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Biology for AP® Courses

Test Prep for AP® Courses

Biology for AP® CoursesTest Prep for AP® Courses

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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. The Chemistry of Life
    1. 1 The Study of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Science of Biology
      3. 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 2 The Chemical Foundation of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Carbon
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 3 Biological Macromolecules
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
      3. 3.2 Carbohydrates
      4. 3.3 Lipids
      5. 3.4 Proteins
      6. 3.5 Nucleic Acids
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  3. The Cell
    1. 4 Cell Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Studying Cells
      3. 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
      4. 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
      6. 4.5 Cytoskeleton
      7. 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 5 Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Components and Structure
      3. 5.2 Passive Transport
      4. 5.3 Active Transport
      5. 5.4 Bulk Transport
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 6 Metabolism
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy
      4. 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics
      5. 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
      6. 6.5 Enzymes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 7 Cellular Respiration
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
      3. 7.2 Glycolysis
      4. 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle
      5. 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation
      6. 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
      7. 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
      8. 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 8 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reaction of Photosynthesis
      4. 8.3 Using Light to Make Organic Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 9 Cell Communication
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
      3. 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
      4. 9.3 Response to the Signal
      5. 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 10 Cell Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cell Division
      3. 10.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
      5. 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      6. 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  4. Genetics
    1. 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
      3. 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 12 Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
      3. 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
      4. 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 13 Modern Understandings of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkages
      3. 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 14 DNA Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding
      3. 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing
      4. 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication
      5. 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
      6. 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
      7. 14.6 DNA Repair
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 15 Genes and Proteins
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Genetic Code
      3. 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
      4. 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription
      5. 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
      6. 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 16 Gene Regulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression
      3. 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
      4. 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation
      5. 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcriptional Gene Regulation
      6. 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
      7. 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation
      8. 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 17 Biotechnology and Genomics
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Biotechnology
      3. 17.2 Mapping Genomes
      4. 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
      5. 17.4 Applying Genomics
      6. 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  5. Evolutionary Processes
    1. 18 Evolution and Origin of Species
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 Understanding Evolution
      3. 18.2 Formation of New Species
      4. 18.3 Reconnection and Rates of Speciation
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 19 The Evolution of Populations
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Evolution
      3. 19.2 Population Genetics
      4. 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 20 Phylogenies and the History of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  6. Biological Diversity
    1. 21 Viruses
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification
      3. 21.2 Virus Infection and Hosts
      4. 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections
      5. 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 22 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes
      4. 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
      5. 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
      6. 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  7. Plant Structure and Function
    1. 23 Plant Form and Physiology
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 The Plant Body
      3. 23.2 Stems
      4. 23.3 Roots
      5. 23.4 Leaves
      6. 23.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants
      7. 23.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  8. Animal Structure and Function
    1. 24 The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Animal Form and Function
      3. 24.2 Animal Primary Tissues
      4. 24.3 Homeostasis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 25 Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Digestive Systems
      3. 25.2 Nutrition and Energy Production
      4. 25.3 Digestive System Processes
      5. 25.4 Digestive System Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 26 The Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
      3. 26.2 How Neurons Communicate
      4. 26.3 The Central Nervous System
      5. 26.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. 26.5 Nervous System Disorders
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 27 Sensory Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Sensory Processes
      3. 27.2 Somatosensation
      4. 27.3 Taste and Smell
      5. 27.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation
      6. 27.5 Vision
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 28 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Types of Hormones
      3. 28.2 How Hormones Work
      4. 28.3 Regulation of Body Processes
      5. 28.4 Regulation of Hormone Production
      6. 28.5 Endocrine Glands
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 29 The Musculoskeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 29.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
      3. 29.2 Bone
      4. 29.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
      5. 29.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 30 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 30.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
      3. 30.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
      4. 30.3 Breathing
      5. 30.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    8. 31 The Circulatory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 31.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
      3. 31.2 Components of the Blood
      4. 31.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
      5. 31.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    9. 32 Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
      1. Introduction
      2. 32.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
      3. 32.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
      4. 32.3 Excretion Systems
      5. 32.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
      6. 32.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    10. 33 The Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 33.1 Innate Immune Response
      3. 33.2 Adaptive Immune Response
      4. 33.3 Antibodies
      5. 33.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    11. 34 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 34.1 Reproduction Methods
      3. 34.2 Fertilization
      4. 34.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis
      5. 34.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
      6. 34.5 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development
      7. 34.6 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation
      8. 34.7 Human Pregnancy and Birth
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  9. Ecology
    1. 35 Ecology and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 35.1 The Scope of Ecology
      3. 35.2 Biogeography
      4. 35.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 35.4 Aquatic Biomes
      6. 35.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 36 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 36.1 Population Demography
      3. 36.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection
      4. 36.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth
      5. 36.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
      6. 36.5 Human Population Growth
      7. 36.6 Community Ecology
      8. 36.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 37 Ecosystems
      1. Introduction
      2. 37.1 Ecology for Ecosystems
      3. 37.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      4. 37.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 38 Conservation Biology and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 38.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
      3. 38.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life
      4. 38.3 Threats to Biodiversity
      5. 38.4 Preserving Biodiversity
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  11. B | Geological Time
  12. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  13. Index
55.
The part a photo shows a reddish-yellow mound with small chimneys growing out of it. Part b micrograph shows rod-shaped bacteria about two microns long swimming over a thicker mat of bacteria.
(credit: modification of work by Marvin Whiteley, et al./Nature)

