Skip to Content
OpenStax Logo
Biology for AP® Courses

Test Prep for AP® Courses

Biology for AP® CoursesTest Prep for AP® Courses
Buy book
  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1
    1. 1 The Study of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Science of Biology
      3. 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 2 The Chemical Foundation of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Carbon
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 3 Biological Macromolecules
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
      3. 3.2 Carbohydrates
      4. 3.3 Lipids
      5. 3.4 Proteins
      6. 3.5 Nucleic Acids
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  3. Unit 2
    1. 4 Cell Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Studying Cells
      3. 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
      4. 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
      6. 4.5 Cytoskeleton
      7. 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 5 Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Components and Structure
      3. 5.2 Passive Transport
      4. 5.3 Active Transport
      5. 5.4 Bulk Transport
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 6 Metabolism
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy
      4. 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics
      5. 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
      6. 6.5 Enzymes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 7 Cellular Respiration
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
      3. 7.2 Glycolysis
      4. 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle
      5. 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation
      6. 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
      7. 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
      8. 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 8 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reaction of Photosynthesis
      4. 8.3 Using Light to Make Organic Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 9 Cell Communication
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
      3. 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
      4. 9.3 Response to the Signal
      5. 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 10 Cell Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cell Division
      3. 10.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
      5. 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      6. 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  4. Unit 3
    1. 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
      3. 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 12 Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
      3. 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
      4. 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 13 Modern Understandings of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkages
      3. 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 14 DNA Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding
      3. 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing
      4. 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication
      5. 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
      6. 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
      7. 14.6 DNA Repair
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 15 Genes and Proteins
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Genetic Code
      3. 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
      4. 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription
      5. 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
      6. 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 16 Gene Regulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression
      3. 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
      4. 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation
      5. 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcriptional Gene Regulation
      6. 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
      7. 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation
      8. 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 17 Biotechnology and Genomics
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Biotechnology
      3. 17.2 Mapping Genomes
      4. 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
      5. 17.4 Applying Genomics
      6. 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  5. Unit 4
    1. 18 Evolution and Origin of Species
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 Understanding Evolution
      3. 18.2 Formation of New Species
      4. 18.3 Reconnection and Rates of Speciation
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 19 The Evolution of Populations
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Evolution
      3. 19.2 Population Genetics
      4. 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 20 Phylogenies and the History of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  6. Unit 5
    1. 21 Viruses
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification
      3. 21.2 Virus Infection and Hosts
      4. 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections
      5. 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 22 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes
      4. 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
      5. 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
      6. 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  7. Unit 6
    1. 23 Plant Form and Physiology
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 The Plant Body
      3. 23.2 Stems
      4. 23.3 Roots
      5. 23.4 Leaves
      6. 23.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants
      7. 23.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  8. Unit 7
    1. 24 The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Animal Form and Function
      3. 24.2 Animal Primary Tissues
      4. 24.3 Homeostasis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 25 Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Digestive Systems
      3. 25.2 Nutrition and Energy Production
      4. 25.3 Digestive System Processes
