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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. Early Human Societies
    1. 1 Understanding the Past
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Developing a Global Perspective
      3. 1.2 Primary Sources
      4. 1.3 Causation and Interpretation in History
      5. Key Terms
      6. Section Summary
      7. Assessments
        1. Review Questions
        2. Check Your Understanding Questions
        3. Application and Reflection Questions
    2. 2 Early Humans
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Early Human Evolution and Migration
      3. 2.2 People in the Paleolithic Age
      4. 2.3 The Neolithic Revolution
      5. Key Terms
      6. Section Summary
      7. Assessments
        1. Review Questions
        2. Check Your Understanding Questions
        3. Application and Reflection Questions
    3. 3 Early Civilizations and Urban Societies
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Early Civilizations
      3. 3.2 Ancient Mesopotamia
      4. 3.3 Ancient Egypt
      5. 3.4 The Indus Valley Civilization
      6. Key Terms
      7. Section Summary
      8. Assessments
        1. Review Questions
        2. Check Your Understanding Questions
        3. Application and Reflection Questions
    4. 4 The Near East
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 From Old Babylon to the Medes
      3. 4.2 Egypt’s New Kingdom
      4. 4.3 The Persian Empire
      5. 4.4 The Hebrews
      6. Key Terms
      7. Section Summary
      8. Assessments
        1. Review Questions
        2. Check Your Understanding Questions
        3. Application and Reflection Questions
    5. 5 Asia in Ancient Times
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Ancient China
      3. 5.2 The Steppes
      4. 5.3 Korea, Japan, and Southeast Asia
      5. 5.4 Vedic India to the Fall of the Maurya Empire
      6. Key Terms
      7. Section Summary
      8. Assessments
        1. Review Questions
        2. Check Your Understanding Questions
        3. Application and Reflection Questions
  3. States and Empires, 1000 BCE–500 CE
    1. 6 Mediterranean Peoples
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Early Mediterranean Peoples
      3. 6.2 Ancient Greece
      4. 6.3 The Hellenistic Era
      5. 6.4 The Roman Republic
      6. 6.5 The Age of Augustus
      7. Key Terms
      8. Section Summary
      9. Assessments
        1. Review Questions
        2. Check Your Understanding Questions
        3. Application and Reflection Questions
    2. 7 Experiencing the Roman Empire
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 The Daily Life of a Roman Family
      3. 7.2 Slavery in the Roman Empire
      4. 7.3 The Roman Economy: Trade, Taxes, and Conquest
      5. 7.4 Religion in the Roman Empire
      6. 7.5 The Regions of Rome
      7. Key Terms
      8. Section Summary
      9. Assessments
        1. Review Questions
        2. Check Your Understanding Questions
        3. Application and Reflection Questions
    3. 8 The Americas in Ancient Times
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Populating and Settling the Americas
      3. 8.2 Early Cultures and Civilizations in the Americas
      4. 8.3 The Age of Empires in the Americas
      5. Key Terms
      6. Section Summary
      7. Assessments
        1. Review Questions
        2. Check Your Understanding Questions
        3. Application and Reflection Questions
    4. 9 Africa in Ancient Times
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Africa’s Geography and Climate
      3. 9.2 The Emergence of Farming and the Bantu Migrations
      4. 9.3 The Kingdom of Kush
      5. 9.4 North Africa’s Mediterranean and Trans-Saharan Connections
      6. Key Terms
      7. Section Summary
      8. Assessments
        1. Review Questions
        2. Check Your Understanding Questions
        3. Application and Reflection Questions
  4. An Age of Religion, 500–1200 CE
    1. 10 Empires of Faith
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 The Eastward Shift
      3. 10.2 The Byzantine Empire and Persia
      4. 10.3 The Kingdoms of Aksum and Himyar
      5. 10.4 The Margins of Empire
      6. Key Terms
      7. Section Summary
      8. Assessments
        1. Review Questions
        2. Check Your Understanding Questions
        3. Application and Reflection Questions
    2. 11 The Rise of Islam and the Caliphates
