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Review Questions

1 .
What allowed for the development of an Ottoman state independent of the Seljuk Turks’ Sultanate of Rum?
  1. the Mongol invasion of Anatolia
  2. the depopulation of Serbia by the bubonic plague
  3. the death of the Byzantine emperor Manuel II
  4. the Ottoman victory at the Battle of Kosovo
2 .
How did invasion by Timur influence the development of the Ottoman state?
  1. The death of all Bayezid I’s sons at the Battle of Ankara left the Ottoman state without a ruler.
  2. Timur’s invasion encouraged the Ottomans’ vassals to rally to their aid, strengthening the Ottoman state.
  3. Timur’s invasion and the defeat of Bayezid I encouraged Turkish vassals to break away from Ottoman rule.
  4. The need to rebuild the Ottoman military resulted in higher taxes for Ottoman subjects and subsequent revolts.
3 .
How did Europeans respond to the Ottomans’ taking control of trade in the eastern Mediterranean and along the Silk Roads?
  1. The nations of western Europe launched a Crusade to retake control of the trade routes from the Ottomans.
  2. Venetian and Genoese traders welcomed Ottoman control because the Ottoman army protected the trade routes and made them safer.
  3. Europeans began to seek an all-water, oceanic route to South and East Asia.
  4. European merchants objected to paying taxes to the Ottomans and created overland routes to India and East Asia that bypassed Ottoman-controlled lands.
4 .
What area did the Ottoman state not control after the collapse of the Byzantine Empire?
  1. most of southern Greece
  2. Genoese trading posts on the Black Sea
  3. Bosnia and Albania in the Balkans
  4. southern Italy
5 .
How did Masaccio transform European art during the Renaissance?
  1. He was the first artist to paint in oils.
  2. He was the first artist to depict nonreligious subjects.
  3. He was the first artist to incorporate linear perspective into painting.
  4. He was the first artist to paint landscapes.
6 .
What was not a potential occupation for a child taken in the devshirme?
  1. scribe
  2. soldier
  3. palace administrator
  4. priest
7 .
What effect did the Battle of Ankara have on the Janissary system?
  1. It revealed the potential disloyalty of Janissary forces, leading to the demise of the system.
  2. It led the sultans to turn to Egypt as a source of new Janissary recruits.
  3. It demonstrated the danger of relying on the Turkish nobility for defense, thus encouraging the development of the Janissary system.
  4. It forced the Ottomans to rebuild their Janissary corps because so many were killed.
8 .
Why was political succession in the Mamluk Sultanate always unstable?
  1. Succession did not typically descend from a sultan to his sons, and the army usually chose the new sultan.
  2. The Ottomans routinely interfered in the choice of the new sultan.
  3. Mamluk sultans had numerous children who fought among themselves for the throne.
  4. Mamluk sultans rarely had children, so distant relatives competed who had no clear claim to the throne.
9 .
Why did the Mamluk sultans usually treat rebellious Syrian Arabs more leniently than they did rebellious Arab Bedouins in Egypt?
  1. The Syrian Arabs were protected by the caliph.
  2. The Mamluks needed the assistance of Syrian Arabs in fighting the Ottomans and the Mongols.
  3. The Bedouins were a greater threat to the lives and property of Egyptians.
  4. The leaders of the Syrian Arabs had once been mamluks themselves.
10 .
What was the main reason for the voyages of Zheng He in the fifteenth century?
  1. to impress other states with the power of China
  2. to encourage trade between China and Europe
  3. to explore the lands of the Arabian Peninsula
  4. to discover a new trade route to India
11 .
Why did members of the Mamluk army oppose rule by non-mamluks?
  1. They believed that only their biological relatives were fit to rule.
  2. They did not believe that non-mamluks were pious enough.
  3. They believed only those who had experienced rigorous training and enslavement were worthy.
  4. They resented rule by foreigners.
12 .
Which was not an example of foreign contact that took place during the Ming dynasty?
  1. the voyages of Zheng He
  2. conflict with the Mongols
  3. the invasion of Vietnam
  4. the invasion of Japan
13 .
Zhu Yuanzhang, the first emperor of the Ming dynasty, had sympathy for the poor because in his early life he had been what?
  1. a poor peasant
  2. a nomadic warrior
  3. a Daoist monk
  4. an aristocratic scholar
14 .
How did firearms technology affect the social structure of western European societies?
  1. It made it easier for small, decentralized states to challenge larger centralized ones.
  2. It completely eliminated nomadic herding as a way of life in Europe.
  3. It eventually made aristocratic mounted warriors obsolete.
  4. It led to the development of an elite class of aristocratic infantry.
15 .
What has not been a contributing factor in the demise of nomadic societies?
  1. climate change
  2. industrialization
  3. the desire of modern nations to control borders
  4. epidemic disease
16 .
How did firearms technology affect nomadic groups?
  1. Firearms eventually made the forms of warfare favored by nomadic groups less effective.
  2. The adoption of firearms by nomadic groups threatened the existence of settled societies.
  3. The adoption of firearms technology eliminated nomadism as a way of life.
  4. The need to pay taxes to support the armed forces of centralized states caused nomads to settle as farmers.
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