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Writing Guide with Handbook

11.5 Writing Process: Reasoning Supported by Evidence

Writing Guide with Handbook11.5 Writing Process: Reasoning Supported by Evidence

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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. The Things We Carry: Experience, Culture, and Language
    1. 1 Unit Introduction
    2. 1 The Digital World: Building on What You Already Know to Respond Critically
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 "Reading" to Understand and Respond
      3. 1.2 Social Media Trailblazer: Selena Gomez
      4. 1.3 Glance at Critical Response: Rhetoric and Critical Thinking
      5. 1.4 Annotated Student Sample: Social Media Post and Responses on Voter Suppression
      6. 1.5 Writing Process: Thinking Critically About a “Text”
      7. 1.6 Evaluation: Intention vs. Execution
      8. 1.7 Spotlight on … Academia
      9. 1.8 Portfolio: Tracing Writing Development
      10. Further Reading
      11. Works Cited
    3. 2 Language, Identity, and Culture: Exploring, Employing, Embracing
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Seeds of Self
      3. 2.2 Identity Trailblazer: Cathy Park Hong
      4. 2.3 Glance at the Issues: Oppression and Reclamation
      5. 2.4 Annotated Sample Reading from The Souls of Black Folk by W. E. B. Du Bois
      6. 2.5 Writing Process: Thinking Critically about How Identity Is Constructed Through Writing
      7. 2.6 Evaluation: Antiracism and Inclusivity
      8. 2.7 Spotlight on … Variations of English
      9. 2.8 Portfolio: Decolonizing Self
      10. Further Reading
      11. Works Cited
    4. 3 Literacy Narrative: Building Bridges, Bridging Gaps
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Identity and Expression
      3. 3.2 Literacy Narrative Trailblazer: Tara Westover
      4. 3.3 Glance at Genre: The Literacy Narrative
      5. 3.4 Annotated Sample Reading: from Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass by Frederick Douglass
      6. 3.5 Writing Process: Tracing the Beginnings of Literacy
      7. 3.6 Editing Focus: Sentence Structure
      8. 3.7 Evaluation: Self-Evaluating
      9. 3.8 Spotlight on … The Digital Archive of Literacy Narratives (DALN)
      10. 3.9 Portfolio: A Literacy Artifact
      11. Further Reading
      12. Works Cited
      13. Works Consulted
  3. Bridging the Divide Between Personal Identity and Academia
    1. 2 Unit Introduction
    2. 4 Memoir or Personal Narrative: Learning Lessons from the Personal
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Exploring the Past to Understand the Present
      3. 4.2 Memoir Trailblazer: Ta-Nehisi Coates
      4. 4.3 Glance at Genre: Conflict, Detail, and Revelation
      5. 4.4 Annotated Sample Reading: from Life on the Mississippi by Mark Twain
      6. 4.5 Writing Process: Making the Personal Public
      7. 4.6 Editing Focus: More on Characterization and Point of View
      8. 4.7 Evaluation: Structure and Organization
      9. 4.8 Spotlight on … Multilingual Writers
      10. 4.9 Portfolio: Filtered Memories
      11. Further Reading
      12. Works Cited
    3. 5 Profile: Telling a Rich and Compelling Story
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Profiles as Inspiration
      3. 5.2 Profile Trailblazer: Veronica Chambers
      4. 5.3 Glance at Genre: Subject, Angle, Background, and Description
      5. 5.4 Annotated Sample Reading: “Remembering John Lewis” by Carla D. Hayden
      6. 5.5 Writing Process: Focusing on the Angle of Your Subject
      7. 5.6 Editing Focus: Verb Tense Consistency
      8. 5.7 Evaluation: Text as Personal Introduction
      9. 5.8 Spotlight on … Profiling a Cultural Artifact
      10. 5.9 Portfolio: Subject as a Reflection of Self
      11. Works Cited
    4. 6 Proposal: Writing About Problems and Solutions
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Proposing Change: Thinking Critically About Problems and Solutions
      3. 6.2 Proposal Trailblazer: Atul Gawande
      4. 6.3 Glance at Genre: Features of Proposals
      5. 6.4 Annotated Student Sample: “Slowing Climate Change” by Shawn Krukowski
      6. 6.5 Writing Process: Creating a Proposal
      7. 6.6 Editing Focus: Subject-Verb Agreement
      8. 6.7 Evaluation: Conventions, Clarity, and Coherence
      9. 6.8 Spotlight on … Technical Writing as a Career
      10. 6.9 Portfolio: Reflecting on Problems and Solutions