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Rise and Message of Islam
      3. 11.2 The Arab-Islamic Conquests and the First Islamic States
      4. 11.3 Islamization and Religious Rule under Islam
      5. Key Terms
      6. Section Summary
      7. Assessments
        1. Review Questions
        2. Check Your Understanding Questions
        3. Application and Reflection Questions
    3. 12 India, the Indian Ocean Basin, and East Asia
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 The Indian Ocean World in the Early Middle Ages
      3. 12.2 East-West Interactions in the Early Middle Ages
      4. 12.3 Border States: Sogdiana, Korea, and Japan
      5. Key Terms
      6. Section Summary
      7. Assessments
        1. Review Questions
        2. Check Your Understanding Questions
        3. Application and Reflection Questions
    4. 13 The Post-Roman West and the Crusading Movement
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 The Post-Roman West in the Early Middle Ages
      3. 13.2 The Seljuk Migration and the Call from the East
      4. 13.3 Patriarch and Papacy: The Church and the Call to Crusade
      5. 13.4 The Crusading Movement
      6. Key Terms
      7. Section Summary
      8. Assessments
        1. Review Questions
        2. Check Your Understanding Questions
        3. Application and Reflection Questions
  5. A Global Middle Ages, 1200–1500 CE
    1. 14 Pax Mongolica: The Steppe Empire of the Mongols
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Song China and the Steppe Peoples
      3. 14.2 Chinggis Khan and the Early Mongol Empire
      4. 14.3 The Mongol Empire Fragments
      5. 14.4 Christianity and Islam outside Central Asia
      6. Key Terms
      7. Section Summary
      8. Assessments
        1. Review Questions
        2. Check Your Understanding Questions
        3. Application and Reflection Questions
    2. 15 States and Societies in Sub-Saharan Africa
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 Culture and Society in Medieval Africa
      3. 15.2 Medieval Sub-Saharan Africa
      4. 15.3 The People of the Sahel
      5. Key Terms
      6. Section Summary
      7. Assessments
        1. Review Questions
        2. Check Your Understanding Questions
        3. Application and Reflection Questions
    3. 16 Climate Change and Plague in the Fourteenth Century
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Asia, North Africa, and Europe in the Early Fourteenth Century
      3. 16.2 Famine, Climate Change, and Migration
      4. 16.3 The Black Death from East to West
      5. 16.4 The Long-Term Effects of Global Transformation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Section Summary
      8. Assessments
        1. Review Questions
        2. Check Your Understanding Questions
        3. Application and Reflection Questions
    4. 17 The Ottomans, the Mamluks, and the Ming
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 The Ottomans and the Mongols
      3. 17.2 From the Mamluks to Ming China
      4. 17.3 Gunpowder and Nomads in a Transitional Age
      5. Key Terms
      6. Section Summary
      7. Assessments
        1. Review Questions
        2. Check Your Understanding Questions
        3. Application and Reflection Questions
  6. A | Glossary
  7. B | World History, Volume 1, to 1500: Maps and Timelines
  8. C | World Maps
  9. D | Recommended Resources for the Study of World History
  10. Index

Review Questions

1 .
What allowed for the development of an Ottoman state independent of the Seljuk Turks’ Sultanate of Rum?
  1. the Mongol invasion of Anatolia
  2. the depopulation of Serbia by the bubonic plague
  3. the death of the Byzantine emperor Manuel II
  4. the Ottoman victory at the Battle of Kosovo
2 .
How did invasion by Timur influence the development of the Ottoman state?
  1. The death of all Bayezid I’s sons at the Battle of Ankara left the Ottoman state without a ruler.
  2. Timur’s invasion encouraged the Ottomans’ vassals to rally to their aid, strengthening the Ottoman state.
  3. Timur’s invasion and the defeat of Bayezid I encouraged Turkish vassals to break away from Ottoman rule.
  4. The need to rebuild the Ottoman military resulted in higher taxes for Ottoman subjects and subsequent revolts.
3 .
How did Europeans respond to the Ottomans’ taking control of trade in the eastern Mediterranean and along the Silk Roads?
