Application and Reflection Questions
What were the causes of the Protestant Reformation? What did the Council of Trent do to address those problems?
In what ways did Martin Luther’s beliefs differ from those of the Roman Catholic Church? What challenges to Catholic doctrine were introduced by other reformers?
In your opinion, did the religious zeal of Spain and Portugal help them accomplish their goals or interfere with their accomplishment? Explain your answer.
Imagine a world in which the Columbian Exchange did not occur. What would that world look like today? Why?
Consider the ways in which mercantilism benefited and harmed people in the nations that adopted it. Was mercantilism an ethical policy, or did it encourage exploitation? Why?
What did Jean-Baptiste Colbert do to enrich France? In what ways were his actions guided by mercantilist theory?
How did mercantilism influence the relationship between European nations and their colonies?
What were some of the ways in which slavery benefited Europeans?
What were some ways enslaved persons maintained their dignity and humanity amid their hardship?
How is the legacy of the transatlantic slave trade still affecting Africa today?