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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. Thermodynamics
    1. 1 Temperature and Heat
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium
      3. 1.2 Thermometers and Temperature Scales
      4. 1.3 Thermal Expansion
      5. 1.4 Heat Transfer, Specific Heat, and Calorimetry
      6. 1.5 Phase Changes
      7. 1.6 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 2 The Kinetic Theory of Gases
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas
      3. 2.2 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed
      4. 2.3 Heat Capacity and Equipartition of Energy
      5. 2.4 Distribution of Molecular Speeds
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 3 The First Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Thermodynamic Systems
      3. 3.2 Work, Heat, and Internal Energy
      4. 3.3 First Law of Thermodynamics
      5. 3.4 Thermodynamic Processes
      6. 3.5 Heat Capacities of an Ideal Gas
      7. 3.6 Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Reversible and Irreversible Processes
      3. 4.2 Heat Engines
      4. 4.3 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
      5. 4.4 Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics
      6. 4.5 The Carnot Cycle
      7. 4.6 Entropy
      8. 4.7 Entropy on a Microscopic Scale
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  3. Unit 2. Electricity and Magnetism
    1. 5 Electric Charges and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Electric Charge
      3. 5.2 Conductors, Insulators, and Charging by Induction
      4. 5.3 Coulomb's Law
      5. 5.4 Electric Field
      6. 5.5 Calculating Electric Fields of Charge Distributions
      7. 5.6 Electric Field Lines
      8. 5.7 Electric Dipoles
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    2. 6 Gauss's Law
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Electric Flux
      3. 6.2 Explaining Gauss’s Law
      4. 6.3 Applying Gauss’s Law
      5. 6.4 Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 7 Electric Potential
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Electric Potential Energy
      3. 7.2 Electric Potential and Potential Difference
      4. 7.3 Calculations of Electric Potential
      5. 7.4 Determining Field from Potential
      6. 7.5 Equipotential Surfaces and Conductors
      7. 7.6 Applications of Electrostatics
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 8 Capacitance
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Capacitors and Capacitance
      3. 8.2 Capacitors in Series and in Parallel
      4. 8.3 Energy Stored in a Capacitor
      5. 8.4 Capacitor with a Dielectric
      6. 8.5 Molecular Model of a Dielectric
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    5. 9 Current and Resistance
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Electrical Current
      3. 9.2 Model of Conduction in Metals
      4. 9.3 Resistivity and Resistance
      5. 9.4 Ohm's Law
      6. 9.5 Electrical Energy and Power
      7. 9.6 Superconductors
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    6. 10 Direct-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Electromotive Force
      3. 10.2 Resistors in Series and Parallel
      4. 10.3 Kirchhoff's Rules
      5. 10.4 Electrical Measuring Instruments
      6. 10.5 RC Circuits
      7. 10.6 Household Wiring and Electrical Safety
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    7. 11 Magnetic Forces and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Magnetism and Its Historical Discoveries
      3. 11.2 Magnetic Fields and Lines
      4. 11.3 Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field
      5. 11.4 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
      6. 11.5 Force and Torque on a Current Loop
      7. 11.6 The Hall Effect
      8. 11.7 Applications of Magnetic Forces and Fields
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    8. 12 Sources of Magnetic Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 The Biot-Savart Law
      3. 12.2 Magnetic Field Due to a Thin Straight Wire
      4. 12.3 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Currents
      5. 12.4 Magnetic Field of a Current Loop
      6. 12.5 Ampère’s Law
      7. 12.6 Solenoids and Toroids
      8. 12.7 Magnetism in Matter
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    9. 13 Electromagnetic Induction
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Faraday’s Law
      3. 13.2 Lenz's Law
      4. 13.3 Motional Emf
      5. 13.4 Induced Electric Fields
      6. 13.5 Eddy Currents
      7. 13.6 Electric Generators and Back Emf
      8. 13.7 Applications of Electromagnetic Induction
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    10. 14 Inductance
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Mutual Inductance
      3. 14.2 Self-Inductance and Inductors
      4. 14.3 Energy in a Magnetic Field
      5. 14.4 RL Circuits
      6. 14.5 Oscillations in an LC Circuit
      7. 14.6 RLC Series Circuits
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    11. 15 Alternating-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 AC Sources
      3. 15.2 Simple AC Circuits
      4. 15.3 RLC Series Circuits with AC
      5. 15.4 Power in an AC Circuit
      6. 15.5 Resonance in an AC Circuit
      7. 15.6 Transformers
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    12. 16 Electromagnetic Waves
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves
      3. 16.2 Plane Electromagnetic Waves
      4. 16.3 Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves
      5. 16.4 Momentum and Radiation Pressure
      6. 16.5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  4. A | Units
  5. B | Conversion Factors
  6. C | Fundamental Constants
  7. D | Astronomical Data
  8. E | Mathematical Formulas
  9. F | Chemistry
  10. G | The Greek Alphabet
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
  12. Index

Problems

9.1 Electrical Current

21.

