Application and Reflection Questions
What role did religion play in the development of the Ottoman Empire?
In what ways were the actions of Timur and Mehmed II toward conquered cities similar? How were they different?
What were some of the long-term effects of the Ottoman conquest of the Byzantine Empire?
How did the rediscovery of the works of ancient Greece and Rome influence European philosophy, art, and scientific inquiry during the Renaissance?
What was life like for enslaved people under the Ottomans and Mamluks?
What benefits did the Mamluk Sultanate derive from making use of formerly enslaved men as soldiers and administrators? What were the drawbacks of this system?
With which foreign powers did the Ming dynasty maintain relationships? What were these relationships like?
Think about other major technological changes that have taken place in the past hundred fifty, fifty, and five years. Have any of them had effects on human society similar to that of gunpowder? If yes, describe those effects. If not, why not?
How has the adoption of firearms technology affected nomadic societies? To what extent did it lead to their decline? What other factors have led to the gradual disappearance or reduction in size of nomadic societies?