      5. 25.4 Digestive System Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 26 The Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
      3. 26.2 How Neurons Communicate
      4. 26.3 The Central Nervous System
      5. 26.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. 26.5 Nervous System Disorders
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 27 Sensory Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Sensory Processes
      3. 27.2 Somatosensation
      4. 27.3 Taste and Smell
      5. 27.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation
      6. 27.5 Vision
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 28 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Types of Hormones
      3. 28.2 How Hormones Work
      4. 28.3 Regulation of Body Processes
      5. 28.4 Regulation of Hormone Production
      6. 28.5 Endocrine Glands
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 29 The Musculoskeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 29.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
      3. 29.2 Bone
      4. 29.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
      5. 29.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 30 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 30.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
      3. 30.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
      4. 30.3 Breathing
      5. 30.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    8. 31 The Circulatory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 31.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
      3. 31.2 Components of the Blood
      4. 31.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
      5. 31.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    9. 32 Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
      1. Introduction
      2. 32.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
      3. 32.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
      4. 32.3 Excretion Systems
      5. 32.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
      6. 32.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    10. 33 The Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 33.1 Innate Immune Response
      3. 33.2 Adaptive Immune Response
      4. 33.3 Antibodies
      5. 33.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    11. 34 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 34.1 Reproduction Methods
      3. 34.2 Fertilization
      4. 34.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis
      5. 34.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
      6. 34.5 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development
      7. 34.6 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation
      8. 34.7 Human Pregnancy and Birth
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  9. Unit 8
    1. 35 Ecology and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 35.1 The Scope of Ecology
      3. 35.2 Biogeography
      4. 35.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 35.4 Aquatic Biomes
      6. 35.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 36 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 36.1 Population Demography
      3. 36.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection
      4. 36.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth
      5. 36.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
      6. 36.5 Human Population Growth
      7. 36.6 Community Ecology
      8. 36.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 37 Ecosystems
      1. Introduction
      2. 37.1 Ecology for Ecosystems
      3. 37.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      4. 37.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 38 Conservation Biology and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 38.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
      3. 38.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life
      4. 38.3 Threats to Biodiversity
      5. 38.4 Preserving Biodiversity
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  11. B | Geological Time
  12. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  13. Index
55.
Which of the following pieces of evidence is the BEST support for the alternative scenario of early life formation, in which organic compounds on early Earth formed near submerged volcanoes?
  1. Some prokaryotes that live near deep-sea vents today use hydrogen as an energy source.
  2. Fossilized stromatolites that are 3.5 billion years old are found near deep-sea vents.
  3. Extremophiles that exist today live in a variety of extreme environments, including those that are high in salinity.
  4. The chemical composition of water around deep-sea vents is the same as it was on early Earth.
56.
Stanley Miller and Harold Urey conducted experiments which demonstrated that several organic compounds could be formed spontaneously by simulating the conditions of Earth's early atmosphere. When Miller and Urey repeated their experiment without the electrical discharge, no organic compounds were found. Hypothesize what might explain this result. Consider your answer in the context of the conditions of early Earth.
  1. The lack of organic compounds without the sparks indicates that organic components are formed from biotic components.
  2. The first trial of the experiment must have been done incorrectly.
  3. Abiotic molecules can only develop into organic molecules in the presence of oxygen, so oxygen should be added.
  4. Lightning, or some form of energy, is needed for the inorganic molecules in the atmosphere to interact with each other. This indicates that a similar energy source was present on early Earth which stimulates the interaction and development.
57.
Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that the abiotic synthesis of organic molecules in condition similar to those of early Earth is possible. Which of the following provides additional support for the idea of abiotic synthesis of organic compounds?
  1. Analysis of the chemical composition of meteorites sometimes yields amino acids.
  2. A hydrothermal vent in the Sea of Cortés releases hydrogen sulfide and iron sulfide.
  3. Researchers have dripped solutions of amino acids onto hot surfaces to produce amino acid polymers.
  4. Some present-day prokaryotes live and reproduce in very extreme and unforgiving environments, such as the Arctic.
58.

