### Problems

### 2.1 Images Formed by Plane Mirrors

Consider a pair of flat mirrors that are positioned so that they form an angle of 120$\text{\xc2\xb0}$. An object is placed on the bisector between the mirrors. Construct a ray diagram as in Figure 2.4 to show how many images are formed.

Consider a pair of flat mirrors that are positioned so that they form an angle of 60$\text{\xc2\xb0}$. An object is placed on the bisector between the mirrors. Construct a ray diagram as in Figure 2.4 to show how many images are formed.

By using more than one flat mirror, construct a ray diagram showing how to create an inverted image.

### 2.2 Spherical Mirrors

The following figure shows a light bulb between two spherical mirrors. One mirror produces a beam of light with parallel rays; the other keeps light from escaping without being put into the beam. Where is the filament of the light in relation to the focal point or radius of curvature of each mirror?

Why are diverging mirrors often used for rearview mirrors in vehicles? What is the main disadvantage of using such a mirror compared with a flat one?

Some telephoto cameras use a mirror rather than a lens. What radius of curvature mirror is needed to replace a 800 mm-focal length telephoto lens?

Calculate the focal length of a mirror formed by the shiny back of a spoon that has a 3.00 cm radius of curvature.

Electric room heaters use a concave mirror to reflect infrared (IR) radiation from hot coils. Note that IR radiation follows the same law of reflection as visible light. Given that the mirror has a radius of curvature of 50.0 cm and produces an image of the coils 3.00 m away from the mirror, where are the coils?

Find the magnification of the heater element in the previous problem. Note that its large magnitude helps spread out the reflected energy.

What is the focal length of a makeup mirror that produces a magnification of 1.50 when a personâ€™s face is 12.0 cm away? Explicitly show how you follow the steps in the Spherical Mirrors.

A shopper standing 3.00 m from a convex security mirror sees his image with a magnification of 0.250. (a) Where is his image? (b) What is the focal length of the mirror? (c) What is its radius of curvature?

An object 1.50 cm high is held 3.00 cm from a personâ€™s cornea, and its reflected image is measured to be 0.167 cm high. (a) What is the magnification? (b) Where is the image? (c) Find the radius of curvature of the convex mirror formed by the cornea. (Note that this technique is used by optometrists to measure the curvature of the cornea for contact lens fitting. The instrument used is called a keratometer, or curve measurer.)

Ray tracing for a flat mirror shows that the image is located a distance behind the mirror equal to the distance of the object from the mirror. This is stated as ${d}_{\text{i}}=\text{\xe2\u02c6\u2019}{d}_{\text{o}}$, since this is a negative image distance (it is a virtual image). What is the focal length of a flat mirror?

Show that, for a flat mirror, ${h}_{\text{i}}={h}_{\text{o}}$, given that the image is the same distance behind the mirror as the distance of the object from the mirror.

Use the law of reflection to prove that the focal length of a mirror is half its radius of curvature. That is, prove that $f=R\text{/}2$. Note this is true for a spherical mirror only if its diameter is small compared with its radius of curvature.

Referring to the electric room heater considered in problem 5, calculate the intensity of IR radiation in ${\text{W/m}}^{2}$ projected by the concave mirror on a person 3.00 m away. Assume that the heating element radiates 1500 W and has an area of $100{\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{cm}}^{2}$, and that half of the radiated power is reflected and focused by the mirror.

Two mirrors are inclined at an angle of 60$\text{\xc2\xb0}$ and an object is placed at a point that is equidistant from the two mirrors. Use a protractor to draw rays accurately and locate all images. You may have to draw several figures so that that rays for different images do not clutter your drawing.

Two parallel mirrors are facing each other and are separated by a distance of 3 cm. A point object is placed between the mirrors 1 cm from one of the mirrors. Find the coordinates of all the images.

### 2.3 Images Formed by Refraction

An object is located in air 30 cm from the vertex of a concave surface made of glass with a radius of curvature 10 cm. Where does the image by refraction form and what is its magnification? Use ${n}_{\text{air}}=1$ and ${n}_{\text{glass}}=1.5$.

An object is located in air 30 cm from the vertex of a convex surface made of glass with a radius of curvature 80 cm. Where does the image by refraction form and what is its magnification?

An object is located in water 15 cm from the vertex of a concave surface made of glass with a radius of curvature 10 cm. Where does the image by refraction form and what is its magnification? Use ${n}_{\text{water}}=4\text{/}3$ and ${n}_{\text{glass}}=1.5$.

An object is located in water 30 cm from the vertex of a convex surface made of Plexiglas with a radius of curvature of 80 cm. Where does the image form by refraction and what is its magnification? ${n}_{\text{water}}=4\text{/}3$ and ${n}_{\text{Plexiglas}}=1.65$.

