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University Physics Volume 3

9.2 Molecular Spectra

University Physics Volume 39.2 Molecular Spectra
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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. Optics
    1. 1 The Nature of Light
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Propagation of Light
      3. 1.2 The Law of Reflection
      4. 1.3 Refraction
      5. 1.4 Total Internal Reflection
      6. 1.5 Dispersion
      7. 1.6 Huygens’s Principle
      8. 1.7 Polarization
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 2 Geometric Optics and Image Formation
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Images Formed by Plane Mirrors
      3. 2.2 Spherical Mirrors
      4. 2.3 Images Formed by Refraction
      5. 2.4 Thin Lenses
      6. 2.5 The Eye
      7. 2.6 The Camera
      8. 2.7 The Simple Magnifier
      9. 2.8 Microscopes and Telescopes
      10. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    3. 3 Interference
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Young's Double-Slit Interference
      3. 3.2 Mathematics of Interference
      4. 3.3 Multiple-Slit Interference
      5. 3.4 Interference in Thin Films
      6. 3.5 The Michelson Interferometer
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 4 Diffraction
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Single-Slit Diffraction
      3. 4.2 Intensity in Single-Slit Diffraction
      4. 4.3 Double-Slit Diffraction
      5. 4.4 Diffraction Gratings
      6. 4.5 Circular Apertures and Resolution
      7. 4.6 X-Ray Diffraction
      8. 4.7 Holography
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  3. Unit 2. Modern Physics
    1. 5 Relativity
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Invariance of Physical Laws
      3. 5.2 Relativity of Simultaneity
      4. 5.3 Time Dilation
      5. 5.4 Length Contraction
      6. 5.5 The Lorentz Transformation
      7. 5.6 Relativistic Velocity Transformation
      8. 5.7 Doppler Effect for Light
      9. 5.8 Relativistic Momentum
      10. 5.9 Relativistic Energy
      11. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    2. 6 Photons and Matter Waves
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Blackbody Radiation
      3. 6.2 Photoelectric Effect
      4. 6.3 The Compton Effect
      5. 6.4 Bohr’s Model of the Hydrogen Atom
      6. 6.5 De Broglie’s Matter Waves
      7. 6.6 Wave-Particle Duality
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    3. 7 Quantum Mechanics
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Wave Functions
      3. 7.2 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
      4. 7.3 The Schrӧdinger Equation
      5. 7.4 The Quantum Particle in a Box
      6. 7.5 The Quantum Harmonic Oscillator
      7. 7.6 The Quantum Tunneling of Particles through Potential Barriers
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 8 Atomic Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 The Hydrogen Atom
      3. 8.2 Orbital Magnetic Dipole Moment of the Electron
      4. 8.3 Electron Spin
      5. 8.4 The Exclusion Principle and the Periodic Table
      6. 8.5 Atomic Spectra and X-rays
      7. 8.6 Lasers
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    5. 9 Condensed Matter Physics
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Types of Molecular Bonds
      3. 9.2 Molecular Spectra
      4. 9.3 Bonding in Crystalline Solids
      5. 9.4 Free Electron Model of Metals
      6. 9.5 Band Theory of Solids
      7. 9.6 Semiconductors and Doping
      8. 9.7 Semiconductor Devices
      9. 9.8 Superconductivity
      10. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    6. 10 Nuclear Physics
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Properties of Nuclei
      3. 10.2 Nuclear Binding Energy
      4. 10.3 Radioactive Decay
      5. 10.4 Nuclear Reactions
      6. 10.5 Fission
      7. 10.6 Nuclear Fusion
      8. 10.7 Medical Applications and Biological Effects of Nuclear Radiation
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    7. 11 Particle Physics and Cosmology
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Introduction to Particle Physics
      3. 11.2 Particle Conservation Laws
      4. 11.3 Quarks
      5. 11.4 Particle Accelerators and Detectors
      6. 11.5 The Standard Model
      7. 11.6 The Big Bang
      8. 11.7 Evolution of the Early Universe
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  4. A | Units
  5. B | Conversion Factors
  6. C | Fundamental Constants
  7. D | Astronomical Data
  8. E | Mathematical Formulas
  9. F | Chemistry
  10. G | The Greek Alphabet
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
  12. Index

Learning Objectives

By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Use the concepts of vibrational and rotational energy to describe energy transitions in a diatomic molecule
  • Explain key features of a vibrational-rotational energy spectrum of a diatomic molecule
  • Estimate allowed energies of a rotating molecule
  • Determine the equilibrium separation distance between atoms in a diatomic molecule from the vibrational-rotational absorption spectrum

Molecular energy levels are more complicated than atomic energy levels because molecules can also vibrate and rotate. The energies associated with such motions lie in different ranges and can therefore be studied separately. Electronic transitions are of order 1 eV, vibrational transitions are of order 10−2eV,10−2eV, and rotational transitions are of order 10−3eV.10−3eV. For complex molecules, these energy changes are difficult to characterize, so we begin with the simple case of a diatomic molecule.