Which of the following cell types does Figure 22.10 illustrate?

  1. Plant cell
  2. Animal cell
  3. Bacterial cell
  4. Fungal cell
59.
Which option best describes the function and presence of cell organelles among prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
  1. Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Cell wall is a protective layer, typical in prokaryotic cells and in some eukaryotes. Chromosomal DNA, the genetic material of the cell is present in a nucleoid region in prokaryotes while enclosed in a nucleus in eukaryotes.
  2. Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The cell wall is a protective layer found in some prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Chromosomal DNA is the genetic material of the cell present in a nucleoid region in prokaryotes while in eukaryotes, it is enclosed in a nucleus.
  3. Ribosomes are sites of ATP production found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The cell wall is a protective layer, typically found in prokaryotic cells and in some eukaryotes. Chromosomal DNA is present in a nucleoid region while enclosed in a nucleus in eukaryotes. It is the genetic material of the cell.
  4. Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The cell wall is a protective layer, typically found in prokaryotic cells and in some eukaryotes. Chromosomal DNA, the genetic material of the cell is present in a nucleus in prokaryotes while it is enclosed in a nucleoid region in eukaryotes.
60.
A nonpathogenic bacterium acquires resistance to antibiotics. Which of the following scenarios describing how this strain could pose a health risk to people is false?
  1. Genes for antibiotic resistance are transferred from the nonpathogenic bacterium to a pathogenic bacterium via transduction.
  2. Genes for antibiotic resistance are transferred from the nonpathogenic bacterium to a pathogenic bacterium via transformation.
  3. Genes for antibiotic resistance are transferred from the nonpathogenic bacterium to a pathogenic bacterium via conjugation.
  4. Genes for antibiotic resistance are transferred from the nonpathogenic bacterium to a pathogenic bacterium via binary fission.
61.
In a rapidly changing environment, which prokaryotic population would you hypothesize likely to be more successful: one that included individuals capable of conjugation or one that did not?
  1. A population including individuals capable of conjugation would be more successful because all of its members would form recombinant cells having new gene combinations advantageous in a new environment.
  2. A population including individuals capable of conjugation would be more successful as some members could form recombinant cells having new gene combinations advantageous in a new environment.
  3. A population including individuals not capable of conjugation would be more successful as the members undergoing conjugation would form new recombinant cells having gene combinations lethal in the new environment.
  4. A population including individuals not capable of conjugation would be more successful because conjugation will result in an increase in genetic diversity of the prokaryotic population which will be disadvantageous in a new population.
62.

Plates that have only ampicillin-resistant bacteria growing include which of the following?

  1. I only
  2. III only
  3. IV only
  4. I and II
63.

Given your understanding of the experiment and of bacterial genetic recombination, explain why there are fewer colonies on plate IV than on plate III.

  1. All E.coli cells were not successfully transformed on plate IV.
  2. The nutrient agar medium inhibited the growth of some bacteria on plate IV.
  3. All E.coli cells were successfully transformed on plate IV.
  4. The bacteria in plate III were naturally resistant to ampicillin.
64.

Which of the labeled structures in the diagram allows you to positively identify the cell as a prokaryote?

