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Black Death
a pandemic of the plague caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis with far-reaching economic, political, social, and cultural effects that transformed Asia, Europe, and North Africa in the fourteenth century
penitents who ritually flogged themselves in response to the Black Death as a means of appeasing God and mitigating the spread of the disease
the interconnectedness of societies and economies throughout the world as a result of trade, technology, and the adoption and sharing of various aspects of culture
Golden Bull
a document issued by the Holy Roman emperor Charles IV in 1356 that recognized the role of seven princes in electing Holy Roman emperors
Great Western Schism
the period from 1378 to 1417 during which three men simultaneously served as pope of the Roman Catholic Church in western Europe
historical climatology
the study of historical temperature and climate changes and their effects on human society
Little Ice Age
a period in the early fourteenth century during which global mean temperatures dropped an average of 0.6°C, resulting in droughts and decreased agricultural productivity
Medieval Warm Period
a time of more temperate climate across the globe from the tenth through the thirteenth century
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