      11. Further Reading
      12. Works Cited
    5. 7 Evaluation or Review: Would You Recommend It?
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Thumbs Up or Down?
      3. 7.2 Review Trailblazer: Michiko Kakutani
      4. 7.3 Glance at Genre: Criteria, Evidence, Evaluation
      5. 7.4 Annotated Student Sample: "Black Representation in Film" by Caelia Marshall
      6. 7.5 Writing Process: Thinking Critically About Entertainment
      7. 7.6 Editing Focus: Quotations
      8. 7.7 Evaluation: Effect on Audience
      9. 7.8 Spotlight on … Language and Culture
      10. 7.9 Portfolio: What the Arts Say About You
      11. Further Reading
      12. Works Cited
    6. 8 Analytical Report: Writing from Facts
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Information and Critical Thinking
      3. 8.2 Analytical Report Trailblazer: Barbara Ehrenreich
      4. 8.3 Glance at Genre: Informal and Formal Analytical Reports
      5. 8.4 Annotated Student Sample: "U.S. Response to COVID-19" by Trevor Garcia
      6. 8.5 Writing Process: Creating an Analytical Report
      7. 8.6 Editing Focus: Commas with Nonessential and Essential Information
      8. 8.7 Evaluation: Reviewing the Final Draft
      9. 8.8 Spotlight on … Discipline-Specific and Technical Language
      10. 8.9 Portfolio: Evidence and Objectivity
      11. Further Reading
      12. Works Cited
    7. 9 Rhetorical Analysis: Interpreting the Art of Rhetoric
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Breaking the Whole into Its Parts
      3. 9.2 Rhetorical Analysis Trailblazer: Jamil Smith
      4. 9.3 Glance at Genre: Rhetorical Strategies
      5. 9.4 Annotated Student Sample: “Rhetorical Analysis: Evicted by Matthew Desmond” by Eliana Evans
      6. 9.5 Writing Process: Thinking Critically about Rhetoric
      7. 9.6 Editing Focus: Mixed Sentence Constructions
      8. 9.7 Evaluation: Rhetorical Analysis
      9. 9.8 Spotlight on … Business and Law
      10. 9.9 Portfolio: How Thinking Critically about Rhetoric Affects Intellectual Growth
      11. Further Reading
      12. Works Cited
    8. 10 Position Argument: Practicing the Art of Rhetoric
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Making a Case: Defining a Position Argument
      3. 10.2 Position Argument Trailblazer: Charles Blow
      4. 10.3 Glance at Genre: Thesis, Reasoning, and Evidence
      5. 10.4 Annotated Sample Reading: "Remarks at the University of Michigan" by Lyndon B. Johnson
      6. 10.5 Writing Process: Creating a Position Argument
      7. 10.6 Editing Focus: Paragraphs and Transitions
      8. 10.7 Evaluation: Varied Appeals
      9. 10.8 Spotlight on … Citation
      10. 10.9 Portfolio: Growth in the Development of Argument
      11. Further Reading
      12. Works Cited
    9. 11 Reasoning Strategies: Improving Critical Thinking
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Developing Your Sense of Logic
      3. 11.2 Reasoning Trailblazer: Paul D. N. Hebert
      4. 11.3 Glance at Genre: Reasoning Strategies and Signal Words
      5. 11.4 Annotated Sample Reading: from Book VII of The Republic by Plato
      6. 11.5 Writing Process: Reasoning Supported by Evidence
      7. Further Reading
      8. Works Cited
    10. 12 Argumentative Research: Enhancing the Art of Rhetoric with Evidence
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Introducing Research and Research Evidence
      3. 12.2 Argumentative Research Trailblazer: Samin Nosrat
      4. 12.3 Glance at Genre: Introducing Research as Evidence
      5. 12.4 Annotated Student Sample: "Healthy Diets from Sustainable Sources Can Save the Earth" by Lily Tran
      6. 12.5 Writing Process: Integrating Research
      7. 12.6 Editing Focus: Integrating Sources and Quotations
      8. 12.7 Evaluation: Effectiveness of Research Paper
      9. 12.8 Spotlight on … Bias in Language and Research
      10. 12.9 Portfolio: Why Facts Matter in Research Argumentation
      11. Further Reading
      12. Works Cited
    11. 13 Research Process: Accessing and Recording Information
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 The Research Process: Where to Look for Existing Sources
      3. 13.2 The Research Process: How to Create Sources
      4. 13.3 Glance at the Research Process: Key Skills
      5. 13.4 Annotated Student Sample: Research Log
      6. 13.5 Research Process: Making Notes, Synthesizing Information, and Keeping a Research Log
      7. 13.6 Spotlight on … Ethical Research
