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Biology for AP® Courses

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Biology for AP® CoursesCritical Thinking Questions
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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1
    1. 1 The Study of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Science of Biology
      3. 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 2 The Chemical Foundation of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Carbon
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 3 Biological Macromolecules
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
      3. 3.2 Carbohydrates
      4. 3.3 Lipids
      5. 3.4 Proteins
      6. 3.5 Nucleic Acids
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  3. Unit 2
    1. 4 Cell Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Studying Cells
      3. 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
      4. 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
      6. 4.5 Cytoskeleton
      7. 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 5 Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Components and Structure
      3. 5.2 Passive Transport
      4. 5.3 Active Transport
      5. 5.4 Bulk Transport
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 6 Metabolism
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy
      4. 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics
      5. 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
      6. 6.5 Enzymes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 7 Cellular Respiration
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
      3. 7.2 Glycolysis
      4. 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle
      5. 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation
      6. 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
      7. 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
      8. 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 8 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reaction of Photosynthesis
      4. 8.3 Using Light to Make Organic Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 9 Cell Communication
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
      3. 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
      4. 9.3 Response to the Signal
      5. 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 10 Cell Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cell Division
      3. 10.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
      5. 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      6. 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  4. Unit 3
    1. 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
      3. 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 12 Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
      3. 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
      4. 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 13 Modern Understandings of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkages
      3. 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 14 DNA Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding
      3. 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing
      4. 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication
      5. 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
      6. 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
      7. 14.6 DNA Repair
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 15 Genes and Proteins
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Genetic Code
      3. 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
      4. 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription
      5. 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
      6. 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 16 Gene Regulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression
      3. 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
      4. 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation
      5. 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcriptional Gene Regulation
      6. 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
      7. 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation
      8. 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 17 Biotechnology and Genomics
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Biotechnology
      3. 17.2 Mapping Genomes
      4. 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
      5. 17.4 Applying Genomics
      6. 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  5. Unit 4
    1. 18 Evolution and Origin of Species
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 Understanding Evolution
      3. 18.2 Formation of New Species
      4. 18.3 Reconnection and Rates of Speciation
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 19 The Evolution of Populations
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Evolution
      3. 19.2 Population Genetics
      4. 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 20 Phylogenies and the History of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  6. Unit 5
    1. 21 Viruses
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification
      3. 21.2 Virus Infection and Hosts
      4. 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections
      5. 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 22 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes
      4. 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
      5. 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
      6. 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  7. Unit 6
    1. 23 Plant Form and Physiology
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 The Plant Body
      3. 23.2 Stems
      4. 23.3 Roots
      5. 23.4 Leaves
      6. 23.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants
      7. 23.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  8. Unit 7
    1. 24 The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Animal Form and Function
      3. 24.2 Animal Primary Tissues
      4. 24.3 Homeostasis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 25 Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Digestive Systems
      3. 25.2 Nutrition and Energy Production
      4. 25.3 Digestive System Processes
      5. 25.4 Digestive System Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 26 The Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
      3. 26.2 How Neurons Communicate
      4. 26.3 The Central Nervous System
      5. 26.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. 26.5 Nervous System Disorders
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 27 Sensory Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Sensory Processes
      3. 27.2 Somatosensation
      4. 27.3 Taste and Smell
      5. 27.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation
      6. 27.5 Vision
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 28 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Types of Hormones
      3. 28.2 How Hormones Work
      4. 28.3 Regulation of Body Processes
      5. 28.4 Regulation of Hormone Production
      6. 28.5 Endocrine Glands
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 29 The Musculoskeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 29.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
      3. 29.2 Bone
      4. 29.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
      5. 29.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 30 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 30.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
      3. 30.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
      4. 30.3 Breathing
      5. 30.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    8. 31 The Circulatory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 31.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
      3. 31.2 Components of the Blood
      4. 31.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
      5. 31.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    9. 32 Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
      1. Introduction
      2. 32.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
      3. 32.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
      4. 32.3 Excretion Systems
      5. 32.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
      6. 32.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    10. 33 The Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 33.1 Innate Immune Response
      3. 33.2 Adaptive Immune Response
      4. 33.3 Antibodies
      5. 33.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    11. 34 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 34.1 Reproduction Methods
      3. 34.2 Fertilization
      4. 34.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis
      5. 34.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
      6. 34.5 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development
      7. 34.6 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation
      8. 34.7 Human Pregnancy and Birth
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  9. Unit 8
    1. 35 Ecology and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 35.1 The Scope of Ecology
      3. 35.2 Biogeography
      4. 35.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 35.4 Aquatic Biomes
      6. 35.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 36 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 36.1 Population Demography
      3. 36.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection
      4. 36.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth
      5. 36.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
      6. 36.5 Human Population Growth
      7. 36.6 Community Ecology
      8. 36.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 37 Ecosystems
      1. Introduction
      2. 37.1 Ecology for Ecosystems
      3. 37.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      4. 37.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 38 Conservation Biology and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 38.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
      3. 38.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life
      4. 38.3 Threats to Biodiversity
      5. 38.4 Preserving Biodiversity
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  11. B | Geological Time
  12. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  13. Index
35.