An object is located in air 5 cm from the vertex of a concave surface made of glass with a radius of curvature 20 cm. Where does the image form by refraction and what is its magnification? Use ${n}_{\text{air}}=1$ and ${n}_{\text{glass}}=1.5$.

Derive the spherical interface equation for refraction at a concave surface. (*Hint*: Follow the derivation in the text for the convex surface.)

### 2.4 Thin Lenses

How far from the lens must the film in a camera be, if the lens has a 35.0-mm focal length and is being used to photograph a flower 75.0 cm away? Explicitly show how you follow the steps in the Lenses.

A doctor examines a mole with a 15.0-cm focal length magnifying glass held 13.5 cm from the mole. (a) Where is the image? (b) What is its magnification? (c) How big is the image of a 5.00 mm diameter mole?

A camera with a 50.0-mm focal length lens is being used to photograph a person standing 3.00 m away. (a) How far from the lens must the film be? (b) If the film is 36.0 mm high, what fraction of a 1.75-m-tall person will fit on it? (c) Discuss how reasonable this seems, based on your experience in taking or posing for photographs.

A camera lens used for taking close-up photographs has a focal length of 22.0 mm. The farthest it can be placed from the film is 33.0 mm. (a) What is the closest object that can be photographed? (b) What is the magnification of this closest object?

Suppose your 50.0 mm-focal length camera lens is 51.0 mm away from the film in the camera. (a) How far away is an object that is in focus? (b) What is the height of the object if its image is 2.00 cm high?

What is the focal length of a magnifying glass that produces a magnification of 3.00 when held 5.00 cm from an object, such as a rare coin?

The magnification of a book held 7.50 cm from a 10.0 cm-focal length lens is 4.00. (a) Find the magnification for the book when it is held 8.50 cm from the magnifier. (b) Repeat for the book held 9.50 cm from the magnifier. (c) Comment on how magnification changes as the object distance increases as in these two calculations.

Suppose a 200 mm-focal length telephoto lens is being used to photograph mountains 10.0 km away. (a) Where is the image? (b) What is the height of the image of a 1000 m high cliff on one of the mountains?

A camera with a 100 mm-focal length lens is used to photograph the sun. What is the height of the image of the sun on the film, given the sun is $1.40\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\xc3\u2014\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{6}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{km}$ in diameter and is $1.50\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\xc3\u2014\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{8}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{km}$ away?

Use the thin-lens equation to show that the magnification for a thin lens is determined by its focal length and the object distance and is given by $m=f\text{/}(f\xe2\u02c6\u2019{d}_{\text{o}})$.

An object of height 3.0 cm is placed 5.0 cm in front of a converging lens of focal length 20 cm and observed from the other side. Where and how large is the image?

An object of height 3.0 cm is placed at 5.0 cm in front of a diverging lens of focal length 20 cm and observed from the other side. Where and how large is the image?

An object of height 3.0 cm is placed at 25 cm in front of a diverging lens of focal length 20 cm. Behind the diverging lens, there is a converging lens of focal length 20 cm. The distance between the lenses is 5.0 cm. Find the location and size of the final image.

Two convex lenses of focal lengths 20 cm and 10 cm are placed 30 cm apart, with the lens with the longer focal length on the right. An object of height 2.0 cm is placed midway between them and observed through each lens from the left and from the right. Describe what you will see, such as where the image(s) will appear, whether they will be upright or inverted and their magnifications.

### 2.5 The Eye

*Unless otherwise stated, the lens-to-retina distance is 2.00 cm.*

Calculate the power of the eye when viewing an object 3.00 m away.

The print in many books averages 3.50 mm in height. How high is the image of the print on the retina when the book is held 30.0 cm from the eye?

Suppose a certain personâ€™s visual acuity is such that he can see objects clearly that form an image $4.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{\xce\xbcm}$ high on their retina. What is the maximum distance at which they can read the 75.0-cm-high letters on the side of an airplane?

People who do very detailed work close up, such as jewelers, often can see objects clearly at much closer distance than the normal 25 cm. (a) What is the power of the eyes of a woman who can see an object clearly at a distance of only 8.00 cm? (b) What is the image size of a 1.00-mm object, such as lettering inside a ring, held at this distance? (c) What would the size of the image be if the object were held at the normal 25.0 cm distance?

What is the far point of a person whose eyes have a relaxed power of 50.5 D?

(a) A laser reshaping the cornea of a myopic patient reduces the power of his eye by 9.00 D, with a $\xc2\pm 5.0\%$ uncertainty in the final correction. What is the range of diopters for eyeglass lenses that this person might need after this procedure? (b) Was the person nearsighted or farsighted before the procedure? How do you know?