According to classical mechanics, the energy of rotation of a diatomic molecule is given by

Er=L22I,Er=L22I,
(9.4)

where I is the moment of inertia and L is the angular momentum. According to quantum mechanics, the rotational angular momentum is quantized:

L=l(l+1)(l=0,1,2,3,...),L=l(l+1)(l=0,1,2,3,...),
(9.5)

where l is the orbital angular quantum number. The allowed rotational energy level of a diatomic molecule is therefore

Er=l(l+1)22I=l(l+1)E0r(l=0,1,2,3,...),Er=l(l+1)22I=l(l+1)E0r(l=0,1,2,3,...),
(9.6)

where the characteristic rotational energy of a molecule is defined as

E0r=22I.E0r=22I.
(9.7)

For a diatomic molecule, the moment of inertia with reduced mass μμ is

I=μr02,I=μr02,
(9.8)

where r0r0 is the total distance between the atoms. The energy difference between rotational levels is therefore

ΔEr=El+1El=2(l+1)E0r.ΔEr=El+1El=2(l+1)E0r.
(9.9)

A detailed study of transitions between rotational energy levels brought about by the absorption or emission of radiation (a so-called electric dipole transition) requires that

Δl=±1.Δl=±1.
(9.10)

This rule, known as a selection rule, limits the possible transitions from one quantum state to another. Equation 9.10 is the selection rule for rotational energy transitions. It applies only to diatomic molecules that have an electric dipole moment. For this reason, symmetric molecules such as H2H2 and N2N2 do not experience rotational energy transitions due to the absorption or emission of electromagnetic radiation.

Example 9.2

The Rotational Energy of HCl Determine the lowest three rotational energy levels of a hydrogen chloride (HCl) molecule.

Strategy Hydrogen chloride (HCl) is a diatomic molecule with an equilibrium separation distance of 0.127 nm. Rotational energy levels depend only on the momentum of inertia I and the orbital angular momentum quantum number l (in this case, l=0l=0, 1, and 2). The momentum of inertia depends, in turn, on the equilibrium separation distance (which is given) and the reduced mass, which depends on the masses of the H and Cl atoms.

Solution First, we compute the reduced mass. If Particle 1 is hydrogen and Particle 2 is chloride, we have

μ=m1m2m1+m2=(1.0u)(35.4u)1.0u+35.4u=0.97u=0.97u(931.5MeVc21u)=906MeVc2.μ=m1m2m1+m2=(1.0u)(35.4u)1.0u+35.4u=0.97u=0.97u(931.5MeVc21u)=906MeVc2.

The corresponding rest mass energy is therefore

μc2=9.06×108eV.μc2=9.06×108eV.

This allows us to calculate the characteristic energy:

E0r=22I=22(μr02)=(c)22(μc2)r02=(197.3eV·nm)22(9.06×108eV)(0.127nm)2=1.33×10−3eV.E0r=22I=22(μr02)=(c)22(μc2)r02=(197.3eV·nm)22(9.06×108eV)(0.127nm)2=1.33×10−3eV.

(Notice how this expression is written in terms of the rest mass energy. This technique is common in modern physics calculations.) The rotational energy levels are given by

Er=l(l+1)22I=l(l+1)E0r,Er=l(l+1)22I=l(l+1)E0r,

where l is the orbital quantum number. The three lowest rotational energy levels of an HCl molecule are therefore

l=0;Er=0eV(no rotation),l=0;Er=0eV(no rotation),
l=1;Er=2E0r=2.66×10−3eV,l=1;Er=2E0r=2.66×10−3eV,
l=2;Er=6E0r=7.99×10−3eV.l=2;Er=6E0r=7.99×10−3eV.

Significance The rotational spectrum is associated with weak transitions (1/1000 to 1/100 of an eV). By comparison, the energy of an electron in the ground state of hydrogen is −13.6eV−13.6eV.