The two images are different magnitications of the same event. In the right image, the round shapes are bacteria held together by a polysaccharide matrix. The left image is how the structure looks at a lower magnification.

What is being shown here?

  1. Early prokaryotes.
  2. A microbial mat.
  3. A culture of bacteria growing in agar.
  4. A biofilm.
56.
Stanley Miller and Harold Urey conducted experiments which demonstrated that several organic compounds could be formed spontaneously by simulating the conditions of Earth's early atmosphere. When Miller and Urey repeated their experiment without providing the electrical discharge, no organic compounds were found. Make a claim to hypothesize what might explain this result. Frame your claim within the context of the conditions of early Earth.
  1. The lack of organic compounds without the sparks indicates that complex organic components are formed from less complex biotic components subjected to solar radiation.
  2. The first trial of the experiment must have been done incorrectly.
  3. Abiotic molecules can only develop into organic molecules in the presence of oxygen, so oxygen should be added.
  4. Lightning, or some form of energy, is needed for the inorganic molecules in the atmosphere to interact with each other. This indicates that a similar energy source was present on early Earth that stimulated the interaction and development.
57.
(credit: modification of work by Sean Michael Scully/Science in School)

This graph shows the growth rate of five types of bacteria at different temperatures.

Separate colonies of each of these bacteria are kept at 45°C for an extended amount of time. Which bacteria would you expect to thrive at such temperatures?

  1. All the colonies would show some growth.
  2. Thermoanaerobacterium AK17 and thermoanaerobakter AK15 would grow. The rest would not.
  3. Thermoanaerobacterium AK17, Clostridium AK1 and E. coli CCSC would grow. The rest would not.
  4. Clostridium AK1, E. coli CCSC and Paenibacillus VH01017 would grow. The rest would not.
58.

Which of the following cell types does Figure 22.10 illustrate?