The power for normal close vision is 54.0 D. In a vision-correction procedure, the power of a patientâ€™s eye is increased by 3.00 D. Assuming that this produces normal close vision, what was the patientâ€™s near point before the procedure?

For normal distant vision, the eye has a power of 50.0 D. What was the previous far point of a patient who had laser vision correction that reduced the power of her eye by 7.00 D, producing normal distant vision?

The power for normal distant vision is 50.0 D. A severely myopic patient has a far point of 5.00 cm. By how many diopters should the power of his eye be reduced in laser vision correction to obtain normal distant vision for him?

A studentâ€™s eyes, while reading the blackboard, have a power of 51.0 D. How far is the board from their eyes?

The power of a physicianâ€™s eyes is 53.0 D while examining a patient. How far from her eyes is the object that is being examined?

The normal power for distant vision is 50.0 D. A person with normal distant vision has a 10.0% ability to accommodate (that is, increase) the power of their eyes. What is the closest object they can see clearly?

The far point of a myopic administrator is 50.0 cm. (a) What is the relaxed power of his eyes? (b) If he has the normal 8.00% ability to accommodate, what is the closest object he can see clearly?

A very myopic man has a far point of 20.0 cm. What power contact lens (when on the eye) will correct his distant vision?

A myopic person sees that her contact lens prescription is â€“4.00 D. What is her far point?

The contact lens prescription for a mildly farsighted person is 0.750 D, and the person has a near point of 29.0 cm. What is the power of the tear layer between the cornea and the lens if the correction is ideal, taking the tear layer into account?

### 2.7 The Simple Magnifier

If the image formed on the retina subtends an angle of $30\text{\xc2\xb0}$ and the object subtends an angle of $5\text{\xc2\xb0}$, what is the magnification of the image?

What is the magnification of a magnifying lens with a focal length of 10 cm if it is held 3.0 cm from the eye and the object is 12 cm from the eye?

How far should you hold a 2.1 cm-focal length magnifying glass from an object to obtain a magnification of $10\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\xc3\u2014\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}$? Assume you place your eye 5.0 cm from the magnifying glass.

You hold a 5.0 cm-focal length magnifying glass as close as possible to your eye. If you have a normal near point, what is the magnification?

You view a mountain with a magnifying glass of focal length $f=10\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{cm}$. What is the magnification?

You view an object by holding a 2.5 cm-focal length magnifying glass 10 cm away from it. How far from your eye should you hold the magnifying glass to obtain a magnification of $10\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\xc3\u2014\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}?$

A magnifying glass forms an image 10 cm on the opposite side of the lens from the object, which is 10 cm away. What is the magnification of this lens for a person with a normal near point if their eye 12 cm from the object?

An object viewed with the naked eye subtends a $2\text{\xc2\xb0}$ angle. If you view the object through a $10\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\xc3\u2014\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}$ magnifying glass, what angle is subtended by the image formed on your retina?

For a normal, relaxed eye, a magnifying glass produces an angular magnification of 4.0. What is the largest magnification possible with this magnifying glass?

What range of magnification is possible with a 7.0 cm-focal length converging lens?

A magnifying glass produces an angular magnification of 4.5 when used by a young person with a near point of 18 cm. What is the maximum angular magnification obtained by an older person with a near point of 45 cm?

### 2.8 Microscopes and Telescopes

A microscope with an overall magnification of 800 has an objective that magnifies by 200. (a) What is the angular magnification of the eyepiece? (b) If there are two other objectives that can be used, having magnifications of 100 and 400, what other total magnifications are possible?

(a) What magnification is produced by a 0.150 cm-focal length microscope objective that is 0.155 cm from the object being viewed? (b) What is the overall magnification if an $8\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\xc3\u2014\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}$ eyepiece (one that produces an angular magnification of 8.00) is used?

Where does an object need to be placed relative to a microscope for its 0.50 cm-focal length objective to produce a linear magnification by the objective of âˆ’400?

An amoeba is 0.305 cm away from the 0.300 cm-focal length objective lens of a microscope. (a) Where is the image formed by the objective lens? (b) What is this imageâ€™s magnification? (c) An eyepiece with a 2.00-cm focal length is placed 20.0 cm from the objective. Where is the final image? (d) What angular magnification is produced by the eyepiece? (e) What is the overall magnification? (See Figure 2.39.)

**Unreasonable Results** Your friends show you an image through a microscope. They tell you that the microscope has an objective with a 0.500-cm focal length and an eyepiece with a 5.00-cm focal length. The resulting overall magnification is 250,000. Are these viable values for a microscope?

*Unless otherwise stated, the lens-to-retina distance is 2.00 cm.*

What is the angular magnification of a telescope that has a 100 cm-focal length objective and a 2.50 cm-focal length eyepiece?

