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University Physics Volume 3

4.1 Single-Slit Diffraction

University Physics Volume 34.1 Single-Slit Diffraction
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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. Optics
    1. 1 The Nature of Light
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Propagation of Light
      3. 1.2 The Law of Reflection
      4. 1.3 Refraction
      5. 1.4 Total Internal Reflection
      6. 1.5 Dispersion
      7. 1.6 Huygens’s Principle
      8. 1.7 Polarization
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 2 Geometric Optics and Image Formation
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Images Formed by Plane Mirrors
      3. 2.2 Spherical Mirrors
      4. 2.3 Images Formed by Refraction
      5. 2.4 Thin Lenses
      6. 2.5 The Eye
      7. 2.6 The Camera
      8. 2.7 The Simple Magnifier
      9. 2.8 Microscopes and Telescopes
      10. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    3. 3 Interference
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Young's Double-Slit Interference
      3. 3.2 Mathematics of Interference
      4. 3.3 Multiple-Slit Interference
      5. 3.4 Interference in Thin Films
      6. 3.5 The Michelson Interferometer
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 4 Diffraction
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Single-Slit Diffraction
      3. 4.2 Intensity in Single-Slit Diffraction
      4. 4.3 Double-Slit Diffraction
      5. 4.4 Diffraction Gratings
      6. 4.5 Circular Apertures and Resolution
      7. 4.6 X-Ray Diffraction
      8. 4.7 Holography
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  3. Unit 2. Modern Physics
    1. 5 Relativity
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Invariance of Physical Laws
      3. 5.2 Relativity of Simultaneity
      4. 5.3 Time Dilation
      5. 5.4 Length Contraction
      6. 5.5 The Lorentz Transformation
      7. 5.6 Relativistic Velocity Transformation
      8. 5.7 Doppler Effect for Light
      9. 5.8 Relativistic Momentum
      10. 5.9 Relativistic Energy
      11. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    2. 6 Photons and Matter Waves
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Blackbody Radiation
      3. 6.2 Photoelectric Effect
      4. 6.3 The Compton Effect
      5. 6.4 Bohr’s Model of the Hydrogen Atom
      6. 6.5 De Broglie’s Matter Waves
      7. 6.6 Wave-Particle Duality
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    3. 7 Quantum Mechanics
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Wave Functions
      3. 7.2 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
      4. 7.3 The Schrӧdinger Equation
      5. 7.4 The Quantum Particle in a Box
      6. 7.5 The Quantum Harmonic Oscillator
      7. 7.6 The Quantum Tunneling of Particles through Potential Barriers
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 8 Atomic Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 The Hydrogen Atom
      3. 8.2 Orbital Magnetic Dipole Moment of the Electron
      4. 8.3 Electron Spin
      5. 8.4 The Exclusion Principle and the Periodic Table
      6. 8.5 Atomic Spectra and X-rays
      7. 8.6 Lasers
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    5. 9 Condensed Matter Physics
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Types of Molecular Bonds
      3. 9.2 Molecular Spectra
      4. 9.3 Bonding in Crystalline Solids
      5. 9.4 Free Electron Model of Metals
      6. 9.5 Band Theory of Solids
      7. 9.6 Semiconductors and Doping
      8. 9.7 Semiconductor Devices
      9. 9.8 Superconductivity
      10. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    6. 10 Nuclear Physics
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Properties of Nuclei
      3. 10.2 Nuclear Binding Energy
      4. 10.3 Radioactive Decay
      5. 10.4 Nuclear Reactions
      6. 10.5 Fission
      7. 10.6 Nuclear Fusion
      8. 10.7 Medical Applications and Biological Effects of Nuclear Radiation
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    7. 11 Particle Physics and Cosmology
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Introduction to Particle Physics
      3. 11.2 Particle Conservation Laws
      4. 11.3 Quarks
      5. 11.4 Particle Accelerators and Detectors
      6. 11.5 The Standard Model
      7. 11.6 The Big Bang
      8. 11.7 Evolution of the Early Universe
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  4. A | Units
  5. B | Conversion Factors
  6. C | Fundamental Constants
  7. D | Astronomical Data
  8. E | Mathematical Formulas
  9. F | Chemistry
  10. G | The Greek Alphabet
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
  12. Index

Learning Objectives

By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Explain the phenomenon of diffraction and the conditions under which it is observed
  • Describe diffraction through a single slit

After passing through a narrow aperture (opening), a wave propagating in a specific direction tends to spread out. For example, sound waves that enter a room through an open door can be heard even if the listener is in a part of the room where the geometry of ray propagation dictates that there should only be silence. Similarly, ocean waves passing through an opening in a breakwater can spread throughout the bay inside. (Figure 4.2). The spreading and bending of sound and ocean waves are two examples of diffraction, which is the bending of a wave around the edges of an opening or an obstacle—a phenomenon exhibited by all types of waves.