  1. Plant cell
  2. Animal cell
  3. Bacterial cell
  4. Fungal cell
59.
Demonstrate your understanding of the differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes by choosing the option that best describes and compares the function and presence of cell organelles among the two groups.
  1. Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The cell wall is a protective layer, typical in prokaryotic cells and in some eukaryotes. Chromosomal DNA, the genetic material of the cell, is present in a nucleoid region in prokaryotes while enclosed in a nucleus in eukaryotes.
  2. Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The cell wall is a protective layer found in some prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Chromosomal DNA is the genetic material of the cell, enclosed in a nucleus in prokaryotes while present in a nucleoid region in eukaryotes.
  3. Ribosomes are the sites of ATP production found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The cell wall is a protective layer, typically found in prokaryotic cells and in some eukaryotes. Chromosomal DNA is present in a nucleoid region in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. It is the genetic material of the cell.
  4. Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The cell wall is a protective layer, typically found in prokaryotic cells but not in eukaryotes. Chromosomal DNA, the genetic material of the cell, is present in the nucleus in prokaryotes, while it is enclosed in a nucleoid region in eukaryotes.
60.
A nonpathogenic bacterium acquires resistance to antibiotics. Reflect your understanding of this idea by determining which of the following scenarios describing how this strain could pose a health risk to people is false.
  1. Genes for antibiotic resistance are transferred from the nonpathogenic bacterium to a pathogenic bacterium via transduction.
  2. Genes for antibiotic resistance are transferred from the nonpathogenic bacterium to a pathogenic bacterium via transformation.
  3. Genes for antibiotic resistance are transferred from the nonpathogenic bacterium to a pathogenic bacterium via conjugation.
  4. Genes for antibiotic resistance are transferred from the nonpathogenic bacterium to a pathogenic bacterium via binary fission.
61.
In a rapidly changing environment, which prokaryotic population would you hypothesize likely to be more successful, one that includes individuals capable of conjugation, or one that does not? Support your answer with appropriate reasoning.
  1. A population including individuals capable of conjugation would be more successful because all of its members would form recombinant cells having new gene combinations advantageous in a new environment.
  2. A population including individuals capable of conjugation would be more successful because some members could form recombinant cells having new gene combinations advantageous in a new environment.
  3. A population including individuals not capable of conjugation would be more successful because the members undergoing conjugation would form new recombinant cells having gene combinations lethal in the new environment.
  4. A population including individuals not capable of conjugation would be more successful because conjugation will result in an increase in genetic diversity of the prokaryotic population, which will be disadvantageous in a new population.
62.

Review the diagram, which summarizes results of an experiment using different preparations of E. coli grown either in the presence or the absence of the antibioitc ampicillin. Identify the plate or plates on which only ampicillin-resistant bacteria grow.

Four nutrient agar plates are shown. The first two use wild type E coli. One of these had no ampicillin and had large amounts of bacterial growth. The other plate had ampicillin and had no bacterial growth. The next two plants both used E coli and A M P R plasmid. One of these had no ampicillin and had large amounts of bacterial growth. The other plate had ampicillin and had a few bacterial colonies present on the plate.

  1. I only
  2. III only
  3. IV only
  4. I and IV
63.

Evaluate the diagram, which summarizes the findings of an experiment with E.coli. Apply your understanding of the experiment and of bacterial genetic recombination to explain why there are fewer colonies on plate IV than on plate III.

Four nutrient agar plates are shown. The first two use wild type E coli. One of these had no ampicillin and had large amounts of bacterial growth. The other plate had ampicillin and had no bacterial growth. The next two plants both used E coli and A M P R plasmid. One of these had no ampicillin and had large amounts of bacterial growth. The other plate had ampicillin and had a few bacterial colonies present on the plate.

  1. All E.coli cells were not successfully transformed on plate IV.
  2. The nutrient agar medium inhibited the growth of some bacteria on plate IV.
  3. All E.coli cells were successfully transformed on plate IV.
  4. The bacteria on plate III were naturally resistant to ampicillin.
64.

Consider the identity of the labeled structures within a cell. Determine which of the structures allows you to positively identify the cell as a prokaryote.

A cross section of a cell is shown. The interior of the cell is surrounded by three layers. Letter A is a structure in the interior of the cell that is made of many coiled, thread-like structures. Letter B is tiny, round structures freely floating within the interior of the cell. Letter C is the middle layer of the three layers surrounding the interior of the cell. Letter D is the fluid that makes up most of the interior of the cell.

