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Biology for AP® Courses

Test Prep for AP® Courses

Biology for AP® CoursesTest Prep for AP® Courses
  1. Preface
  2. The Chemistry of Life
    1. 1 The Study of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Science of Biology
      3. 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 2 The Chemical Foundation of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Carbon
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 3 Biological Macromolecules
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
      3. 3.2 Carbohydrates
      4. 3.3 Lipids
      5. 3.4 Proteins
      6. 3.5 Nucleic Acids
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  3. The Cell
    1. 4 Cell Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Studying Cells
      3. 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
      4. 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
      6. 4.5 Cytoskeleton
      7. 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 5 Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Components and Structure
      3. 5.2 Passive Transport
      4. 5.3 Active Transport
      5. 5.4 Bulk Transport
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 6 Metabolism
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy
      4. 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics
      5. 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
      6. 6.5 Enzymes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 7 Cellular Respiration
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
      3. 7.2 Glycolysis
      4. 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle
      5. 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation
      6. 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
      7. 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
      8. 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 8 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reaction of Photosynthesis
      4. 8.3 Using Light to Make Organic Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 9 Cell Communication
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
      3. 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
      4. 9.3 Response to the Signal
      5. 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 10 Cell Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cell Division
      3. 10.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
      5. 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      6. 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  4. Genetics
    1. 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
      3. 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 12 Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
      3. 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
      4. 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 13 Modern Understandings of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkages
      3. 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 14 DNA Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding
      3. 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing
      4. 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication
      5. 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
      6. 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
      7. 14.6 DNA Repair
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 15 Genes and Proteins
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Genetic Code
      3. 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
      4. 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription
      5. 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
      6. 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 16 Gene Regulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression
      3. 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
      4. 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation
      5. 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcriptional Gene Regulation
      6. 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
      7. 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation
      8. 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 17 Biotechnology and Genomics
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Biotechnology
      3. 17.2 Mapping Genomes
      4. 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
      5. 17.4 Applying Genomics
      6. 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  5. Evolutionary Processes
    1. 18 Evolution and Origin of Species
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 Understanding Evolution
      3. 18.2 Formation of New Species
      4. 18.3 Reconnection and Rates of Speciation
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 19 The Evolution of Populations
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Evolution
      3. 19.2 Population Genetics
      4. 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 20 Phylogenies and the History of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  6. Biological Diversity
    1. 21 Viruses
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification
      3. 21.2 Virus Infection and Hosts
      4. 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections
      5. 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 22 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes
      4. 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
      5. 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
      6. 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  7. Plant Structure and Function
    1. 23 Plant Form and Physiology
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 The Plant Body
      3. 23.2 Stems
      4. 23.3 Roots
      5. 23.4 Leaves
      6. 23.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants
      7. 23.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  8. Animal Structure and Function
    1. 24 The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Animal Form and Function
      3. 24.2 Animal Primary Tissues
      4. 24.3 Homeostasis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 25 Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Digestive Systems
      3. 25.2 Nutrition and Energy Production
      4. 25.3 Digestive System Processes
      5. 25.4 Digestive System Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 26 The Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
      3. 26.2 How Neurons Communicate
      4. 26.3 The Central Nervous System
      5. 26.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. 26.5 Nervous System Disorders
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 27 Sensory Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Sensory Processes
      3. 27.2 Somatosensation
      4. 27.3 Taste and Smell
      5. 27.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation
      6. 27.5 Vision
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 28 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Types of Hormones
      3. 28.2 How Hormones Work
      4. 28.3 Regulation of Body Processes
      5. 28.4 Regulation of Hormone Production
      6. 28.5 Endocrine Glands
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 29 The Musculoskeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 29.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
      3. 29.2 Bone
      4. 29.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
      5. 29.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 30 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 30.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
      3. 30.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
      4. 30.3 Breathing
      5. 30.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    8. 31 The Circulatory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 31.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
      3. 31.2 Components of the Blood
      4. 31.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
      5. 31.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    9. 32 Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
      1. Introduction
      2. 32.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
      3. 32.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
      4. 32.3 Excretion Systems
      5. 32.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
      6. 32.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    10. 33 The Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 33.1 Innate Immune Response
      3. 33.2 Adaptive Immune Response
      4. 33.3 Antibodies
      5. 33.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    11. 34 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 34.1 Reproduction Methods
      3. 34.2 Fertilization
      4. 34.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis
      5. 34.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
      6. 34.5 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development
      7. 34.6 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation
      8. 34.7 Human Pregnancy and Birth
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  9. Ecology
    1. 35 Ecology and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 35.1 The Scope of Ecology
      3. 35.2 Biogeography
      4. 35.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 35.4 Aquatic Biomes
      6. 35.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 36 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 36.1 Population Demography
      3. 36.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection
      4. 36.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth
      5. 36.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
      6. 36.5 Human Population Growth
      7. 36.6 Community Ecology
      8. 36.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 37 Ecosystems
      1. Introduction
      2. 37.1 Ecology for Ecosystems
      3. 37.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      4. 37.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 38 Conservation Biology and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 38.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
      3. 38.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life
      4. 38.3 Threats to Biodiversity
      5. 38.4 Preserving Biodiversity
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  11. B | Geological Time
  12. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  13. Index
55.