  1. A, circular DNA
  2. B, ribosome
  3. C, cell wall
  4. D, cytoplasm
65.
A bacterial species that is a methanogen is discovered. If you wanted to build on this discovery to better understand the evolution of mechanisms related to the ability to capture, store, and use free energy in prokaryotes, which question would you pose to answer?
  1. Have metabolic pathways evolved separately in Bacteria and Archaea?
  2. Should all methanogens be classed as Archaea in evolutionary phylogeny?
  3. Have methanogens evolved to live in both moderate and extreme environments?
  4. Did the methanogenic bacteria species also evolve as a strict anaerobe?
66.
What is another question you might pose to learn more about the structural features that allow for the capture, storage, and use of free energy by archaean methanogens?
  1. Do archaean methanogens differ from other Archaea structurally, and if so, in what way? Is one or more of these structural differences related to these methanogens’ ability to use H2 to oxidize CO2?
  2. Do archaean methanogens differ from other Bacteria structurally, and if so, in what way? Is one or more of these structural differences related to these methagens’ ability to use CO2 to oxidize H2?
  3. Do archaean methanogens differ from other Archaea structurally, and if so, in what way? Is one or more of these structural differences related to these methagens’ ability to use CO2 to oxidize H2?
  4. Do archaean methanogens differ from other Archaea structurally, and if so, in what way? Is one or more of these structural differences related to these methagens’ ability to use H2O to oxidize H2?
67.
Which set of phrases related to nutritional and metabolic adaptations best fits the organisms described?
  1. chemoautotrophs, obligate anaerobes
  2. chemoautotrophs, faculative anaerobes
  3. chemoheterotrophs, faculative anaerobes
  4. chemoheterotrophs, obligate anaerobes
68.
In an experiment, researchers grew plant seedlings in soils to which one of two strains of bacteria were added. A control group had no bacteria added to the soil. The seedlings’ uptake of the nutrient potassium increased dramatically in the soil with Strain 1 and decreased dramatically in the soil with Strain 2. What specific and broad inferences about the relationship between the bacteria, the seedlings, and available nutrients can you make?
  1. The Strain 2 bacteria increased the availability of potassium in the soil and this nutrient was needed and used by the seedlings in the soil. The Strain 1 bacteria decreased the availability of potassium in the soil.
  2. The soil with Strain 1 bacteria must have had more potassium in comparison to soil with Strain 2 bacteria. The seedlings took up more potassium in Soil 1 than in 2 due to this.
  3. The Strain 1 bacteria increased the availability of potassium in the soil and this nutrient was needed and used by the seedlings in the soil. The Strain 2 bacteria decreased the availability of potassium in the soil.
  4. The Strain 1 bacteria decreased the availability of potassium in the soil and this nutrient was needed and used by the seedlings in the soil. The Strain 2 bacteria increased the availability of potassium in the soil.
69.
In a hypothetical research situation, scientists discover bacterial endospores in silt at the bottom of a marsh that has been contaminated with a pollutant for 25 years. The silt of the marsh was deposited in annual layers. The age of the endospores can be estimated, then, by identifying the layer of silt in which the endospores are found. In flask A, researchers place 20-year-old endospores along with growth medium and the pollutant. In flask B, researchers place 100-year-old endospores along with growth medium and the pollutant. Which statement describes the results you would expect to see in the growth of the flasks?
  1. The growth in flask A will exceed that of flask B.
  2. The growth in flask B will exceed that of flask A.
  3. The growth each flask will be about equal.
  4. There will be little to no growth in each flask.
70.
In a hypothetical research situation, scientists discover bacterial endospores in silt at the bottom of a marsh that has been contaminated with a pollutant for 25 years. The silt of the marsh was deposited in annual layers. The age of the endospores can be estimated, then, by identifying the layer of silt in which the endospores are found. In flask A, researchers place 20-year-old endospores along with growth medium and the pollutant. In flask B, researchers place 100-year-old endospores along with growth medium and the pollutant. Explain why you would expect to see more growth in one particular flask than in the other.
  1. Because endospores formed 20 years ago would be more dormant compared to endospores formed 100 years ago, before the marsh was polluted.
  2. Because endospores formed 20 years ago would be less adapted to polluted conditions compared to endospores formed 100 years ago, before the marsh was polluted.
  3. Because endospores formed 20 years ago would be more adapted to polluted conditions compared to endospores formed 100 years ago, before the marsh was polluted.
  4. Because endospores formed 20 years ago would be less dormant compared to endospores formed 100 years ago, before the marsh was polluted.
71.
In a hypothetical research situation, scientists discover bacterial endospores in silt at the bottom of a marsh that has been contaminated with a pollutant for 25 years. The silt of the marsh was deposited in annual layers. The age of the endospores can be estimated, then, by identifying the layer of silt in which the endospores are found. In flask A, researchers place 20-year-old endospores along with growth medium and the pollutant. In flask B, researchers place 100-year-old endospores along with growth medium and the pollutant. Suppose the researchers observe the flasks for a while, continuing to replenish growth medium and pollutant as necessary. Which statement describes the results you would expect to see in the growth of the flasks after some time?