Photograph showing the top view of a breakwater near a beach. There is an opening in the breakwater allowing waves to enter.
Figure 4.2 Because of the diffraction of waves, ocean waves entering through an opening in a breakwater can spread throughout the bay. (credit: modification of map data from Google Earth)

The diffraction of sound waves is apparent to us because wavelengths in the audible region are approximately the same size as the objects they encounter, a condition that must be satisfied if diffraction effects are to be observed easily. Since the wavelengths of visible light range from approximately 390 to 770 nm, most objects do not diffract light significantly. However, situations do occur in which apertures are small enough that the diffraction of light is observable. For example, if you place your middle and index fingers close together and look through the opening at a light bulb, you can see a rather clear diffraction pattern, consisting of light and dark lines running parallel to your fingers.

Diffraction through a Single Slit

Light passing through a single slit forms a diffraction pattern somewhat different from those formed by double slits or diffraction gratings, which we discussed in the chapter on interference. Figure 4.3 shows a single-slit diffraction pattern. Note that the central maximum is larger than maxima on either side and that the intensity decreases rapidly on either side. In contrast, a diffraction grating (Diffraction Gratings) produces evenly spaced lines that dim slowly on either side of the center.

Figure a shows a vertical line on the left side. This has a gap of length D. A vertical wave is shown on the right. The wave has a high crest in the center, corresponding to the slit. The wave attenuates on both top and bottom. An arrow along the central crest of the wave, pointing towards the slit is labeled intensity. Figure b shows a strip with horizontally marked light and dark lines. The central line, corresponding to the slit is the brightest.
Figure 4.3 Single-slit diffraction pattern. (a) Monochromatic light passing through a single slit has a central maximum and many smaller and dimmer maxima on either side. The central maximum is six times higher than shown. (b) The diagram shows the bright central maximum, and the dimmer and thinner maxima on either side.

The analysis of single-slit diffraction is illustrated in Figure 4.4. Here, the light arrives at the slit, illuminating it uniformly and is in phase across its width. We then consider light propagating onwards from different parts of the same slit. According to Huygens’s principle, every part of the wave front in the slit emits wavelets, as we discussed in The Nature of Light. These are like rays that start out in phase and head in all directions. (Each ray is perpendicular to the wave front of a wavelet.) Assuming the screen is very far away compared with the size of the slit, rays heading toward a common destination are nearly parallel. When they travel straight ahead, as in part (a) of the figure, they remain in phase, and we observe a central maximum. However, when rays travel at an angle θθ relative to the original direction of the beam, each ray travels a different distance to a common location, and they can arrive in or out of phase. In part (b), the ray from the bottom travels a distance of one wavelength λλ farther than the ray from the top. Thus, a ray from the center travels a distance λ/2λ/2 less than the one at the bottom edge of the slit, arrives out of phase, and interferes destructively. A ray from slightly above the center and one from slightly above the bottom also cancel one another. In fact, each ray from the slit interferes destructively with another ray. In other words, a pair-wise cancellation of all rays results in a dark minimum in intensity at this angle. By symmetry, another minimum occurs at the same angle to the right of the incident direction (toward the bottom of the figure) of the light.

Figure a shows horizontal rays passing from left to right through a vertical slit of length D. This is labeled theta equal to zero, bright. Figure b shows rays passing through the slit at an angle theta to the horizontal. This is labeled sine theta equal to lambda by D, dark. A dotted line perpendicular to the rays touches the top of the slit. Its perpendicular distance from the bottom of the slit is lambda and that from the center of the slit is lambda by 2. A separate view shows the dotted line being at an angle theta to the vertical. It intersects the ray starting from the bottom of the slit at a particular point. The horizontal distance of this point from the slit is delta l equal to D sine theta. Figure c shows rays passing through the slit at an angle theta to the horizontal. This is labeled sine theta equal to 3 lambda by 2 D, bright. A dotted line perpendicular to the rays touches the top of the slit. Its perpendicular distance from the bottom of the slit is 3 lambda by 2. Figure d shows rays passing through the slit at an angle theta to the horizontal. This is labeled sine theta equal to 2 lambda by D, dark. A dotted line perpendicular to the rays touches the top of the slit. Its perpendicular distance from the bottom of the slit is 2 lambda.
Figure 4.4 Light passing through a single slit is diffracted in all directions and may interfere constructively or destructively, depending on the angle. The difference in path length for rays from either side of the slit is seen to be D sin θθ.