Consider these microbial mats, which grow over a hydrothermal vent. Determine which of the following pieces of evidence best supports the alternative scenario of early life formation, in which organic compounds on early Earth formed near submerged volcanoes.

  1. Some prokaryotes that live near deep-sea vents today use hydrogen as an energy source.
  2. Fossilized stromatolites that are 3.5 billion years old are found near deep-sea vents.
  3. Extremophiles that exist today live in a variety of extreme environments, including those that are high in salinity.
  4. The chemical composition of water around deep-sea vents is the same as it was on early Earth.
56.
Stanley Miller and Harold Urey conducted experiments which demonstrated that several organic compounds could be formed spontaneously by simulating the conditions of Earth's early atmosphere. When Miller and Urey repeated their experiment without providing the electrical discharge, no organic compounds were found. Make a claim to hypothesize what might explain this result. Frame your claim within the context of the conditions of early Earth.
  1. The lack of organic compounds without the sparks indicates that complex organic components are formed from less complex biotic components subjected to solar radiation.
  2. The first trial of the experiment must have been done incorrectly.
  3. Abiotic molecules can only develop into organic molecules in the presence of oxygen, so oxygen should be added.
  4. Lightning, or some form of energy, is needed for the inorganic molecules in the atmosphere to interact with each other. This indicates that a similar energy source was present on early Earth that stimulated the interaction and development.
57.
Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that the abiotic synthesis of organic molecules in conditions similar to those of early Earth is possible. Determine which of the following types of evidence provides the most effective additional support for the idea of abiotic synthesis of organic compounds.
  1. Analysis of the chemical composition of meteorites sometimes yields amino acids.
  2. A hydrothermal vent in the Sea of Cortés releases hydrogen sulfide and iron sulfide.
  3. Researchers dripped solutions of amino acids onto hot surfaces to produce amino acid polymers.
  4. Some present-day prokaryotes live and reproduce in very extreme and unforgiving environments, such as the Arctic.
58.

Which of the following cell types does Figure 22.10 illustrate?

