Check Your Understanding Questions
In what ways did nineteenth-century industrialization lead to lower death rates and longer life spans?
Why did child labor in factories become less common in western Europe and the United States by the end of the nineteenth century?
How did industrialization affect family size in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries?
What made nineteenth-century industrial cities so dirty?
What were the causes of disease in nineteenth-century industrial cities?
What were the advantages of city life?
By what means did White people in the southern United States legally force African American people to work for them after the abolition of slavery?
What steps led to the abolition of slavery in Brazil in 1888?
For what similar reasons did European and Asian emigrants move to other countries in the nineteenth century?
To what extent was race a factor in the treatment of immigrants by their host countries?
Why did the working class sometimes resent the attempts of the middle class to pass legislation intended to help them?
How did nineteenth-century governments and reformers try to prevent the spread of disease in the industrial city?
What were Samuel Smiles and Herbert Spencer’s ideas regarding the poor?