At the larger angle shown in part (c), the path lengths differ by 3λ/23λ/2 for rays from the top and bottom of the slit. One ray travels a distance λλ different from the ray from the bottom and arrives in phase, interfering constructively. Two rays, each from slightly above those two, also add constructively. Most rays from the slit have another ray to interfere with constructively, and a maximum in intensity occurs at this angle. However, not all rays interfere constructively for this situation, so the maximum is not as intense as the central maximum. Finally, in part (d), the angle shown is large enough to produce a second minimum. As seen in the figure, the difference in path length for rays from either side of the slit is D sin θθ, and we see that a destructive minimum is obtained when this distance is an integral multiple of the wavelength.

Thus, to obtain destructive interference for a single slit,

Dsinθ=mλ,form=±1,±2,±3,...(destructive),Dsinθ=mλ,form=±1,±2,±3,...(destructive),
(4.1)

where D is the slit width, λλ is the light’s wavelength, θθ is the angle relative to the original direction of the light, and m is the order of the minimum. Figure 4.5 shows a graph of intensity for single-slit interference, and it is apparent that the maxima on either side of the central maximum are much less intense and not as wide. This effect is explored in Double-Slit Diffraction.

Figure shows a graph of intensity versus sine theta. The intensity is maximum at sine theta equal to 0. There are smaller wave crests to either side of this, at sine theta equal to minus 2 lambda D, minus lambda D, lambda D, 2 lambda D and so on.
Figure 4.5 A graph of single-slit diffraction intensity showing the central maximum to be wider and much more intense than those to the sides. In fact, the central maximum is six times higher than shown here.

Example 4.1

Calculating Single-Slit Diffraction Visible light of wavelength 550 nm falls on a single slit and produces its second diffraction minimum at an angle of 45.0°45.0° relative to the incident direction of the light, as in Figure 4.6. (a) What is the width of the slit? (b) At what angle is the first minimum produced?

Figure shows a vertical line on the left. This has a slit in the middle, of length D. A ray labeled lambda passes horizontally through the slit. This splits into 5 dotted lines that fall on a screen. The screen is shown as a vertical line. Of the five dotted lines, two make angles theta 1 and theta 2 with the horizontal. Theta 2 is 45 degrees. Theta 1 is smaller than theta 2 and is unknown. Intensity on the screen is shown as a vertical wave. The crest at the center, where a horizontal dotted line from the center of the slit falls on the screen, is the largest. The wave attenuates at the top and bottom. The remaining four dotted lines correspond to troughs in the wave.
Figure 4.6 In this example, we analyze a graph of the single-slit diffraction pattern.

Strategy From the given information, and assuming the screen is far away from the slit, we can use the equation Dsinθ=mλDsinθ=mλ first to find D, and again to find the angle for the first minimum θ1.θ1.

Solution

  1. We are given that λ=550nmλ=550nm, m=2m=2, and θ2=45.0°θ2=45.0°. Solving the equation Dsinθ=mλDsinθ=mλ for D and substituting known values gives
    D=mλsinθ2=2(550nm)sin45.0°=1100×10−9m0.707=1.56×10−6m.D=mλsinθ2=2(550nm)sin45.0°=1100×10−9m0.707=1.56×10−6m.
  2. Solving the equation Dsinθ=mλDsinθ=mλ for sinθ1sinθ1 and substituting the known values gives
    sinθ1=mλD=1(550×10−9m)1.56×10−6m.sinθ1=mλD=1(550×10−9m)1.56×10−6m.

    Thus the angle θ1θ1 is
    θ1=sin−10.354=20.7°.θ1=sin−10.354=20.7°.

Significance We see that the slit is narrow (it is only a few times greater than the wavelength of light). This is consistent with the fact that light must interact with an object comparable in size to its wavelength in order to exhibit significant wave effects such as this single-slit diffraction pattern. We also see that the central maximum extends 20.7°20.7° on either side of the original beam, for a width of about 41°41°. The angle between the first and second minima is only about 24°24°(45.0°20.7°)(45.0°20.7°). Thus, the second maximum is only about half as wide as the central maximum.

Check Your Understanding 4.1

Suppose the slit width in Example 4.1 is increased to 1.8×10−6m.1.8×10−6m. What are the new angular positions for the first, second, and third minima? Would a fourth minimum exist?

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