      8. Further Reading
      9. Works Cited
    12. 14 Annotated Bibliography: Gathering, Evaluating, and Documenting Sources
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Compiling Sources for an Annotated Bibliography
      3. 14.2 Glance at Form: Citation Style, Purpose, and Formatting
      4. 14.3 Annotated Student Sample: “Healthy Diets from Sustainable Sources Can Save the Earth” by Lily Tran
      5. 14.4 Writing Process: Informing and Analyzing
      6. Further Reading
      7. Works Cited
    13. 15 Case Study Profile: What One Person Says About All
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 Tracing a Broad Issue in the Individual
      3. 15.2 Case Study Trailblazer: Vilayanur S. Ramachandran
      4. 15.3 Glance at Genre: Observation, Description, and Analysis
      5. 15.4 Annotated Sample Reading: Case Study on Louis Victor "Tan" Leborgne
      6. 15.5 Writing Process: Thinking Critically About How People and Language Interact
      7. 15.6 Editing Focus: Words Often Confused
      8. 15.7 Evaluation: Presentation and Analysis of Case Study
      9. 15.8 Spotlight on … Applied Linguistics
      10. 15.9 Portfolio: Your Own Uses of Language
      11. Further Reading
      12. Works Cited
  4. Navigating Rhetoric in Real Life
    1. 3 Unit Introduction
    2. 16 Print or Textual Analysis: What You Read
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 An Author’s Choices: What Text Says and How It Says It
      3. 16.2 Textual Analysis Trailblazer: bell hooks
      4. 16.3 Glance at Genre: Print or Textual Analysis
      5. 16.4 Annotated Student Sample: "Artists at Work" by Gwyn Garrison
      6. 16.5 Writing Process: Thinking Critically About Text
      7. 16.6 Editing Focus: Literary Works Live in the Present
      8. 16.7 Evaluation: Self-Directed Assessment
      9. 16.8 Spotlight on … Humanities
      10. 16.9 Portfolio: The Academic and the Personal
      11. Further Reading
      12. Works Cited
    3. 17 Image Analysis: What You See
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 “Reading” Images
      3. 17.2 Image Trailblazer: Sara Ludy
      4. 17.3 Glance at Genre: Relationship Between Image and Rhetoric
      5. 17.4 Annotated Student Sample: “Hints of the Homoerotic” by Leo Davis
      6. 17.5 Writing Process: Thinking Critically and Writing Persuasively About Images
      7. 17.6 Editing Focus: Descriptive Diction
      8. 17.7 Evaluation: Relationship Between Analysis and Image
      9. 17.8 Spotlight on … Video and Film
      10. 17.9 Portfolio: Interplay Between Text and Image
      11. Further Reading
      12. Works Cited
    4. 18 Multimodal and Online Writing: Creative Interaction between Text and Image
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 Mixing Genres and Modes
      3. 18.2 Multimodal Trailblazer: Torika Bolatagici
      4. 18.3 Glance at Genre: Genre, Audience, Purpose, Organization
      5. 18.4 Annotated Sample Reading: “Celebrating a Win-Win” by Alexandra Dapolito Dunn
      6. 18.5 Writing Process: Create a Multimodal Advocacy Project
      7. 18.6 Evaluation: Transitions
      8. 18.7 Spotlight on . . . Technology
      9. 18.8 Portfolio: Multimodalism
      10. Further Reading
      11. Works Cited
    5. 19 Scripting for the Public Forum: Writing to Speak
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Writing, Speaking, and Activism
      3. 19.2 Podcast Trailblazer: Alice Wong
      4. 19.3 Glance at Genre: Language Performance and Visuals
      5. 19.4 Annotated Student Sample: “Are New DOT Regulations Discriminatory?” by Zain A. Kumar
      6. 19.5 Writing Process: Writing to Speak
      7. 19.6 Evaluation: Bridging Writing and Speaking
      8. 19.7 Spotlight on … Delivery/Public Speaking
      9. 19.8 Portfolio: Everyday Rhetoric, Rhetoric Every Day
      10. Further Reading
      11. Works Cited
    6. 20 Portfolio Reflection: Your Growth as a Writer
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Thinking Critically about Your Semester
      3. 20.2 Reflection Trailblazer: Sandra Cisneros
      4. 20.3 Glance at Genre: Purpose and Structure
      5. 20.4 Annotated Sample Reading: “Don’t Expect Congrats” by Dale Trumbore
      6. 20.5 Writing Process: Looking Back, Looking Forward
      7. 20.6 Editing Focus: Pronouns
      8. 20.7 Evaluation: Evaluating Self-Reflection
      9. 20.8 Spotlight on … Pronouns in Context
      10. Further Reading
      11. Works Cited
  5. Handbook
  6. Index

