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Review Questions

1 .
What was unique about the Yuan dynasty in Chinese history?
  1. The entire Chinese state was ruled by someone not of Chinese ancestry.
  2. Confucianism was fully embraced throughout the Mongol Empire.
  3. There were no rebellions or revolts.
  4. China closed its borders to foreign trade for the next several hundred years.
2 .
Following the conversion of the Il-Khanate ruler Ghazan to Islam in 1295, what occurred in the Il-Khanate?
  1. Intermarriage between Muslims and non-Muslims became illegal.
  2. Muslim subjects were required to adopt the nomadic lifestyle of the Mongols.
  3. Il-Khanate rulers embraced Islamic culture and civilization.
  4. Buddhism became the most widely practiced and embraced religion in the Il-Khanate.
3 .
How did Mongol leaders of the Il-Khanate become less distinct from their Muslim subjects in the fourteenth century?
  1. They intermarried with their subjects.
  2. They required their subjects to adopt traditional Mongol shamanistic beliefs.
  3. They chose to live in the same neighborhoods as the peasants.
  4. They replaced all languages and traditions in their realm with newly developed ones.
4 .
How did the Golden Bull clarify the process of selecting a new Holy Roman emperor?
  1. It declared that Holy Roman emperors would be selected by hereditary succession.
  2. It declared that only popes would be eligible to serve as Holy Roman emperors.
  3. It declared that the Holy Roman emperors would be required to reside in Rome.
  4. It declared that seven princes known as electors would select the Holy Roman emperor.
5 .
How did the period of the Avignon papacy affect the church in western Europe?
  1. It represented the growing power of secular monarchs and a weakening of papal authority.
  2. It enabled the pope to become the king of France.
  3. It marked a period during which the pope refused to travel to the city of Avignon.
  4. It encouraged many Europeans to abandon Christianity.
6 .
What did the Golden Bull attempt to clarify?
  1. The order of hereditary succession to the position of Holy Roman emperor.
  2. The nature of the Holy Roman emperor’s duty to the pope.
  3. The method of electing the Holy Roman emperor.
  4. The assessment of taxes in the Holy Roman Empire.
7 .
The simultaneous appointment of three popes in 1378 began the period in the history of the Catholic Church known as what?
  1. the Conciliar Period
  2. the Avignon papacy
  3. the East–West Division
  4. the Great Western Schism
8 .
What may have caused the Little Ice Age, a period of global cooling during the fourteenth century?
  1. overpopulation and the growth of cities
  2. a lack of adequate livestock on farmlands
  3. volcanic eruptions and changes in the earth’s orbit
  4. the encroachment of humans on land in the Arctic
9 .
What subject for analysis has the field of historical climatology incorporated into the investigation of historical climate change?
  1. fossilized firewood
  2. tree ring data
  3. weapons used by premodern armies
  4. remnants of medieval clothing
10 .
The Great Famine of 1315–1317 primarily affected what regions?
  1. northern Europe
  2. Central Africa
  3. Southeast Asia
  4. the Mediterranean
11 .
What caused many fourteenth-century people to migrate from their homes in search of more hospitable conditions?
  1. the low cost of travel in the medieval period
  2. the widespread availability of horses and carts
  3. an enormous growth in available wealth across the social hierarchy
  4. worsening environmental conditions
12 .
What was the primary factor that made travel in the fourteenth century far more difficult than today?
  1. a lack of interest in leaving the homeland
  2. the high cost and limited modes of transportation
  3. the difficulty of traveling with children
  4. the need to first obtain permission from the king or emperor
13 .
What did most medieval people believe was the cause of the Black Death?
  1. insect vectors
  2. religious, astrological, and supernatural factors
  3. lack of cleanliness
  4. a comprehensive germ theory
14 .
What was true of the plague’s impact on the world of the fourteenth century?
  1. It began to have a significant impact only when it reached Europe.
  2. China was the only region in the world the plague did not reach.
  3. The plague had a devastating impact on Europe, Asia, the Middle East, and North Africa.
  4. The disease originated in Australia, where it decimated the population before reaching China.
15 .
What was the principal means of the plague’s spread?
  1. the use of shared medicine
  2. contaminated water supplies
  3. small rodents traveling with foodstuffs and other transported goods
  4. rabid dog bites
16 .
What trade route played a pivotal role in enabling the plague to spread from central Asia to western Europe and North Africa?
  1. the Silk Roads
  2. the trade caravans of Sub-Saharan Africa
  3. commercial networks of the Rhine River
  4. merchant ships of the North Sea
17 .
The 1330s marked the beginning of the plague’s appearance in which regions?
  1. the Mongol Empire and China
  2. Egypt and Libya
  3. Italy and France
  4. Ethiopia and Tanzania
18 .
Following the Black Death, the decline of feudalism in western Europe was hastened by what factor?
  1. Nobles became so wealthy that they no longer relied on peasant labor.
  2. The Christian Church abolished the practice of servitude.
  3. Monarchs began to appropriate feudal lands for the construction of plague hospitals.
  4. Many peasants left rural areas in search of employment in towns and cities.
19 .
How did Ming emperors such as Zhu Di seek to restore Chinese cultural traditions after the overthrow of the Mongol Yuan dynasty?
  1. by reinforcing the role of Confucianism
  2. by requiring their subjects to practice Daoism exclusively
  3. by creating a new religion known as Mingism
  4. by levying steep fines on all non-Chinese residents
20 .
What mystical Islamic tradition emphasized inner personal contemplation?
  1. Shamanism
  2. Buddhism
  3. Sufism
  4. Shi‛ism
21 .
To address labor shortages caused by the Black Death, countries like England passed laws regulating workers’______.
  1. hours
  2. wages
  3. working conditions
  4. religious preferences
22 .
How did the lack of laborers in towns and cities affect the European social structure?
  1. It made it easier for people to set up craft shops, undermining the guild system.
  2. It led to an increase in female artisans and business owners.
  3. It reduced the size of the merchant class.
  4. It led towns to pass laws forbidding apprentices to move elsewhere.
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