  1. The growth in flask A will continue to exceed that of flask B.
  2. The growth in flask B will exceed continue to exceed that of flask A.
  3. Eventually, the difference in the growth in each flask will lessen.
  4. Eventually, will be little to no growth in each flask.
72.
In a hypothetical research situation, scientists discover bacterial endospores in silt at the bottom of a marsh that has been contaminated with a pollutant for 25 years. The silt of the marsh was deposited in annual layers. The age of the endospores can be estimated, then, by identifying the layer of silt in which the endospores are found. In flask A, researchers place 20-year-old endospores along with growth medium and the pollutant. In flask B, researchers place 100-year-old endospores along with growth medium and the pollutant. Suppose the researchers observe the flasks for a while, continuing to replenish growth medium and pollutant as necessary. If the difference in the growth in each flask lessened after some time, which statement explains why?
  1. Because the endospores formed 100 years ago, before the marsh was polluted, they would evolve resistance to the pollutant fairly quickly. The bacteria in flask B would then grow more prolifically, and the difference in population size of each flask would lessen.
  2. Because the endospores formed 20 years ago would lose their resistance to the pollutant. The bacteria in flask A would die, and the difference in population size of each flask would lessen.
  3. Because the endospores formed 100 years ago, before the marsh was polluted, they would lose their resistance to the pollutant. The bacteria in flask B would then grow more prolifically, and the difference in population size of each flask would lessen.
  4. Because the endospores formed 20 years ago would evolve resistance to the pollutant fairly quickly. The bacteria in flask A would die, and the difference in population size of each flask would lessen.
73.
How does resistance spread in bacteria?
  1. By undergoing genetic recombination through conjugation, transduction, and transformation.
  2. By undergoing reproduction through binary fission.
  3. By undergoing genetic recombination through conjugation and transformation only.
  4. Reproduction among bacteria through any mechanism results in the spread of antibiotic resistance genes.
74.
Health officials worldwide are concerned about antibiotic resistance in bacteria that cause disease. In patients infected with nonresistant strains of the bacterium that causes tuberculosis, antibiotics can relieve symptoms fast—in as short of a time as a few weeks. However, it takes much longer to stop infection entirely, and patients may discontinue treatment once symptoms are abated. In a hypothetical study, researchers found a much higher incidence of recurrent tuberculosis infection in patients who discontinued treatment once symptoms were relieved, but before the planned course of treatment was complete. Which statement best explains this result?
  1. The wrong course of antibiotics was used on the patient, so the infection was never treated.
  2. Not all of the bacteria were killed, and the remaining ones reproduced and bring back the symptoms of infection.
  3. The antibiotics were not prescribed for a long enough time to treat the infection.
  4. The infection was actually viral in nature, and so the antibiotics were a useless treatment.
75.
Human intestines are home to hundreds of species of bacteria. One of these, Bacteriodes thetaiotaomicron, has the capability of digesting complex plant materials that human enzymes cannot digest. Its presence in the human guts makes a significant contribution to human metabolic processes.Which term best describes the relationship between humans and B. thetaiotaomicron?
  1. commensalistic
  2. mutualistic
  3. parasitic
  4. pathogenic
76.
If you suddenly and dramatically changed your diet, how might this affect the diversity of prokaryotic species that live in your intestine?
  1. The diversity would not get altered and would remain the same.
  2. Species abundance and relative distribution may increase.
  3. Species abundance and relative distribution may get affected.
  4. Species abundance and relative distribution may decrease.
77.
More than 100 bacterial species live on the surface of the human body. Bacteria cover portions of human skin in concentrations of up to 8 million cells per square centimeter. In particular, human sebaceous glands support the growth of the bacterium Propionibacterium acnes, which uses oil from the glands for food. Two strains of P. acnes are associated with the development of acne on human skin, but other strains are associated with healthy skin. Which statement best describes the relationship between humans and P. acnes?
  1. In some cases it is commensal and in others it is parasitic.
  2. In some cases it is mutualistic and in others it is commensalistic.
  3. It is almost always parasitic.
  4. It is almost always mutualistic.
Citation/Attribution

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book is Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/biology-ap-courses/pages/1-introduction
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/biology-ap-courses/pages/1-introduction
Citation information

© Mar 8, 2018 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 license. The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.