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • Use organizational and reasoning strategies to compose texts that integrate the writer’s ideas with those from appropriate sources.
  • Implement varying language structures in the process of composing.
  • Develop flexible strategies for drafting and revising.

In this section you will practice writing paragraphs that demonstrate your ability to use the reasoning strategies discussed.

Summary of Assignment

Using three of the strategies for reasoning (analogy, cause and effect, classification and division, comparison and contrast, definition, or problem and solution), write at least three body paragraphs for your Position Argument: Practicing the Art of Rhetoric assignment. Write at least one single paragraph for each strategy you choose. You may write additional paragraphs in which you combine strategies.

Another Lens. Make a visual draft of your assignment by using photos you take, images you find online (be sure to adhere to copyright guidelines), images you create, or a combination of these. Your instructor will tell you whether to substitute visuals for all three paragraphs or just one or two. Put the title at the top of your poster and, if necessary, include explanations of your images. The images you use and the manner in which you arrange them should convey the same ideas you want to express about your subject in writing. The selected images should reflect your critical thinking on your subject and should invite the viewer also to think critically about your subject. You can read more about understanding various aspects of visual rhetoric in Image Analysis: Writing About What You See. Although the design arrangements, or layouts, for a poster are numerous, consider using one of these:

  • Centered image—nucleus idea: The primary image is in the center of the poster. Other secondary images radiate outward from the primary image or are arranged around it another meaningful way.
  • Left-to-right flow—horizontal: Images progress across the poster like lines of text, from left to right.
  • Left-to-right flow—vertical: Images progress across the poster like lines of text in a column. Depending on the size of your poster, you could include from three to five columns of images.
  • Two contrasting fields: Images are divided into two sections of the poster, some on the left and some on the right.
A cause-and-effect poster with two contrasting fields indicates the possible result of working in a lab without eye protection. The flask pictured overlapping a human face explodes on the right side. The text reads, “No eyeshield, no eye sight.”
Figure 11.9 This cause-and-effect poster with two contrasting fields indicates the possible result of working without eye protection in a lab. (credit: “A flask exploding, a left eye open without protection” by Science Museum Group/Wikimedia Commons, CC BY 4.0)
A poster shows a large antenna with the word “Communication” written above it. Two workers sit behind the antenna. The text below reads, “Exchanging ideas is a two way process.”
Figure 11.10 In this centered-image poster illustrating the strategy of definition, the sentence indicates a requirement of communication, and the images indicate ways ii,koln which people communicate. (credit: “Communication affirmation poster, USAF” by Dave Ahlschwede/Wikimedia Commons, Public Domain)

Quick Launch: Structural Paragraph Frames

Once you have determined your reasoning strategy and purpose for a particular paragraph, consider how to develop the evidence within that paragraph through a topic sentence, explanation, and analysis. To do this task, choose the most appropriate structure for a given paragraph from the structures below, and complete the frame according to the prompts. You may alter the frames as needed. Remember that each paragraph that you develop should support your thesis. In other words, make sure that each topic sentence ties back to your thesis.

First, record your working thesis: ________

Analogy

  • Working topic sentence ______________ is like _________________ in many ways.

Structure

  • explanation:
  • analysis:
Table 11.11

Cause-and-Effect

  • Working topic sentence for Structure #1

    Because (cause/s) ____________ (what had happened), (effect/s) ____________ (what happened as a result).

