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Review Questions

1 .
What was the relationship between the Germanic kings and the non-German aristocracy they ruled?
  1. They could not find common ground and were often at war.
  2. They could work together when religious differences were not a point of contention.
  3. They viewed each other as so similar that there were no differences between them.
  4. They were able to preserve the Roman Empire until the end of the Middle Ages.
2 .
How did the Visigoths’ conversion to Christianity change their relationship with the Jewish people?
  1. The Visigoths became more tolerant of Jewish people.
  2. The Visigoths did not change their policies toward Jewish people.
  3. Jewish people joined the Visigoths in converting to Christianity.
  4. The Visigoths began to insist that Jewish people convert or suffer consequences.
3 .
Which is not a key feature of feudalism?
  1. the wergild
  2. serfs
  3. fiefs
  4. manorialism
4 .
Feudalism developed after the collapse of what empire?
  1. the Byzantine Empire
  2. the Roman Empire
  3. the Carolingian Empire
  4. the Caliphate of Cordoba
5 .
What state was founded in North Africa and was eventually centered in Egypt?
  1. the Abbasid Caliphate
  2. the Byzantine Empire
  3. the Caliphate of Cordoba
  4. the Fatimid Caliphate
6 .
What religious movement rejected the worldliness of the Abbasid Caliphate and instead pursued spiritual union with God?
  1. Sufism
  2. Shi‘ite Islam
  3. Mamluk
  4. Shaman
7 .
Legitimate caliphs in Shia Islam had to be descended from what early figure in Islamic history?
  1. Abu Bakr
  2. Ali
  3. Moses
  4. Constantine
8 .
What dynasty established the only Shia caliphate?
  1. Fatimids
  2. Buyids
  3. Seljuks
  4. Macedonians
9 .
What challenge did both the Abbasid Caliphate and the Byzantine Empire face?
  1. They both had to find military alternatives to their own elite.
  2. They both had to prove they were descended from a religious authority.
  3. They both had to take control of Italy to ensure their wealth.
  4. They both had to develop systems of writing to record their scriptures.
10 .
What event marked the separation of the eastern and western churches?
  1. the First Crusade
  2. the Great Schism
  3. the fall of Rome
  4. the Islamic conquest of Spain
11 .
Why did Pope Urban call for the First Crusade while in France and not in Rome?
  1. France had more Christians than Italy.
  2. Rome was occupied by a rival pope supported by the German emperor.
  3. France had better systems of communication than Rome.
  4. Rome had a significant Muslim population, and the pope did not want them harmed.
12 .
What does the term jihad mean?
  1. just war
  2. conversion
  3. struggle
  4. pilgrimage
13 .
What religious communities did the crusaders attack before they had even left Europe?
  1. Christian communities
  2. Monasteries
  3. Islamic communities
  4. Jewish communities
14 .
What site in Jerusalem is considered of particular importance to Christians?
  1. the Holy Sepulchre
  2. the Al-Aqsa Mosque
  3. the Temple Mount
  4. the Pope’s Palace
15 .
Why was the Byzantine emperor unhappy with the development of Outremer?
  1. The emperor had controlled Jerusalem, and the crusaders took it from him.
  2. The emperor was Muslim and believed Jerusalem should stay under Muslim control.
  3. The emperor expected the crusaders to return to him the territory they conquered.
  4. The emperor did not approve of mixing religion and warfare.
16 .
What two groups were targets of massacres and expulsions after the establishment of Outremer?
  1. Jewish people and Christians who were not Catholic
  2. Jewish people and Muslims
  3. Muslims and the Greek Orthodox
  4. Catholics and Muslims
17 .
What was a reason for the decline in crusading in the later Middle Ages?
  1. the decline of the power and influence of the popes
  2. the control of Jerusalem by a Christian state
  3. the disinterest in religion felt by many Europeans
  4. the good relationship between Muslims and Christians
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