Check Your Understanding Questions
What were the three major Phoenician cities and where were they located?
What explains why iron replaced bronze as the metal of choice between 1200 and 900 BCE in the Near East and eastern Mediterranean?
What evidence suggests that Minoan civilization was conquered by the Mycenaeans?
What was the primary reason that Greeks established colonies overseas in the Archaic period?
What were Athens’s and Sparta’s expectations of their respective allies before and during the Peloponnesian War?
Under Athens’s democracy in the Classical period, how were Athenian citizens (free adult males) able to participate in the government?
In what ways did the efforts of Philip II ultimately lead to the success of Alexander the Great?
What were the boundaries of Alexander the Great’s empire by the time of his death in 323 BCE?
Why was there a period of wars following Alexander’s death in 323 BCE?
Who were the tribunes and what were their main powers as elected officials?
How did the plebeians win concessions from the ruling patricians during the Struggle of the Orders?
During the Punic Wars and the wars fought by Rome thereafter, why did Rome’s farmers come under stress?
What did Augustus actually accomplish with his efforts to “restore” the Republic?
Why did some Roman senators assassinate Julius Caesar?
During the wars between the members of the Second Triumvirate, what advantage did Octavian enjoy over his rivals?