undergoing binding; this is evident because it is fat insoluble and therefore able to bind to receptors on the outer surface of the plasma membrane.
  2. A lipid-derived hormone is undergoing binding; this is evident because it is fat soluble and therefore able to pass through the cell membrane to reach intracellular receptors.
  3. A polypeptide-derived hormone is undergoing binding; this is evident because it is fat soluble and therefore able to pass through the cell membrane to reach intracellular receptors.
  4. A polypeptide-derived hormone is undergoing binding; this is evident because it is fat insoluble and therefore binds to receptors on the outer surface of the plasma membrane.
59.
(credit: modification of work by Gabor Halmos, et al./ScienceDirect)

The image shows how the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) functions in a cell. The GnRH is made up of multiple amino acids.

What type of hormone is GnRH?

  1. Lipid-soluble hormone.
  2. RNA-derived hormone.
  3. Amino acid-derived hormone.
  4. Peptide hormone.
60.
Blood pressure and blood volume are increased by the production of the hormones antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and aldosterone. Describe how renin promotes release of ADH and aldosterone.
  1. Renin cleaves angiotensinogen.
  2. Renin directly simulates ADH and aldosterone production.
  3. Renin produces angiotensin II.
  4. Angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II.
61.
(credit: modification of work by Stephen L. Aronoff, MD, FACP, FACE, et al./DiabetesSpectrum)
The graph shows the blood glucose, insulin and glucagon levels of a healthy person and a diabetic person. Take special note of the y-axis scale for glucose and insulin. Take note of the data before insulin infusion (unfilled circles). Make a claim based on these graphs.
  1. The diabetic person cannot secrete high levels of insulin.
  2. The diabetic person can secrete comparable amounts of insulin to a healthy person, but the insulin cannot reduce blood glucose.
  3. The sugar levels of a diabetic person and a healthy person are about the same after a meal.
  4. The diabetic person secretes very high amounts of insulin right after a meal.
62.
(credit: modification of work by Stephen L. Aronoff, MD, FACP, FACE, et al./DiabetesSpectrum)

The graph shows the blood glucose, insulin and glucagon levels of a healthy person after a carbohydrate-rich (CHO) meal.

Make a claim based on this graph.

  1. Insulin causes blood sugar to increase.
  2. Glucagon causes blood sugar to decrease.
  3. Insulin and glucagon both reduce the blood sugar.
  4. Insulin and and glucagon have opposite effects on glucose.
63.
(credit: modification of work by C. F. Draper, et al./Scientific Reports, under CC BY 4.0 license)

The graph shows the hormone levels for the four main hormones in an idealized menstrual cycle.

In this graph, what is the dependent variable?

  1. Time.
  2. The phase of the menstrual cycle.
  3. Hormone levels.
  4. The length of the cycle.
64.
(credit: modification of work by C. F. Draper, et al./Scientific Reports, under CC BY 4.0 license)

The graph shows the hormone levels for the four main hormones in an idealized menstrual cycle.

A person has sharply increasing levels of lutenizing hormone (LH) and more gradually increasing levels of estradiol. Which day of the cycle is this person likely to be at?

  1. Day 9.
  2. Day 18.
  3. Day 22.
  4. Day 26.
65.
(credit: modification of work by H. Maurice Goodman/ScienceDirect)

The antidiuretic hormone (ADH) controls the amount of water excreted by the kidneys. The graph shows the ADH level in the blood against blood osmolarity (osmomolality) in pregnant and nonpregnant women. Note higher osmomolarity means the blood has more salts and less water.

Make a claim based on this graph.

  1. At the same osmomolarity, nonpregnant women secrete more ADH.
  2. At the same osmomolarity, pregnant and nonpregnant women secrete the same amounts of ADH.
  3. At the same ADH level in the blood, the blood of pregnant women has more water compared to the blood of nonpregnant women.
  4. At the same ADH level in the blood, the blood of pregnant and nonpregnant women have equal concentrations of salt.
66.
Positive feedback loops are rare in the endocrine system but some do exist. Compare the cause-and-effect situations described below to identify which is an example of a positive feedback loop.
  1. Insulin facilitates decrease of blood sugar levels.
  2. Oxytocin release stimulates milk release.
  3. Increased blood calcium levels halt PTH production.
  4. Increased amounts of T3 and T4 inhibit further production.
67.
Although positive feedback loops are rare in the endocrine system, they are present in childbirth. Support this statement by correctly explaining the steps of the positive feedback loop that controls childbirth.
  1. When a child pushes on the cervix, a signal is sent to stimulate oxytocin release, which stimulates more contractions. This promotes more oxytocin release that allows the child to be pushed through the birth canal.
  2. When a child pushes on the cervix, a signal is sent to stimulate oxytocin release, which stimulates contractions. This promotes release of progesterone that allows the child to be pushed through the birth canal.
  3. When a child pushes on the cervix, a signal is sent to stimulate prolactin release, which stimulates more contractions. This promotes release of more prolactin that allows the child to be pushed through the birth canal.
  4. When a child pushes on the cervix, a signal is sent to stimulate progesterone release, which stimulates contractions. This promotes release of oxytocin that allows the child to be pushed through the birth canal.
68.
Osmoreceptors are essential for monitoring water concentrations within the body. Describe how osmoreceptors complete this task.
  1. Osmoreceptors insert aquaporins in the kidneys.
  2. Osmoreceptors signal increase sodium reabsorption.
  3. Osmoreceptors detect when blood electrolyte levels change.
  4. Osmoreceptors signal increased sodium reabsorption.
69.
Laura has Type 1 diabetes, so her body cannot properly produce insulin in response to elevated blood glucose levels. Identify from the options provided which type of endocrine stimulus Laura is unable to respond to.
  1. humoral
  2. hormonal
  3. neural
  4. negative
70.
Refer to Figure 28.14
.
Terry recently gained weight and has been more tired than usual. Terry’s doctor suggested that he might not produce enough thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Evaluate the diagram to justify the doctor's claim by explaining why a TSH deficiency could cause Terry’s weight gain and fatigue.
  1. Without TSH, there would be excessive production of T3 and T4, leading to a high metabolic rate that would cause weight gain and fatigue.
  2. Without TSH, there would be excessive production of T3 and T4, leading to a low metabolic rate that would cause weight gain and fatigue.
  3. Without TSH, T3 and T4 cannot be properly produced, leading to a high metabolic rate that would cause weight gain and fatigue.
  4. Without TSH, T3 and T4 cannot be properly produced, leading to a low metabolic rate that would cause weight gain and fatigue.
71.
Marcus experienced nervous system damage in a car accident. Make a claim for which of the following endocrine-related body functions will be most likely impaired as a result.
  1. ability to lower blood glucose levels
  2. fight-or-flight response
  3. urine production
  4. body heat regulation
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