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a Roman Republican office with absolute authority over the state for a limited time during emergencies
a description of Greek history, language, and culture in the period 323–31 BCE
a historical geographical term referring to an area in the eastern Mediterranean consisting roughly of modern Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, and Syria
Linear A
a script developed by the Minoans but not yet deciphered by modern scholars
Linear B
a Mycenaean script developed from Linear A that was used to write an early form of the Greek language
mystery religions
religious cults that featured secret rituals (the so-called mysteries) and became popular in Hellenistic cities
politicians who supported the old order and the traditional leadership of elites
a city-state in Ancient Greece
politicians who sought the political support of discontented groups in Roman society
the political system established by Augustus Caesar after 27 BCE, which relied on Rome’s traditional institutions and practices to legitimize a military dictatorship
the landless working class
Struggle of the Orders
a political contest during the first centuries of the Republic in which Rome’s commoners sought equal rights with elites
Twelve Tables
the first set of written laws in Rome, from about 450 BCE
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