  1. Plant cell
  2. Animal cell
  3. Bacterial cell
  4. Fungal cell
59.
Demonstrate your understanding of the differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes by choosing the option that best describes and compares the function and presence of cell organelles among the two groups.
  1. Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The cell wall is a protective layer, typical in prokaryotic cells and in some eukaryotes. Chromosomal DNA, the genetic material of the cell, is present in a nucleoid region in prokaryotes while enclosed in a nucleus in eukaryotes.
  2. Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The cell wall is a protective layer found in some prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Chromosomal DNA is the genetic material of the cell, enclosed in a nucleus in prokaryotes while present in a nucleoid region in eukaryotes.
  3. Ribosomes are the sites of ATP production found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The cell wall is a protective layer, typically found in prokaryotic cells and in some eukaryotes. Chromosomal DNA is present in a nucleoid region in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. It is the genetic material of the cell.
  4. Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The cell wall is a protective layer, typically found in prokaryotic cells but not in eukaryotes. Chromosomal DNA, the genetic material of the cell, is present in the nucleus in prokaryotes, while it is enclosed in a nucleoid region in eukaryotes.
60.
A nonpathogenic bacterium acquires resistance to antibiotics. Reflect your understanding of this idea by determining which of the following scenarios describing how this strain could pose a health risk to people is false.
  1. Genes for antibiotic resistance are transferred from the nonpathogenic bacterium to a pathogenic bacterium via transduction.
  2. Genes for antibiotic resistance are transferred from the nonpathogenic bacterium to a pathogenic bacterium via transformation.
  3. Genes for antibiotic resistance are transferred from the nonpathogenic bacterium to a pathogenic bacterium via conjugation.
  4. Genes for antibiotic resistance are transferred from the nonpathogenic bacterium to a pathogenic bacterium via binary fission.
61.
In a rapidly changing environment, which prokaryotic population would you hypothesize likely to be more successful, one that includes individuals capable of conjugation, or one that does not? Support your answer with appropriate reasoning.
  1. A population including individuals capable of conjugation would be more successful because all of its members would form recombinant cells having new gene combinations advantageous in a new environment.
  2. A population including individuals capable of conjugation would be more successful because some members could form recombinant cells having new gene combinations advantageous in a new environment.
  3. A population including individuals not capable of conjugation would be more successful because the members undergoing conjugation would form new recombinant cells having gene combinations lethal in the new environment.
  4. A population including individuals not capable of conjugation would be more successful because conjugation will result in an increase in genetic diversity of the prokaryotic population, which will be disadvantageous in a new population.
62.

Review the diagram, which summarizes results of an experiment using different preparations of E. coli grown either in the presence or the absence of the antibioitc ampicillin. Identify the plate or plates on which only ampicillin-resistant bacteria grow.

  1. I only
  2. III only
  3. IV only
  4. I and IV
63.

Evaluate the diagram, which summarizes the findings of an experiment with E.coli. Apply your understanding of the experiment and of bacterial genetic recombination to explain why there are fewer colonies on plate IV than on plate III.

  1. All E.coli cells were not successfully transformed on plate IV.
  2. The nutrient agar medium inhibited the growth of some bacteria on plate IV.
  3. All E.coli cells were successfully transformed on plate IV.
  4. The bacteria on plate III were naturally resistant to ampicillin.
64.

Consider the identity of the labeled structures within a cell. Determine which of the structures allows you to positively identify the cell as a prokaryote.