  1. The nations of western Europe launched a Crusade to retake control of the trade routes from the Ottomans.
  2. Venetian and Genoese traders welcomed Ottoman control because the Ottoman army protected the trade routes and made them safer.
  3. Europeans began to seek an all-water, oceanic route to South and East Asia.
  4. European merchants objected to paying taxes to the Ottomans and created overland routes to India and East Asia that bypassed Ottoman-controlled lands.
4 .
What area did the Ottoman state not control after the collapse of the Byzantine Empire?
  1. most of southern Greece
  2. Genoese trading posts on the Black Sea
  3. Bosnia and Albania in the Balkans
  4. southern Italy
5 .
How did Masaccio transform European art during the Renaissance?
  1. He was the first artist to paint in oils.
  2. He was the first artist to depict nonreligious subjects.
  3. He was the first artist to incorporate linear perspective into painting.
  4. He was the first artist to paint landscapes.
6 .
What was not a potential occupation for a child taken in the devshirme?
  1. scribe
  2. soldier
  3. palace administrator
  4. priest
7 .
What effect did the Battle of Ankara have on the Janissary system?
  1. It revealed the potential disloyalty of Janissary forces, leading to the demise of the system.
  2. It led the sultans to turn to Egypt as a source of new Janissary recruits.
  3. It demonstrated the danger of relying on the Turkish nobility for defense, thus encouraging the development of the Janissary system.
  4. It forced the Ottomans to rebuild their Janissary corps because so many were killed.
8 .
Why was political succession in the Mamluk Sultanate always unstable?
  1. Succession did not typically descend from a sultan to his sons, and the army usually chose the new sultan.
  2. The Ottomans routinely interfered in the choice of the new sultan.
  3. Mamluk sultans had numerous children who fought among themselves for the throne.
  4. Mamluk sultans rarely had children, so distant relatives competed who had no clear claim to the throne.
9 .
Why did the Mamluk sultans usually treat rebellious Syrian Arabs more leniently than they did rebellious Arab Bedouins in Egypt?
  1. The Syrian Arabs were protected by the caliph.
  2. The Mamluks needed the assistance of Syrian Arabs in fighting the Ottomans and the Mongols.
  3. The Bedouins were a greater threat to the lives and property of Egyptians.
  4. The leaders of the Syrian Arabs had once been mamluks themselves.
10 .
What was the main reason for the voyages of Zheng He in the fifteenth century?
  1. to impress other states with the power of China
  2. to encourage trade between China and Europe
  3. to explore the lands of the Arabian Peninsula
  4. to discover a new trade route to India
11 .
Why did members of the Mamluk army oppose rule by non-mamluks?
  1. They believed that only their biological relatives were fit to rule.
  2. They did not believe that non-mamluks were pious enough.
  3. They believed only those who had experienced rigorous training and enslavement were worthy.
  4. They resented rule by foreigners.
12 .
Which was not an example of foreign contact that took place during the Ming dynasty?
  1. the voyages of Zheng He
  2. conflict with the Mongols
  3. the invasion of Vietnam
  4. the invasion of Japan
13 .
Zhu Yuanzhang, the first emperor of the Ming dynasty, had sympathy for the poor because in his early life he had been what?
  1. a poor peasant
  2. a nomadic warrior
  3. a Daoist monk
  4. an aristocratic scholar
14 .
How did firearms technology affect the social structure of western European societies?
  1. It made it easier for small, decentralized states to challenge larger centralized ones.
  2. It completely eliminated nomadic herding as a way of life in Europe.
  3. It eventually made aristocratic mounted warriors obsolete.
  4. It led to the development of an elite class of aristocratic infantry.
15 .
What has not been a contributing factor in the demise of nomadic societies?
  1. climate change
  2. industrialization
  3. the desire of modern nations to control borders
  4. epidemic disease
16 .
How did firearms technology affect nomadic groups?
  1. Firearms eventually made the forms of warfare favored by nomadic groups less effective.
  2. The adoption of firearms by nomadic groups threatened the existence of settled societies.
  3. The adoption of firearms technology eliminated nomadism as a way of life.
  4. The need to pay taxes to support the armed forces of centralized states caused nomads to settle as farmers.
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