Find the distance between the objective and eyepiece lenses in the telescope in the above problem needed to produce a final image very far from the observer, where vision is most relaxed. Note that a telescope is normally used to view very distant objects.

A large reflecting telescope has an objective mirror with a 10.0-m radius of curvature. What angular magnification does it produce when a 3.00 m-focal length eyepiece is used?

A small telescope has a concave mirror with a 2.00-m radius of curvature for its objective. Its eyepiece is a 4.00 cm-focal length lens. (a) What is the telescopeâ€™s angular magnification? (b) What angle is subtended by a 25,000 km-diameter sunspot? (c) What is the angle of its telescopic image?

A $7.5\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\xc3\u2014\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}$ binocular produces an angular magnification of âˆ’7.50, acting like a telescope. (Mirrors are used to make the image upright.) If the binoculars have objective lenses with a 75.0-cm focal length, what is the focal length of the eyepiece lenses?

**Construct Your Own Problem** Consider a telescope of the type used by Galileo, having a convex objective and a concave eyepiece as illustrated in part (a) of Figure 2.40. Construct a problem in which you calculate the location and size of the image produced. Among the things to be considered are the focal lengths of the lenses and their relative placements as well as the size and location of the object. Verify that the angular magnification is greater than one. That is, the angle subtended at the eye by the image is greater than the angle subtended by the object.

Trace rays to find which way the given ray will emerge after refraction through the thin lens in the following figure. Assume thin-lens approximation. (*Hin*t: Pick a point *P* on the given ray in each case. Treat that point as an object. Now, find its image *Q*. Use the rule: All rays on the other side of the lens will either go through *Q* or appear to be coming from *Q*.)

Copy and draw rays to find the final image in the following diagram. (*Hint*: Find the intermediate image through lens alone. Use the intermediate image as the object for the mirror and work with the mirror alone to find the final image.)

A concave mirror of radius of curvature 10 cm is placed 30 cm from a thin convex lens of focal length 15 cm. Find the location and magnification of a small bulb sitting 50 cm from the lens by using the algebraic method.

An object of height 3 cm is placed at 25 cm in front of a converging lens of focal length 20 cm. Behind the lens there is a concave mirror of focal length 20 cm. The distance between the lens and the mirror is 5 cm. Find the location, orientation and size of the final image.

An object of height 3 cm is placed at a distance of 25 cm in front of a converging lens of focal length 20 cm, to be referred to as the first lens. Behind the lens there is another converging lens of focal length 20 cm placed 10 cm from the first lens. There is a concave mirror of focal length 15 cm placed 50 cm from the second lens. Find the location, orientation, and size of the final image.

An object of height 2 cm is placed at 50 cm in front of a converging lens of focal length 40 cm. Behind the lens, there is a convex mirror of focal length 15 cm placed 30 cm from the converging lens. Find the location, orientation, and size of the final image.

Two concave mirrors are placed facing each other. One of them has a small hole in the middle. A penny is placed on the bottom mirror (see the following figure). When you look from the side, a real image of the penny is observed above the hole. Explain how that could happen.

A lamp of height 5 cm is placed 40 cm in front of a converging lens of focal length 20 cm. There is a plane mirror 15 cm behind the lens. Where would you find the image when you look in the mirror?

Parallel rays from a faraway source strike a converging lens of focal length 20 cm at an angle of 15 degrees with the horizontal direction. Find the vertical position of the real image observed on a screen in the focal plane.

Parallel rays from a faraway source strike a diverging lens of focal length 20 cm at an angle of 10 degrees with the horizontal direction. As you look through the lens, where in the vertical plane the image would appear?

A light bulb is placed 10 cm from a plane mirror, which faces a convex mirror of radius of curvature 8 cm. The plane mirror is located at a distance of 30 cm from the vertex of the convex mirror. Find the location of two images in the convex mirror. Are there other images? If so, where are they located?

A point source of light is 50 cm in front of a converging lens of focal length 30 cm. A concave mirror with a focal length of 20 cm is placed 25 cm behind the lens. Where does the final image form, and what are its orientation and magnification?

Copy and trace to find how a horizontal ray from *S* comes out after the lens. Use ${n}_{\text{glass}}=1.5$ for the prism material.

Copy and trace how a horizontal ray from *S* comes out after the lens. Use $n=1.55$ for the glass.

By ray tracing or by calculation, find the place inside the glass where rays from *S* converge as a result of refraction through the lens and the convex air-glass interface. Use a ruler to estimate the radius of curvature.

Two lenses of focal lengths of ${f}_{1}$ and ${f}_{2}$ are glued together with transparent material of negligible thickness. Show that the total power of the two lenses simply add.

What will be the formula for the angular magnification of a convex lens of focal length *f* if the eye is very close to the lens and the near point is located a distance *D* from the eye?