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Review Questions

1 .
What was the goal of scientific management?
  1. to increase workers’ efficiency
  2. to raise workers’ pay
  3. to make factories safer
  4. to shorten the workday
2 .
How did assembly lines affect workers?
  1. They made workdays shorter.
  2. They provided greater protection from injury.
  3. They made jobs boring and repetitious.
  4. They lowered pay.
3 .
What was an important result of electrifying the workplace?
  1. It made jobs more dangerous by exposing workers to electrical currents.
  2. It enabled factories to stay open later and people to work at night.
  3. It provided better heating in the winter.
  4. It reduced the strength needed to perform certain tasks, creating more jobs for children.
4 .
How did married working-class women in western Europe commonly supplement the family’s income in the late nineteenth century?
  1. They did piecework at home.
  2. They worked in mines.
  3. They taught school.
  4. They gave music lessons.
5 .
To what nineteenth-century event does the term “demographic transition” refer?
  1. the disappearance of skilled crafts
  2. the decrease in the age of first marriage
  3. the decrease in family size
  4. the movement from rural areas to cities
6 .
What was an important medical innovation of the late nineteenth century?
  1. the smallpox vaccine
  2. x-rays
  3. CAT scans
  4. the stethoscope
7 .
Which artistic style features impersonal depictions of characters compelled to behave in ways over which they have no control?
  1. romanticism
  2. realism
  3. impressionism
  4. naturalism
8 .
What was the Great Stink?
  1. a stench coming from the polluted River Thames that nearly disrupted British government
  2. the name given to the poorest neighborhood in Chicago
  3. a nickname that city dwellers gave to peasants recently arrived from the countryside
  4. a nickname for the Paris sewer system
9 .
What common disease of the period was caused by contaminated water?
  1. tuberculosis
  2. asthma
  3. cholera
  4. syphilis
10 .
What innovation made nineteenth-century cities cleaner?
  1. streetlights
  2. electric streetcars
  3. outhouses
  4. public water fountains
11 .
What were Selfridge’s, Le Bon Marché, and Matsuzakaya?
  1. famous saloons
  2. urban department stores
  3. company towns built for miners
  4. newspapers
12 .
Which artistic and literary movement glorified nature, common people, exotic places, and the historical past?
  1. romanticism
  2. modernism
  3. naturalism
  4. classicism
13 .
What was a common way in which contract laborers could fall into debt bondage?
  1. renting a home in a nearby city
  2. buying goods at a store owned by the employer
  3. borrowing money from a friend
  4. running away
14 .
What was the katorga system?
  1. a form of penal servitude in which criminals were sent to labor camps in Siberia
  2. a form of debt bondage used in Brazil
  3. a British system of contracting for passage to another country in exchange for labor
  4. the practice in French brothels of charging prostitutes for food and clothing so they always remained in debt
15 .
What was the primary reason contract laborers were taken to Hawaii?
  1. build railroads
  2. grow sugarcane
  3. work in salt mines
  4. fish for abalone
16 .
Which country pressured others to end the slave trade?
  1. Canada
  2. the United States
  3. Britain
  4. Germany
17 .
Other than criminals, what kinds of people often ended up in the Russian katorga?
  1. debtors
  2. alcoholics
  3. political prisoners
  4. unfaithful partners
18 .
What was a negative result of the abolition of Russian serfdom?
  1. Domestic serfs received no land and no longer had a place to live.
  2. Serfs were required to leave the farms on which they had always lived.
  3. Serfs were no longer entitled to food and clothing from their employer.
  4. Serfs were no longer protected from arrest by their employers when they committed crimes.
19 .
Why did Brazil attempt to attract European immigrants in the second half of the nineteenth century?
  1. to make its population more White
  2. to employ them in factories
  3. to employ them in mines
  4. to have them establish schools and universities
20 .
Immigrant laborers from which country were completely excluded from the United States in 1882?
  1. Russia
  2. Germany
  3. China
  4. Japan
21 .
What event caused many Chinese people to flee their country in the middle of the nineteenth century?
  1. dust storms in Manchuria
  2. the fall of the Ming Dynasty
  3. a typhoon that struck Kowloon Island
  4. the Taiping Rebellion
22 .
What kinds of immigrants did Australia try to exclude in the early twentieth century?
  1. Jewish people
  2. non-Europeans
  3. Irish people
  4. unskilled laborers
23 .
Jewish people fled the Russian empire in the late nineteenth century to escape poverty and _____.
  1. epidemic disease
  2. anti-Semitic violence
  3. civil war
  4. famine
24 .
Which city was rebuilt by Baron Haussmann in the second half of the nineteenth century?
  1. Rome
  2. London
  3. Vienna
  4. Paris
25 .
Which social movement was more successful in Protestant societies than in others?
  1. housing reform
  2. anti-prostitution campaigns
  3. temperance and prohibition
  4. health insurance advocacy
26 .
What was Britain’s Alkali Act intended to do?
  1. protect drinking water from contamination
  2. ensure that processed foods were safe to eat
  3. prevent cholera
  4. alleviate air pollution
27 .
Which country was the first to provide health insurance for workers?
  1. the United States
  2. Germany
  3. France
  4. Russia
28 .
Which of the following was an important difference between socialist parties in Europe?
  1. Some parties accepted women and some did not.
  2. Some believed the bourgeoisie should be executed and others did not.
  3. Some advocated revolution and some a more gradual democratic approach.
  4. Some supported workers’ rights and some did not.
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