University Physics Volume 3

# Conceptual Questions

University Physics Volume 3Conceptual Questions

## 4.1Single-Slit Diffraction

1.

As the width of the slit producing a single-slit diffraction pattern is reduced, how will the diffraction pattern produced change?

2.

Compare interference and diffraction.

3.

If you and a friend are on opposite sides of a hill, you can communicate with walkie-talkies but not with flashlights. Explain.

4.

What happens to the diffraction pattern of a single slit when the entire optical apparatus is immersed in water?

5.

In our study of diffraction by a single slit, we assume that the length of the slit is much larger than the width. What happens to the diffraction pattern if these two dimensions were comparable?

6.

A rectangular slit is twice as wide as it is high. Is the central diffraction peak wider in the vertical direction or in the horizontal direction?

## 4.2Intensity in Single-Slit Diffraction

7.

In Equation 4.4, the parameter $ββ$ looks like an angle but is not an angle that you can measure with a protractor in the physical world. Explain what $ββ$ represents.

## 4.3Double-Slit Diffraction

8.

Shown below is the central part of the interference pattern for a pure wavelength of red light projected onto a double slit. The pattern is actually a combination of single- and double-slit interference. Note that the bright spots are evenly spaced. Is this a double- or single-slit characteristic? Note that some of the bright spots are dim on either side of the center. Is this a single- or double-slit characteristic? Which is smaller, the slit width or the separation between slits? Explain your responses.

(credit: PASCO)

## 4.5Circular Apertures and Resolution

9.

Is higher resolution obtained in a microscope with red or blue light? Explain your answer.

10.

The resolving power of refracting telescope increases with the size of its objective lens. What other advantage is gained with a larger lens?

11.

The distance between atoms in a molecule is about $10−8cm10−8cm$. Can visible light be used to “see” molecules?

12.

A beam of light always spreads out. Why can a beam not be created with parallel rays to prevent spreading? Why can lenses, mirrors, or apertures not be used to correct the spreading?

## 4.6X-Ray Diffraction

13.

Crystal lattices can be examined with X-rays but not UV. Why?

## 4.7Holography

14.

How can you tell that a hologram is a true three-dimensional image and that those in three-dimensional movies are not?

15.

If a hologram is recorded using monochromatic light at one wavelength but its image is viewed at another wavelength, say $10%10%$ shorter, what will you see? What if it is viewed using light of exactly half the original wavelength?

16.

What image will one see if a hologram is recorded using monochromatic light but its image is viewed in white light? Explain.