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Review Questions

1 .
What is the form of reasoning that begins with a general theory and arrives at a specific conclusion after observing a body of information?
  1. deductive reasoning
  2. inductive reasoning
  3. empirical reasoning
  4. conjectural reasoning
2 .
What premise is the concept of natural rights based on?
  1. Rights and freedoms are temporary and can be revoked for any reason by political leaders.
  2. Rights come into existence only with the creation of human-made laws that derive from a monarch’s authority.
  3. People have fundamental rights that cannot be revoked by human-made laws or political leaders.
  4. Animals living in a state of nature should be granted the same rights and freedoms as their human counterparts.
3 .
Which philosopher argued that all people are born free in a state of nature, and the government should exist only by their consent?
  1. Thomas Hobbes
  2. John Locke
  3. Jeremy Bentham
  4. Edmund Burke
4 .
The belief that individuals must accept certain moral and political obligations as members of society is part of which philosophical concept?
  1. the social contract
  2. the general will
  3. natural law
  4. the Zoroastrian tradition
5 .
Which of the following was not true of European coffeehouses in the eighteenth century?
  1. They served as important outlets for news and information.
  2. They enabled people from a variety of social backgrounds to acquire an informal education.
  3. They were centers of royal power and tightly controlled by monarchs.
  4. They had their origins in the cities of the Islamic world.
6 .
Elite women typically hosted which influential settings for the exchange of Enlightenment ideas?
  1. the salons
  2. the coffeehouses
  3. the academies
  4. the royal societies
7 .
The Republic of Letters refers to which sphere of information exchange?
  1. a long-distance community of writers who corresponded with each other across Europe and the Atlantic
  2. the urban areas of western Europe that housed the printshops of the Enlightenment
  3. the debates that occurred in the coffee shops of eighteenth-century France
  4. the royal libraries of the English monarch
8 .
What obstacle or obstacles made it difficult for those at the lower end of the socioeconomic ladder to actively participate in the print culture of the Enlightenment?
  1. lack of interest
  2. low levels of literacy and a lack of leisure time
  3. a widespread shortage of books and other printed materials
  4. royal edicts restricting the practice of reading to all but a small aristocratic elite
9 .
What was a principal cause of the American Revolution?
  1. desire to abolish slavery
  2. growing support for the enfranchisement of women
  3. British efforts to consolidate control over its colonies
  4. refusal of colonists to expand westward beyond Appalachia
10 .
What was a cause of the French Revolution?
  1. an economic crisis
  2. decolonization
  3. the threat of Spanish invasion
  4. the acquisition of equal rights for women
11 .
What was a similarity among the American, French, and Haitian revolutions?
  1. the vision of natural rights
  2. the pursuit of racial equality
  3. the support of the Catholic Church
  4. the pursuit of liberty from tyrannical governments
12 .
What was a key difference between the Haitian Revolution and those in British North America and France?
  1. The Haitian Revolution directly addressed racial inequality.
  2. Haiti did not issue a written constitution.
  3. The Haitian Revolution was fought by foreign mercenaries.
  4. Only Haiti experienced violent battles during its revolution.
13 .
What was one of the main causes of the Haitian Revolution?
  1. the criminalization of Catholicism
  2. the desire of poor Whites to abolish slavery
  3. slave rebellion against White planters
  4. an outbreak of smallpox
14 .
What was a goal of the Congress of Vienna?
  1. to support Italian unification
  2. to develop policies of free-market capitalism
  3. to restore the legitimacy of European monarchs
  4. to expand rights and liberties throughout Europe
15 .
What were the four powers of the Quadruple Alliance?
  1. Britain, Prussia, Russia, and Austria
  2. Italy, France, Spain, and Poland
  3. Britain, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales
  4. Russia, Poland, Lithuania, and Sweden
16 .
What was Metternich’s goal in attempting to restore traditional monarchs?
  1. encourage a new wave of revolutions
  2. enable Austria to become the most powerful nation in Europe
  3. expand the scope of natural rights
  4. restore the balance of power in Europe
17 .
The unification of Italy occurred under which political system?
  1. monarchy
  2. republic
  3. dictatorship
  4. theocracy
18 .
To what does the “invisible hand” refer?
  1. Napoléon’s approach to leadership
  2. unseen forces that regulate the market and economy
  3. increased government intervention intended to promote general welfare
  4. the legacy of Italian unification
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