  1. A, circular DNA
  2. B, ribosome
  3. C, cell wall
  4. D, cytoplasm
65.
A bacterial species that is a methanogen is discovered. Make a claim proposing a research question to answer If you wanted to build on this discovery to better understand the evolution of mechanisms related to the ability to capture, store, and use free energy in prokaryotes. Select the most appropriate question from those below.
  1. Have metabolic pathways evolved separately in Bacteria and Archaea?
  2. Should all methanogens be classed as Archaea in evolutionary phylogeny?
  3. Have methanogens evolved to live in both moderate and extreme environments?
  4. Did the methanogenic bacteria species also evolve as a strict anaerobe?
66.
Examine your understanding of the Archaea, and the differences among them. Pose an appropriate research question to learn more about the structural features that allow for the capture, storage, and use of free energy by archaean methanogens.
  1. Do archaean methanogens differ from other Archaea structurally, and if so, in what way? Is one or more of these structural differences related to these methanogens’ ability to use H2 to oxidize CO2?
  2. Do archaean methanogens differ from other Bacteria structurally, and if so, in what way? Is one or more of these structural differences related to these methagens’ ability to use CO2 to oxidize H2?
  3. Do archaean methanogens differ from other Archaea structurally, and if so, in what way? Is one or more of these structural differences related to these methagens’ ability to use CO2 to oxidize H2?
  4. Do archaean methanogens differ from other Archaea structurally, and if so, in what way? Is one or more of these structural differences related to these methagens’ ability to use H2O to oxidize H2?
67.
Which set of phrases related to nutritional and metabolic adaptations best fits the organisms described?
  1. chemoautotrophs, obligate anaerobes
  2. chemoheterotrophs, faculative anaerobes
  3. chemoheterotrophs, obligate anaerobes
68.
In an experiment, researchers grew plant seedlings in soils to which one of two strains of bacteria were added. A control group had no bacteria added to the soil. The seedlings’ uptake of the nutrient potassium increased dramatically in the soil with Strain 1 and decreased dramatically in the soil with Strain 2. Based on these findings, draw both specific and broad inferences about the relationship between the bacteria, the seedlings, and available nutrients.
  1. The Strain 2 bacteria increased the availability of potassium in the soil, and this nutrient was needed and used by the seedlings in the soil. The Strain 1 bacteria decreased the availability of potassium in the soil.
  2. The soil with Strain 1 bacteria must have had more potassium in comparison to soil with Strain 2 bacteria. The seedlings took up more potassium in Soil 1 than in 2 due to this difference.
  3. The Strain 1 bacteria increased the availability of potassium in the soil, and this nutrient was needed and used by the seedlings in the soil. The Strain 2 bacteria decreased the availability of potassium in the soil.
  4. The Strain 1 bacteria decreased the availability of potassium in the soil, and this nutrient was needed and used by the seedlings in the soil. The Strain 2 bacteria increased the availability of potassium in the soil.
69.
In a hypothetical research situation, scientists discover bacterial endospores in silt at the bottom of a marsh that has been contaminated with a pollutant for 25 years. The silt of the marsh was deposited in annual layers. This means that the age of the endospores can be estimated by identifying the layer of silt in which the endospores are found. In Flask A, researchers place 20-year-old endospores along with growth medium and the pollutant. In Flask B, researchers place 100-year-old endospores along with growth medium and the pollutant. Compare the statements and select the one that best describes the results you would expect to see in the growth of the flasks.
  1. The growth in Flask A will exceed that of Flask B.
  2. The growth in Flask B will exceed that of Flask A.
  3. The growth in each flask will be about equal.
  4. There will be little to no growth in each flask.
70.
In a hypothetical research situation, scientists discover bacterial endospores in silt at the bottom of a marsh that has been contaminated with a pollutant for 25 years. The silt of the marsh was deposited in annual layers. This means that the age of the endospores can be estimated by identifying the layer of silt in which the endospores are found. In Flask A, researchers place 20-year-old endospores along with growth medium and the pollutant. In Flask B, researchers place 100-year-old endospores along with growth medium and the pollutant. Make a case for why you would expect to see more growth in one particular flask than in the other.
  1. The growth between flasks would differ because endospores formed 20 years ago would be more dormant compared to endospores formed 100 years ago, before the marsh was polluted.
  2. The growth between flasks would differ because endospores formed 20 years ago would be less adapted to polluted conditions compared to endospores formed 100 years ago, before the marsh was polluted.
  3. The growth between flasks would differ because endospores formed 20 years ago would be more adapted to polluted conditions compared to endospores formed 100 years ago, before the marsh was polluted.
  4. The growth between flasks would differ because endospores formed 20 years ago would be less dormant compared to endospores formed 100 years ago, before the marsh was polluted.
71.