Although there are many different hormones in the human body, they can be divided into three classes based on their chemical structure. Explain these classes and give one factor that distinguishes each.
  1. The classes are peptide hormones, which are water insoluble, and amino acid-derived and lipid-derived hormones, which are water soluble.
  2. The classes are lipid-derived hormones, which are water insoluble, and amino acid-derived and peptide hormones, which are water soluble.
  3. The classes are lipid-derived hormones, which are water soluble, and amino acid-derived and peptide hormones, which are water insoluble.
  4. The classes are amino acid-derived hormones, which are water insoluble, and lipid-derived and peptide hormones, which are water soluble.
36.
Explain how hormones promote homeostasis in the body.
  1. Hormones increases cell activity by binding to the receptors present in the cell.
  2. Hormones facilitate communication between cells present at very distant locations in the body.
  3. Hormones facilitate communication between cells at any distance in the body.
  4. Hormones mediate changes by directly binding to the intracellular hormone receptors.
37.
A new hormone is discovered that binds to receptors on the target cell surface. Describe the chemical class of hormone that this hormone could belong to and explain how you could discern the exact class.
  1. It belongs to the class lipid-derived or peptide hormone as it is water insoluble and thus requires a cell surface receptor. The exact class can be determined on the basis of the hormone’s size.
  2. It belongs to the class amino acid derived hormones as it is lipid insoluble and thus requires a cell surface receptor. This can be discerned by determining the exact structure of the hormone.
  3. It belongs to the class lipid-derived or peptide hormone as it is water insoluble and thus requires a cell surface receptor. This can be discerned by determining the exact structure of the hormone.
  4. It belongs to the class amino acid derived or peptide hormone as it is lipid insoluble and thus requires a cell surface receptor. The exact class can be determined on the basis of the hormone’s size.
38.
Explain why hormones are able to travel through the body but only affect certain cells.
  1. Hormones only affect cells that have plasma membrane receptors.
  2. Hormones only affect cells that have corresponding hormone receptors.
  3. Hormones only affect cells that have intracellular receptors.
  4. Hormones only affect cells that are infected.
39.
Discuss the important functions of hormone receptors.
  1. Hormone receptors can induce cell-signaling pathways and mediate changes in target cells in the presence of hormones.
  2. Hormone receptors can mediate changes in target cells and act as transcription regulators in the presence of hormones.
  3. Hormone receptors can induce cell-signaling pathways and act as transcription regulators in the presence of hormones.
  4. Hormone receptors can mediate changes in target cells and can stimulate signaling pathways in the presence of hormones.
40.
Describe how cell surface receptors and intracellular receptors are similar and how they differ.
  1. Both are types of hormone receptors at target cells. Cell surface receptors facilitate indirect mediation, whereas intracellular receptors facilitate direct mediation.
  2. Both are types of hormone receptors at target cells. Cell surface receptors facilitate direct mediation, whereas intracellular receptors facilitate indirect mediation.
  3. Both reside in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. Cell surface receptors facilitate indirect mediation, whereas intracellular receptors facilitate direct mediation.
  4. Both reside in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. Cell surface receptors facilitate direct mediation, whereas intracellular receptors facilitate indirect mediation.
41.
Explain why drinking alcohol often results in dehydration.
  1. Drinking alcohol reduces antidiuretic hormone production, which is a hormone that helps retain water.
  2. Drinking alcohol increases antidiuretic hormone production, which is a hormone that helps with water loss.
  3. Drinking alcohol reduces thyroid stimulating hormone production, which is a hormone that helps retain water.
  4. Drinking alcohol increases thyroid stimulating hormone production, which is a hormone that helps with water loss.
42.
Describe how gonadotropin-releasing hormone production is controlled by a negative feedback loop.
  1. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone decreases production of follicle stimulating hormone, which decreases hormone production in the gonads. An increase in gonad hormone production then inhibits gonadotropin-releasing hormone production.
  2. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulates production of follicle stimulating hormone, which regulates hormone production in the gonads. An increase in gonad hormone production then inhibits gonadotropin-releasing hormone production.
  3. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone decreases production of luteinizing hormone, which decreases hormone production in the gonads. an increase in gonad hormone production then inhibits gonadotropin-releasing hormone production.
  4. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulates production of luteinizing hormone, which regulates hormone production in the gonads. an increase in gonad hormone production then inhibits gonadotropin-releasing hormone production.
43.
Explain where insulin is stored and under what circumstances it is released.
  1. It is stored in the pancreas and is released as glucose increases in the blood to enhance the rate of glucose uptake.
  2. It is stored in the liver and is released as glucose increases in the blood to enhance the rate of glucose uptake.
  3. It is stored in the pancreas and is released as glucose levels decrease in blood to decrease the rate of glucose uptake.