  1. A, circular DNA
  2. B, ribosome
  3. C, cell wall
  4. D, cytoplasm
65.
A bacterial species that is a methanogen is discovered. Make a claim proposing a research question to answer If you wanted to build on this discovery to better understand the evolution of mechanisms related to the ability to capture, store, and use free energy in prokaryotes. Select the most appropriate question from those below.
  1. Have metabolic pathways evolved separately in Bacteria and Archaea?
  2. Should all methanogens be classed as Archaea in evolutionary phylogeny?
  3. Have methanogens evolved to live in both moderate and extreme environments?
  4. Did the methanogenic bacteria species also evolve as a strict anaerobe?
66.
(credit: modification of work by Takuji Ohyama, et al./IntechOpen Book Series, under CC BY 4.0 License)

The graph shows the amount of nitrogen fixation by a bacterium that lives in and near the roots of the sugar cane plant at different levels of oxygen. Disregard the "Fixed N in Medium" line.

Based on the "Fixed N in Bacteria" line, make a hypothesis about this bacterium.

  1. The bacterium is aerobic.
  2. The bacterium is anaerobic.
  3. The bacterium is gram-positive.
  4. The bacterium is gram-negative.
67.
Which set of phrases related to nutritional and metabolic adaptations best fits the organisms described?
  1. chemoautotrophs, obligate anaerobes
  2. chemoheterotrophs, faculative anaerobes
  3. chemoheterotrophs, obligate anaerobes
68.
In an experiment, researchers grew plant seedlings in soils to which one of two strains of bacteria were added. A control group had no bacteria added to the soil. The seedlings’ uptake of the nutrient potassium increased dramatically in the soil with Strain 1 and decreased dramatically in the soil with Strain 2. Based on these findings, draw both specific and broad inferences about the relationship between the bacteria, the seedlings, and available nutrients.
  1. The Strain 2 bacteria increased the availability of potassium in the soil, and this nutrient was needed and used by the seedlings in the soil. The Strain 1 bacteria decreased the availability of potassium in the soil.
  2. The soil with Strain 1 bacteria must have had more potassium in comparison to soil with Strain 2 bacteria. The seedlings took up more potassium in Soil 1 than in 2 due to this difference.
  3. The Strain 1 bacteria increased the availability of potassium in the soil, and this nutrient was needed and used by the seedlings in the soil. The Strain 2 bacteria decreased the availability of potassium in the soil.
  4. The Strain 1 bacteria decreased the availability of potassium in the soil, and this nutrient was needed and used by the seedlings in the soil. The Strain 2 bacteria increased the availability of potassium in the soil.
69.
(credit: modification of work by Richard H. Nagelberg, DDS/Inside Dental Technology)

Plaque is a colorless or pale yellow layer that forms on the teeth due to bacterial action. The image shows how plaque forms.

Which option describes plaque?

  1. It is a viral infection.
  2. It is a reemerging disease.
  3. It is a biofilm.
  4. It is an antibiotic resistance strain of bacteria.
70.
(credit: modification of work by Tyler Warkentien and Rebecca Pavlicek/Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology, under CC BY 4.0 license)

Dengue fever is a viral disease carried between people by mosquitos. Dengue fever outbreaks were reported in 1635 and 1699. In World War II (1939-1945), Dengue fever, spread among the troops, was a major threat in the tropical Pacific. After 1945, the disease was largely contained. The graph shows the known cases of Dengue fever since 1955.

What can be said about Dengue fever based on this data?

  1. It is an emerging disease.
  2. It is a reemerging disease.
  3. It is a continuing pandemic for at least a century.
  4. It is completely eradicated in 1950s.
71.
In a hypothetical research situation, scientists discover bacterial endospores in silt at the bottom of a marsh that has been contaminated with a pollutant for 25 years. The silt of the marsh was deposited in annual layers. This means that the age of the endospores can be estimated by identifying the layer of silt in which the endospores are found. In Flask A, researchers place 20-year-old endospores along with growth medium and the pollutant. In Flask B, researchers place 100-year-old endospores along with growth medium and the pollutant. Suppose the researchers observe the flasks for a while, continuing to replenish growth medium and pollutant as necessary. Predict the most likely results you would expect to see in the growth of the flasks after the allotted time
  1. The growth in Flask A will continuously exceed that of Flask B.
  2. The growth in Flask B will continuously exceed that of Flask A.
  3. The differences in growth between the two flasks will eventually decrease.
  4. Eventually, there will be little to no growth in each flask.
72.
(credit: modification of work by Alessandro Cassini, MD, et al./The Lancet, under CC BY 4.0 license)

The graph shows the number of cases and number of attributable deaths for various types of antibiotic-resitant bacteria. The small graph at the bottom right part is the zoomed in view of the data on the bottom left part.