A Van de Graaff generator is one of the original particle accelerators and can be used to accelerate charged particles like protons or electrons. You may have seen it used to make human hair stand on end or produce large sparks. One application of the Van de Graaff generator is to create X-rays by bombarding a hard metal target with the beam. Consider a beam of protons at 1.00 keV and a current of 5.00 mA produced by the generator. (a) What is the speed of the protons? (b) How many protons are produced each second?

22.

A cathode ray tube (CRT) is a device that produces a focused beam of electrons in a vacuum. The electrons strike a phosphor-coated glass screen at the end of the tube, which produces a bright spot of light. The position of the bright spot of light on the screen can be adjusted by deflecting the electrons with electrical fields, magnetic fields, or both. Although the CRT tube was once commonly found in televisions, computer displays, and oscilloscopes, newer appliances use a liquid crystal display (LCD) or plasma screen. You still may come across a CRT in your study of science. Consider a CRT with an electron beam average current of 25.00μA25.00μA. How many electrons strike the screen every minute?

23.

How many electrons flow through a point in a wire in 3.00 s if there is a constant current of I=4.00AI=4.00A?

24.

A conductor carries a current that is decreasing exponentially with time. The current is modeled as I=I0et/τI=I0et/τ, where I0=3.00AI0=3.00A is the current at time t=0.00st=0.00s and τ=0.50sτ=0.50s is the time constant. How much charge flows through the conductor between t=0.00st=0.00s and t=3τt=3τ?

25.

The quantity of charge through a conductor is modeled as Q=4.00Cs4t41.00Cst+6.00mCQ=4.00Cs4t41.00Cst+6.00mC.

What is the current at time t=3.00st=3.00s?

26.

The current through a conductor is modeled as I(t)=Imsin(2π[60Hz]t)I(t)=Imsin(2π[60Hz]t). Write an equation for the charge as a function of time.

27.

The charge on a capacitor in a circuit is modeled as Q(t)=Qmaxcos(ωt+ϕ)Q(t)=Qmaxcos(ωt+ϕ). What is the current through the circuit as a function of time?

9.2 Model of Conduction in Metals

28.

An aluminum wire 1.628 mm in diameter (14-gauge) carries a current of 3.00 amps. (a) What is the absolute value of the charge density in the wire? (b) What is the drift velocity of the electrons? (c) What would be the drift velocity if the same gauge copper were used instead of aluminum? The density of copper is 8.96g/cm38.96g/cm3 and the density of aluminum is 2.70g/cm32.70g/cm3. The molar mass of aluminum is 26.98 g/mol and the molar mass of copper is 63.5 g/mol. Assume each atom of metal contributes one free electron.

29.

The current of an electron beam has a measured current of I=50.00μAI=50.00μA with a radius of 1.00 mm. What is the magnitude of the current density of the beam?

30.

A high-energy proton accelerator produces a proton beam with a radius of r=0.90mmr=0.90mm. The beam current is I=9.00μAI=9.00μA and is constant. The charge density of the beam is n=6.00×1011n=6.00×1011 protons per cubic meter. (a) What is the current density of the beam? (b) What is the drift velocity of the beam? (c) How much time does it take for 1.00×10101.00×1010 protons to be emitted by the accelerator?

31.

Consider a wire of a circular cross-section with a radius of R=3.00mmR=3.00mm. The magnitude of the current density is modeled as J=cr2=5.00×106Am4r2J=cr2=5.00×106Am4r2. What is the current through the inner section of the wire from the center to r=0.5Rr=0.5R?

32.

A cylindrical wire has a current density from the center of the wire’s cross section as J(r)=Cr2J(r)=Cr2 where rr is in meters, JJ is in amps per square meter, and C=103A/m4C=103A/m4. This current density continues to the end of the wire at a radius of 1.0 mm. Calculate the current just outside of this wire.

33.

The current supplied to an air conditioner unit is 4.00 amps. The air conditioner is wired using a 10-gauge (diameter 2.588 mm) wire. The charge density is n=8.48×1028electronsm3n=8.48×1028electronsm3. Find the magnitude of (a) current density and (b) the drift velocity.

9.3 Resistivity and Resistance

34.

What current flows through the bulb of a 3.00-V flashlight when its hot resistance is 3.60Ω3.60Ω?

35.

Calculate the effective resistance of a pocket calculator that has a 1.35-V battery and through which 0.200 mA flows.