  4. It is stored in the liver and is released as glucose levels decrease in the blood to decrease the rate of glucose uptake.
44.
Ralph is always thirsty and recently learned that he synthesizes mutated antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Discuss why Ralph would be at higher risk for diabetes insipidus.
  1. ADH helps in the loss of water. Overproduction of ADH would cause improper functioning of kidneys.
  2. Underproduction of ADH inhibits the release of aldosterone that would cause improper functioning of kidneys.
  3. ADH helps retain water. Underproduction of ADH would cause improper functioning of kidneys.
  4. ADH helps in retaining electrolytes. Underproduction of ADH causes improper functioning of kidneys.
45.
Describe how stress promotes water retention, which can lead to weight gain.
  1. Stress decreases osmolality, which increases antidiuretic hormone secretion. Antidiuretic hormone helps retain water.
  2. Stress increases osmolality, which increases antidiuretic hormone secretion. Antidiuretic hormone helps retain water.
  3. Stress increases osmolality, which decreases antidiuretic hormone secretion. Antidiuretic hormone helps with water loss.
  4. Stress decreases osmolality, which decreases antidiuretic hormone secretion. Antidiuretic hormone helps with water loss.
46.
Identify which type of feedback mechanism primarily controls hormone production and release and explain why this occurs.
  1. Positive feedback loop to help maintain the water concentration in the body.
  2. Negative feedback loop to help maintain the water concentration in the body.
  3. Negative feedback loop to help maintain proper bodily functions within a specific range.
  4. Positive feedback loop to help maintain proper bodily functions within a specific range.
47.
Compare and contrast humoral and hormonal stimuli.
  1. Both humoral and hormonal stimuli release proteins. Humoral stimuli are hormones that stimulate other hormones, whereas hormonal stimuli are extracellular fluid-related stimuli.
  2. Both humoral and hormonal stimuli release proteins. Humoral stimuli are extracellular fluid-related stimuli, whereas hormonal stimuli are hormones that stimulate other hormones.
  3. Both humoral and hormonal stimuli release hormones. Humoral stimuli are extracellular fluid-related stimuli, whereas hormonal stimuli are hormones that stimulate other hormones.
  4. Both humoral and hormonal stimuli release hormones. Humoral stimuli are hormones that stimulate other hormones, whereas hormonal stimuli are extracellular fluid-related stimuli.
48.
Explain why it would be problematic if most hormones were regulated by a positive feedback loop.
  1. Excessive production of actions would be stimulated by hormones such as growth and blood glucose levels.
  2. Production of actions would be reduced by hormones such as growth and blood glucose levels.
  3. Inhibition of GnRH production by increase in gonad hormone levels.
  4. Inhibition of release of insulin by decrease in blood glucose concentrations.
49.
Identify what aldosterone regulates, and explain how it is stimulated.
  1. Aldosterone regulates the amount of water excreted by the kidneys and causes direct water reabsorption from the kidney tubules. It is stimulated by decreased water concentration in blood, or increased amounts of blood potassium.
  2. Aldosterone regulates sodium concentrations in urine, sweat, the pancreas, and saliva. It is stimulated by decreased blood sodium ion concentrations, blood volume, or blood pressure, or increased amounts of blood potassium.
  3. Aldosterone regulates calcium concentrations in urine, saliva and the pancreas. It is stimulated by decreased blood calcium ion concentrations, blood pressure, blood volume, or increased amounts of blood potassium.
  4. Aldosterone regulates blood glucose levels by stimulating the breakdown of glycogen to glucose. It is stimulated by decreased concentrations of glucose levels in blood, blood volume, or blood pressure.
50.
Discuss which aspect of the endocrine system often renders extremely thin females less fertile. Explain why this occurs.
  1. Adipose tissue releases leptin, which is needed to produce gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin. Leptin cannot be released without sufficient body fat.
  2. Adipose tissue releases thymosins needed to produce gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin. Thymosins cannot be produced without sufficient body fat.
  3. Adipose tissue releases leptin needed to produce gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin. Leptins cannot be produced in the absence of body fat.
  4. Adipose tissue releases leptin needed to produce estrogens and progesterone. Leptin cannot be released without sufficient body fat.
51.
The adrenal medulla secretes two types of hormones. Identify what is secreted and describe their functions.
  1. They secrete cortisol and aldosterone, which increase heart rate, breathing rate, muscle contractions, blood pressure, and blood glucose as short-term stress response.
  2. They secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine, which increase heart rate, breathing rate, muscle contractions, blood pressure, and blood glucose as long-term stress response.
  3. They secrete cortisol and aldosterone, which increase heart rate, breathing rate, muscle contractions, blood pressure, and blood glucose as long-term stress response.
  4. They secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine, which increase heart rate, breathing rate, muscle contractions, blood pressure, and blood glucose as short-term stress response.
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