Study the data for CRPA (carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and 3GCRKP (third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae). The bubbles for these two mostly overlap. Based on the data, make a claim about these bacteria.

  1. 3GCRKP infections are more common and cause a lot more deaths compare to CRPA.
  2. 3GCRKP infections are more common and cause slightly less deaths compared to CRPA.
  3. 3GCRKP infections are less common and cause very few deaths compared to CRPA.
  4. 3GCRKP infections are less common and cause slightly fewer deaths compared to CRPA.
73.
(credit: modification of work by Riju Agrawal/Foreign Policy)

This graph shows the antibiotic resistance to penicillin in different countries. The x-axis shows the use of penicillin for treating outpatients (patients who are treated and sent home; patients who are not hospitalized).

Noting penicillin is one of the many antibiotic drugs, make a hypothesis about antibiotic use in the countries seen in the graph.

  1. France is using high amounts of antibiotics in treating outpatients and can benefit from a policy change.
  2. The Netherlands are using very little antibiotics in treating outpatients and can be a model country in this regard.
  3. Italy uses antibiotics in outpatient treatment more than usual, but has less resistance than expected. It can make a model country.
  4. There is not enough information to make a hypothesis about antibiotic use in the graph.
74.
(credit: modification of work by Riju Agrawal/Foreign Policy)

This graph shows the antibiotic resistance to penicillin in different countries. The x-axis shows the use of penicillin for treating outpatients (patients who are treated and sent home; patients who are not hospitalized).

Make a claim about penicillin resistance based on this graph.

  1. Penicillin resistance is not related to its use in treating outpatients.
  2. Penillicin resistance increases in countries which use it to treat outpatients.
  3. Penillicin resistance decreases in countries which use it to treat outpatients.
  4. Penicillin resistance may increase or decrease in countries which use it to treat outpatients, based on other factors.
75.
(credit: modification of work by Abby Augarten/Ag Water Exchange)

The graph shows the productivity of corn fields based on their nitrogen supply.

Make a claim based on this graph.

  1. Fields with more than one source of nitrogen tend to be more productive.
  2. The most popular nitrogen source is planting legumes.
  3. Fields with artificial nitrogen fertilizer tend to be more productive.
  4. Almost all fields use manure as a partial source of nitrogen.
76.
(credit: modification of work by James F. Power/American Journal of Alternative Agriculture)

Legumes interact with soil bacteria and form nodules that fix nitrogen. The graph shows cultivation of legumes and use of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers.

Make a claim based on this graph.

  1. Using synthetic fertilizers is more efficient in providing nitrogen compared to planting legumes.
  2. Planting legumes is more efficient in providing nitrogen compared to using synthetic fertilizers.
  3. Using synthetic fertilizers and planting legumes have comparable levels of efficiency in providing nitrogen.
  4. It is not possible to make a claim about planting legumes and using synthetic fertilizers based on the graph.
77.
More than 100 bacterial species live on the surface of the human body. Bacteria cover portions of human skin in concentrations of up to 8 million cells per square centimeter. In particular, human sebaceous glands support the growth of the bacterium Propionibacterium acnes, which uses oil from the glands for food. Two strains of P. acnes are associated with the development of acne on human skin, but other strains are associated with healthy skin. Which statement best describes the relationship between humans and P. acnes?
  1. In some cases it is commensal and in others it is parasitic.
  2. In some cases it is mutualistic and in others it is commensalistic.
  3. It is almost always parasitic.
  4. It is almost always mutualistic.
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