In a hypothetical research situation, scientists discover bacterial endospores in silt at the bottom of a marsh that has been contaminated with a pollutant for 25 years. The silt of the marsh was deposited in annual layers. This means that the age of the endospores can be estimated by identifying the layer of silt in which the endospores are found. In Flask A, researchers place 20-year-old endospores along with growth medium and the pollutant. In Flask B, researchers place 100-year-old endospores along with growth medium and the pollutant. Suppose the researchers observe the flasks for a while, continuing to replenish growth medium and pollutant as necessary. Predict the most likely results you would expect to see in the growth of the flasks after the allotted time
  1. The growth in Flask A will continuously exceed that of Flask B.
  2. The growth in Flask B will continuously exceed that of Flask A.
  3. The differences in growth between the two flasks will eventually decrease.
  4. Eventually, there will be little to no growth in each flask.
72.
In a hypothetical research situation, scientists discover bacterial endospores in silt at the bottom of a marsh that has been contaminated with a pollutant for 25 years. The silt of the marsh was deposited in annual layers. This means that the age of the endospores can be estimated by identifying the layer of silt in which the endospores are found. In Flask A, researchers place 20-year-old endospores along with growth medium and the pollutant. In Flask B, researchers place 100-year-old endospores along with growth medium and the pollutant. Suppose the researchers observe the flasks for a while, continuing to replenish growth medium and pollutant as necessary. Over this period of time, the differences between the growth in each flask lessened. Determine which explanation best accounts for this result.
  1. Because the endospores formed 20 years ago would evolve resistance to the pollutant fairly quickly. The bacteria in Flask A would die, and the difference in population size of each flask would lessen.
  2. Because the endospores formed 20 years ago would lose their resistance to the pollutant. The bacteria in Flask A would die, and the difference in population size of each flask would lessen.
  3. Because the endospores formed 100 years ago, before the marsh was polluted, they would lose their resistance to the pollutant. The bacteria in Flask B would then grow more prolifically, and the difference in population size of each flask would lessen.
  4. Because the endospores formed 100 years ago, before the marsh was polluted, they would evolve resistance to the pollutant fairly quickly. The bacteria in Flask B would then grow more prolifically, and the difference in population size of each flask would lessen.
73.
Make a claim stating the most likely process by which drug resistance spreads in bacteria.
  1. By undergoing genetic recombination through conjugation, transduction, and transformation.
  2. By undergoing reproduction through binary fission.
  3. By undergoing genetic recombination through conjugation and transcription.
  4. Reproduction among bacteria through any mechanism results in the spread of antibiotic resistance genes.
74.
Health officials worldwide are concerned about antibiotic resistance in bacteria that cause disease. In patients infected with nonresistant strains of the bacterium that causes tuberculosis, antibiotics can relieve symptoms fast—in as short of a time as a few weeks. However, it takes much longer to stop infection entirely, and patients may discontinue treatment once symptoms are abated. In a hypothetical study, researchers found a much higher incidence of recurrent tuberculosis infection in patients who discontinued treatment once symptoms were relieved, but before the planned course of treatment was complete. Propose the most likely mechanism that explains this result.
  1. The wrong course of antibiotics was used on the patients, so the infection was never treated.
  2. Not all of the bacteria were killed, and the remaining ones reproduced and brought back the symptoms of infection.
  3. The antibiotics were not prescribed for a long enough time to treat the infection.
  4. The patients with recurring infection had suffered issues with resistance that made them vulnerable to additional pathogens.
75.
Human intestines are home to hundreds of species of bacteria. One of these, Bacteriodes thetaiotaomicron, is capable of digesting complex plant materials that human enzymes cannot digest. Its presence in the human gut makes a significant contribution to human metabolic processes.Identify the term that best describes the relationship between humans and B. thetaiotaomicron?
  1. commensalistic
  2. mutualistic
  3. parasitic
  4. pathogenic
76.
Because of some health goals, you suddenly and dramatically change your diet. Predict how this might affect the diversity of prokaryotic species that live in your intestine.
  1. The diversity would not get altered and would remain the same.
  2. Species abundance and relative distribution would likely increase.
  3. Depending on the changes, species abundance and relative distribution may change.
  4. Species abundance and relative distribution would likely decrease.
77.
More than 100 bacterial species live on the surface of the human body. Bacteria cover portions of human skin in concentrations of up to 8 million cells per square centimeter. In particular, human sebaceous glands support the growth of the bacterium Propionibacterium acnes, which uses oil from the glands for food. Two strains of P. acnes are associated with the development of acne on human skin, but other strains are associated with healthy skin. Which statement best describes the relationship between humans and P. acnes?
  1. In some cases it is commensal and in others it is parasitic.
  2. In some cases it is mutualistic and in others it is commensalistic.
  3. It is almost always parasitic.
  4. It is almost always mutualistic.
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