    Structure #1 for cause-and-effect paragraph

    cause(s):

    effect(s):

  • Working topic sentence for Structure #2

    (effect/s) _______________ (what happened as a result) because (cause/s)____________ (what had happened).

    Structure #2 for cause-and-effect paragraph

    cause(s):

    effect(s):

Table 11.12

Classification and Division

  • Working topic sentence for Structure #1 (general subject) _____________ can be divided into (smaller categories) ______________, _______________, and _____________.

    Structure #1 for classification-and-division paragraphs: division

    larger subject:

    first category:

    second category:

    third category:

  • Working topic sentence for Structure #2

    (smaller category) _______________, ______________, and _____________ are (types) of (larger subject) ___________.

    Structure #2 for classification-and-division paragraph: classification

    smaller category:

    smaller category:

    smaller category:

    larger subject:

Table 11.13

Comparison and Contrast

  • Working topic sentence for Structure #1

    One way in which (subject 1)__________ and (subject 2)__________ are alike is (similarity) ________; one way in which they differ is (difference) ________.

    Structure #1 for comparison-and-contrast paragraph

    Subject 1:

    Subject 2:

    Similarity(-ies) of subject 1 and subject 2:

    Difference(s) of subject 1 and subject 2:

  • Working topic sentence for Structure #2

    One way in which (subject 1) _________ and (subject 2) _________ are different is (difference)________; one way in which they are similar is (similarity)________.

    Structure #2 for comparison-and-contrast paragraph

    Subject 1:

    Subject 2:

    Difference(s) of subject 1 and subject 2:

    Similarity(-ies) of subject 1 and subject 2:

Table 11.14

Problem-and-Solution

  • Working topic sentence for Structure #1

    The issue of (predicament or challenge) _____________________ was/can be solved by (what was/should be done)______________________.

    Structure #1 for problem-and-solution paragraph

    problem(s):

    solution:

  • Working topic sentence for Structure #2

    By (what was/should be done) ______________________, the issue of (predicament/challenge) __________________ was/could be solved.

    Structure #2 for problem-and-solution paragraph

    solution:

    problem(s):

Table 11.15

Definition

  • Working topic sentence Most people think ______________ means ______________; to me, however, _____________ means ____________________.

    Structure

    Common definition or denotation:

    Expanded definition from writer:

Table 11.16

Drafting: Reasoning Strategies

As you write, keep in mind the reasoning strategy you are using. Then begin your draft by using the applicable frame for the paragraph. Beginning in this way will help you focus the details of the paragraph to ensure they support the thesis and provide the reasoning you need. Note that when you revise, you may choose to reword your frame and the sentences that develop it. Revisions like these are part of the recursive nature of the writing process.

Below are frames for types of writing, sample sentences of filled-in frames, patterns for the six reasoning strategies, and sample paragraphs. In the sample paragraphs, topic sentences are underlined, and transitional words and phrases are italicized.

Analogy

  • Frame for analogy topic sentence: (subject 1) _______________ is like (subject 2) _______________ in this way: (way in which they are similar)_____________________.

    underlineLearning a foreign languageend underline is like underlinelearning to ride a bicycleend underline in this way: underlineyou must learn to perform multiple tasks, some at the same timeend underline.

  • Structure for analogy paragraph comparing learning a foreign language and learning to ride a bicycle:

    comparison: learning a foreign language compared to learning to ride a bicycle

    reason/explanation/analysis: must learn the basic parts

    reason/explanation/analysis: must learn how parts work together

    reason/explanation/analysis: must learn multiple actions without thinking about them

Model analogy paragraph

underlineLearning a foreign language is like learning to ride a bicycle: you must learn to perform multiple tasks, some at the same time.end underline You first have to develop a foundational knowledge by learning how the individual parts of the bike work and how to use them, just as you learn the parts of speech of a language. Then you must learn how these parts work together. For example, through the action of pedaling the bike, you transfer energy to the wheels, causing them to rotate, thus moving the bike forward. Similarly, by learning how to use verbs in another language, you learn how to apply meaning that expresses an action or state of being. To steer the direction of the bike, you learn to change its path by turning the handlebars. To change the direction of a sentence, you learn how to control prepositions and modifiers. Most important, though, you must get to the point at which the actions of pedaling, steering, and balancing happen simultaneously and with little thought to the individual actions, just as you must do when speaking a foreign language.