Check Your Understanding 9.2

What does the energy separation between absorption lines in a rotational spectrum of a diatomic molecule tell you?

The vibrational energy level, which is the energy level associated with the vibrational energy of a molecule, is more difficult to estimate than the rotational energy level. However, we can estimate these levels by assuming that the two atoms in the diatomic molecule are connected by an ideal spring of spring constant k. The potential energy of this spring system is

Uosc=12kΔr2,Uosc=12kΔr2,
(9.11)

Where ΔrΔr is a change in the “natural length” of the molecule along a line that connects the atoms. Solving Schrödinger’s equation for this potential gives

En=(n+12)ω(n=0,1,2,),En=(n+12)ω(n=0,1,2,),
(9.12)

Where ωω is the natural angular frequency of vibration and n is the vibrational quantum number. The prediction that vibrational energy levels are evenly spaced (ΔE=ω)(ΔE=ω) turns out to be good at lower energies.

A detailed study of transitions between vibrational energy levels induced by the absorption or emission of radiation (and the specifically so-called electric dipole transition) requires that

Δn=±1.Δn=±1.
(9.13)

Equation 9.13 represents the selection rule for vibrational energy transitions. As mentioned before, this rule applies only to diatomic molecules that have an electric dipole moment. Symmetric molecules do not experience such transitions.

Due to the selection rules, the absorption or emission of radiation by a diatomic molecule involves a transition in vibrational and rotational states. Specifically, if the vibrational quantum number (n) changes by one unit, then the rotational quantum number (l) changes by one unit. An energy-level diagram of a possible transition is given in Figure 9.5. The absorption spectrum for such transitions in hydrogen chloride (HCl) is shown in Figure 9.6. The absorption peaks are due to transitions from the n=0n=0 to n=1n=1 vibrational states. Energy differences for the band of peaks at the left and right are, respectively, ΔEll+1=ω+2(l+1)E0r=ω+2E0r,ω+4E0r,ω+6E0r,(right band)ΔEll+1=ω+2(l+1)E0r=ω+2E0r,ω+4E0r,ω+6E0r,(right band) and ΔEll−1=ω2lE0r=ω2E0r,ω4E0r,ω6E0r,(left band).ΔEll−1=ω2lE0r=ω2E0r,ω4E0r,ω6E0r,(left band).

The moment of inertia can then be determined from the energy spacing between individual peaks (2E0r)(2E0r) or from the gap between the left and right bands (4E0r)(4E0r). The frequency at the center of this gap is the frequency of vibration.

Figure shows a graph of energy versus internuclear separation. There are two curves on the graph. The curve at the bottom is labeled ground state and the one at the top is labeled excited electronic state. Both are similar in shape, with a sharp dip to a trough, followed by a slow rise till the curve evens out. The ground state curve has five horizontal blue lines bounded by the curve, which look like rungs of a ladder. These are labeled vibrational energy level. Between two blue rungs are smaller purple rungs labeled rotational level. There are four such purple rungs each, between the first and second blue rungs, the second and third blue rungs and the third and fourth blue rungs. There is an arrow pointing up from the center of the trough. To the left of this arrow is a smaller arrow pointing up. This extends from the first purple rung of the first blue rung to the second purple rung of the second blue rung. The excited state curve has four blue rungs.
Figure 9.5 Three types of energy levels in a diatomic molecule: electronic, vibrational, and rotational. If the vibrational quantum number (n) changes by one unit, then the rotational quantum number (l) changes by one unit.
Graph of intensity versus frequency in Hertz. The curve consists of several pairs of spikes. The spikes have low intensity at the beginning of the curve and also at the end of the curve at 9.2 into 10 to the power 13 hertz. The spikes are longer near the middle but dip at the center. The center frequency for n equal to 0 to n equal to 1 is approximately 8.65 into 10 to the power 13 Hertz. The left side of the graph is labeled transitions where the vibrational energy increases, n=0 to 1 and the rotational angular momentum decreases, j to j minus 1. The right side of the graph is labeled transitions where the vibrational energy increases, n=0 to 1 and the rotational angular momentum increases, j to j plus 1.
Figure 9.6 Absorption spectrum of hydrogen chloride (HCl) from the n=0ton=1n=0ton=1 vibrational levels. The discrete peaks indicate a quantization of the angular momentum of the molecule. The bands to the left indicate a decrease in angular momentum, whereas those to the right indicate an increase in angular momentum.
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