Cause and Effect

  • Frame for cause-and-effect topic sentence (Structure #1):

    Because (cause/s) _______________ (what had happened), then (effect/s) ____________ (what happened).

    Because underlinevehicles sped without regard to the speed limit, pedestrians dodged traffic and accidents increasedend underline; for those reasons, underlinea traffic signal was installedend underline.

  • Structure #1 for cause-and effect paragraph about reasons for installing a traffic signal:

    explanation of the cause(s), followed by an explanation of the effect(s) that happened as a result of the cause(s)

    cause: vehicles sped without regard to the speed limit

    cause: pedestrians had to dodge traffic

    cause: number of accidents increased

    effect: traffic signal was installed

Model cause-and-effect paragraph about reasons for installing a traffic signal (Structure #1)

underlineMany vehicles raced through the intersection of Clay Street and Eagle Avenue without regard to the posted speed limit.end underline Pedestrians, many of whom were students, crossed the intersection to get to and from campus, but they had to dodge in and out of constant traffic. The number of accidents rose far past an acceptable limit. Indeed, one recent accident caused a loss of life. For these reasons, a traffic signal was installed at the intersection of Clay Street and Eagle Avenue.

  • Frame for a cause-and-effect topic sentence (Structure #2):

    (effect/s) __________________ (what happened) because (cause/s) ________________ (what had happened).

    underlineA traffic signal was installedend underline because underlinevehicles sped, people had to dodge traffic, and accidents increasedend underline.

  • Structure #2 for cause-and effect paragraph about reasons for installing a traffic signal:

    explanation of the effect(s), followed by an explanation of the causes(s) that led to the effect

    effect: traffic signal was installed

    cause: vehicles sped without regard to speed limit

    cause: pedestrians had to dodge traffic

    cause: number of accidents increased

Model cause-and-effect paragraph about reasons for installing a traffic signal (Structure #2)

underlineA traffic signal was installed at the intersection of Clay Street and Eagle Avenue.end underline Before it was installed, many vehicles raced through the intersection without regard to the posted speed limit. Pedestrians, many of whom were students, crossed the intersection to get to and from campus, but they had to dodge in and out of constant traffic. The number of accidents rose far past an acceptable limit. Indeed, one recent accident resulted in a loss of life.

Classification and Division

Notice that these paragraphs do not separate classification from division. Rather, they look at the same larger unit (sports drinks) from two angles: types of drinks that could be classified and the larger unit—sports drinks—broken down into smaller units contained within it.

  • Frame for classification-and-division topic sentence (Structure #1): (general subject) ____________ can be divided into (smaller categories) _______________, ______________, and ______________.

    underlineSports drinksend underline can be divided into underlinehypotonicend underline, underlineisotonicend underline, and underlinehypertonicend underline.

  • Structure #1 for classification-and-division paragraph about types of sports drinks:

    identification of the general subject followed by categories of that general subject

    general subject: sports drinks

    first category: hypotonic

    second category: isotonic

    third category: hypertonic

Model classification-and-division paragraph about types of sports drinks (Structure #1)

underlineAll sports drinks are designed to increase hydration before, during, and after exercise or athletic involvement.end underline They do this by replacing minerals such as sodium and potassium lost through sweat and by replacing electrolytes and carbohydrates. However, not all sports drinks are created equally. The first type of sports drink, hypotonic (having a lower concentration of dissolved content than the human body), includes drinks that have both a low number of carbohydrates and a higher concentration of salt and sugar than the human body. Isotonic (having the same concentration of dissolved content as the human body) drinks have salt and sugar concentrations similar to the human body but have higher carbohydrate content. Last, hypertonic (having a higher concentration of dissolved content than the human body) drinks are designed to supplement daily carbohydrate intake and therefore have high levels of carbohydrates to provide quick energy replacement. Their salt and sugar concentration is significantly lower than the human body’s.

  • Frame for classification-and-division topic sentence (Structure #2):

    (smaller categories) ______________, _______________, and ____________ are divisions /types of (general subject)___________.

    underlineHypotonicend underline, underlineisotonicend underline, and underlinehypertonicend underline are types of underlinesports drinksend underline.

  • Structure #2 for classification-and-division paragraph about types of sports drinks:

    categories of general subject followed by identification of the general subject

    smaller category: hypotonic

    smaller category: isotonic

    smaller category: hypertonic

    general subject: sports drinks

Model classification-and-division paragraph about types of sports drinks (Structure #2)

Hypotonic (having a lower concentration of dissolved content than the human body) drinks include beverages that have both a low number of carbohydrates and a concentration of salt and sugar higher than the human body. Isotonic (having the same concentration of dissolved content as the human body) beverages have salt and sugar concentrations similar to the human body but have higher carbohydrate content. Last, hypertonic (having a higher concentration of dissolved content than the human body) beverages are designed to supplement daily carbohydrate intake and therefore have high levels of carbohydrate to provide quick energy replacement. Their salt and sugar concentration is significantly lower than the human body’s. What do these beverages have in common? underlineAll are types of sports drinks, designed to increase hydration before, during, and after exercise or athletic involvement.end underline

Comparison and Contrast

  • Frame for a comparison-and-contrast topic sentence (Structure #1):

    One way (subject 1) __________ and (subject 2) __________ are alike is (similarity) __________; one way they differ is (difference) __________.

    One way underlinevirtual learningend underline and underlineface-to-face learningend underline are alike is underlinethat student responsibility is a key element in bothend underline; one way they differ is underlinein the methods students choose to be attentiveend underline.

  • Structure #1 for comparison-and-contrast paragraph about virtual learning and face-to-face learning:

    identification of two subjects followed by a point-by-point discussion

    point 1: discussion of a similarity of virtual learning and face-to-face learning

    point 2: discussion of a difference between virtual learning and face-to-face learning

Model comparison-and-contrast paragraph about virtual learning and face-to-face learning (Structure #1)

underlineStudent responsibility is a key factor in both virtual learning and face-to-face learningend underline. In both settings, a student must be attentive in order to understand what is happening in the classroom and what is expected regarding readings, lab work, and other outside assignments. Differences occur in virtual classes and face-to-face classes, though, in how students choose to be attentive. Depending on how the virtual classes are set up, students’ attention can range from complete to nonexistent, and the instructor might never know how much attention a particular student is paying. With in-person classes, on the other hand, an instructor can see a student’s body language more closely and determine whether that student is attentive.

A group of people sit together in a classroom during an informal face-to-face instruction session.
Figure 11.11 Informal face-to-face instruction (credit: “Creative writing class-fine arts center” by Leesa/Wikimedia Commons, CC BY 2.0)
  • Frame for a comparison-and-contrast topic sentence (Structure #2):

    One way (subject 1) ________ and (subject 2) _________ are different is (difference) _________; a way they are alike is (similarity) _________.

    One way underlinevirtual learningend underline and underlineface-to-face learningend underline are different is underlinein the way students choose to be attentiveend underline; a way they are alike is underlinethat student responsibility is a key elementend underline.

  • Structure #2 for comparison-and-contrast paragraph about virtual learning and face-to-face learning:

    identification of two subjects followed by a point-by-point discussion

    point 1: discussion of a difference between virtual learning and face-to-face learning

    point 2: discussion of a similarity of virtual learning and face-to-face learning

Model comparison-and-contrast paragraph about virtual learning and face-to-face learning (Structure #2)

underlineOne way that virtual learning and face-to-face learning are different is in the methods students choose to be attentive, but they are alike in that student responsibility is a key factor in bothend underline. With virtual learning, students must clear their study space of distractions and be sure to have reliable Internet connections. Alternatively, in face-to-face learning, the study area and Internet connections are already in place and are provided by the school. However, in both styles of classes, students have the responsibility to be attentive in order to understand what is happening in the classroom and what is expected as far as readings, lab work, and other outside assignments.

Problem and Solution

  • Frame for problem-and-solution topic sentence (Structure #1):

    The issue of (predicament/s or challenging issue/s) _____________________ was solved/can be solved by (what was done/what should be done) _____________________.

    The issue of underlinejuveniles repeatedly committing crimesend underline can be solved by underlinetreating juvenile offenders as adultsend underline.

  • Structure #1 for problem-and-solution paragraph about trying juveniles as adults:

    an explanation of problem(s), followed by the solution

    problem: number of juveniles committing serious crimes is rising

    problem: facilities to which these juveniles are sent have failed to rehabilitate them

    problem: youths continue their life of crime

    solution: juveniles should be tried as adults

Model problem-and-solution paragraph about trying juveniles as adults (Structure #1)

underlineAcross the country, the number of juveniles committing serious crimes is rising dramaticallyend underline. The facilities to which these juveniles are sent have failed to rehabilitate them, and a high percentage of the youths continue with their life of crime. Law-abiding citizens of the country, however, realize that this situation must change. By trying juveniles as adults, the issue of juveniles repeatedly committing crimes can be solved.

  • Frame for problem-and-solution topic sentence (Structure #2):

    By (what was done/what should be done) ____________________, the issue of (predicament/s or challenging issue/s) ___________________ would be solved/was solved.

    By underlinetrying juveniles as adultsend underline, the issue of underlinejuveniles repeatedly committing crimesend underline can be solved.

  • Structure #2 for problem-and-solution paragraph about trying juveniles as adults:

    an explanation of a solution, followed by the problems that necessitated it

    solution: juveniles are tried as adults

    problem: number of juveniles committing serious crimes is rising

    problem: facilities to which these juveniles are sent have failed to rehabilitate them

    problem: youths continue their life of crime

Model problem-and-solution paragraph about trying juveniles as adults (Structure #2)

underlineJuveniles should be tried as adultsend underline. Across the country, the number of juveniles committing serious crimes is rising dramatically. The facilities to which these juveniles are sent have failed to rehabilitate them, though, and a high percentage of the youths continue with their life of crime. Because of this lack of success, law-abiding citizens of the country realize that these problems must be addressed immediately.

Definition

  • Frame for definition topic sentence:

    To most people, (subject) is _______________; however, it really is ______________________.

    To most people, a hero is underlinea famous person who is admired or idealizedend underline; however, underlinea hero is really anyone who goes out of the way to help othersend underline.

  • Structure for definition paragraph:

    common definition or denotation: a famous person who is admired or idealized

    writer’s expanded definition or connotation: anyone who goes out of the way to help others

    explanation/examples/details: healthcare professionals

    explanation/examples/details: grocery and convenience store workers

Model definition paragraph

underlineTo most people, a hero is a famous person who is admired or idealized; however, it really is anyone who goes out of the way to help others.end underline For example, during the pandemic that began in 2020, a number of people with everyday jobs suddenly became heroes. First, the need for healthcare went up sharply, and healthcare professionals worked many overtime hours and risked their lives to diagnose and treat others, with the hope of saving them. Consequently, these people became heroes. Also, because most people stayed at home and restaurants were closed, people purchased more food from grocery stores. Therefore, the people who delivered the food to grocery stores and the essential workers at the grocery stores became heroes to those who depended on their services.

Three healthcare workers stand in a hospital wearing PPE (personal protective equipment) during the Covid pandemic.
Figure 11.12 Health care workers in 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic (credit: “Healthcare workers wearing PPE” by Javed Anees/Wikimedia Commons, CC0)

Checking Validity

After you have completed your paragraphs, check the validity, or soundness, of their logic. To perform this check, begin by assessing the logical connection of your topic sentences to your thesis statement. Because the topic sentences are the major supporting statements for your thesis, each one should support it. Ask and answer the following questions of each topic sentence:

  1. Does this topic sentence reflect the reasoning strategy you are using?
  2. Does this topic sentence directly support the thesis statement?
  3. Does the topic sentence make a sensible point?
  4. What is the topic sentence’s purpose? Is it to provide

If you have trouble answering any of the questions and cannot establish the sentence’s validity, consider revising the topic sentence.

Next, check the validity of your body paragraphs’ development. To perform this check, copy and paste to a new page one topic sentence and the sentences that develop it. Then, answer these questions on all the major supporting ideas that you develop for each topic sentence:

  1. Does this body paragraph reflect the reasoning strategy you are using?
  2. Does developing the idea in this body paragraph directly support its topic sentence?
  3. Does this idea make a sensible point?
  4. What is the purpose of developing this idea? Is it to provide
    • background information;
    • a reason for the topic sentence’s claim;
    • an illustration of the topic sentence’s point;
    • an explanation of the sentence’s point; or
    • evidence demonstrating the topic sentence’s point?

If you have trouble answering any of the questions and cannot establish a supporting idea’s validity, consider revising or replacing the idea with one that you can logically develop to prove, illustrate, or explain the topic idea.

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