36.

How many volts are supplied to operate an indicator light on a DVD player that has a resistance of 140Ω140Ω, given that 25.0 mA passes through it?

37.

What is the resistance of a 20.0-m-long piece of 12-gauge copper wire having a 2.053-mm diameter?

38.

The diameter of 0-gauge copper wire is 8.252 mm. Find the resistance of a 1.00-km length of such wire used for power transmission.

39.

If the 0.100-mm-diameter tungsten filament in a light bulb is to have a resistance of 0.200Ω0.200Ω at 20.0°C20.0°C, how long should it be?

40.

A lead rod has a length of 30.00 cm and a resistance of 5.00μΩ5.00μΩ. What is the radius of the rod?

41.

Find the ratio of the diameter of aluminum to copper wire, if they have the same resistance per unit length (as they might in household wiring).

42.

What current flows through a 2.54-cm-diameter rod of pure silicon that is 20.0 cm long, when 1.00×103V1.00×103V is applied to it? (Such a rod may be used to make nuclear-particle detectors, for example.)

43.

(a) To what temperature must you raise a copper wire, originally at 20.0°C20.0°C, to double its resistance, neglecting any changes in dimensions? (b) Does this happen in household wiring under ordinary circumstances?

44.

A resistor made of nichrome wire is used in an application where its resistance cannot change more than 1.00% from its value at 20.0°C20.0°C. Over what temperature range can it be used?

45.

Of what material is a resistor made if its resistance is 40.0% greater at 100.0°C100.0°C than at 20.0°C20.0°C?

46.

An electronic device designed to operate at any temperature in the range from −10.0°C−10.0°C to 55.0°C55.0°C contains pure carbon resistors. By what factor does their resistance increase over this range?

47.

(a) Of what material is a wire made, if it is 25.0 m long with a diameter of 0.100 mm and has a resistance of 77.7Ω77.7Ω at 20.0°C20.0°C? (b) What is its resistance at 150.0°C?150.0°C?

48.

Assuming a constant temperature coefficient of resistivity, what is the maximum percent decrease in the resistance of a constantan wire starting at 20.0°C20.0°C?

49.

A copper wire has a resistance of 0.500Ω0.500Ω at 20.0°C,20.0°C, and an iron wire has a resistance of 0.525Ω0.525Ω at the same temperature. At what temperature are their resistances equal?

9.4 Ohm's Law

50.

A 2.2-kΩ2.2-kΩ resistor is connected across a D cell battery (1.5 V). What is the current through the resistor?

51.

A resistor rated at 250kΩ250kΩ is connected across two D cell batteries (each 1.50 V) in series, with a total voltage of 3.00 V. The manufacturer advertises that their resistors are within 5% of the rated value. What are the possible minimum current and maximum current through the resistor?

52.

A resistor is connected in series with a power supply of 20.00 V. The current measure is 0.50 A. What is the resistance of the resistor?

53.

A resistor is placed in a circuit with an adjustable voltage source. The voltage across and the current through the resistor and the measurements are shown below. Estimate the resistance of the resistor.

Figure is a plot of voltage versus current. There is a linear relationship between voltage and the current. It is zero Volts at zero Amperes, 200 Volts at 2 Amperes, 400 Volts at 4 Amperes, 600 Volts at 6 Amperes, and 800 Volts at 8 Amperes.
54.

The following table show the measurements of a current through and the voltage across a sample of material. Plot the data, and assuming the object is an ohmic device, estimate the resistance.

I(A) V(V)
0 3
2 23
4 39
6 58
8 77
10 100
12 119
14 142
16 162

9.5 Electrical Energy and Power

55.

A 20.00-V20.00-V battery is used to supply current to a 10-kΩ10-kΩ resistor. Assume the voltage drop across any wires used for connections is negligible. (a) What is the current through the resistor? (b) What is the power dissipated by the resistor? (c) What is the power input from the battery, assuming all the electrical power is dissipated by the resistor? (d) What happens to the energy dissipated by the resistor?

56.

What is the maximum voltage that can be applied to a 20-kΩ20-kΩ resistor rated at 14W14W?

57.

A heater is being designed that uses a coil of 14-gauge nichrome wire to generate 300 W using a voltage of V=110VV=110V. How long should the engineer make the wire?

58.

An alternative to CFL bulbs and incandescent bulbs are light-emitting diode (LED) bulbs. A 100-W incandescent bulb can be replaced by a 16-W LED bulb. Both produce 1600 lumens of light. Assuming the cost of electricity is $0.10 per kilowatt-hour, how much does it cost to run the bulb for one year if it runs for four hours a day?

59.

The power dissipated by a resistor with a resistance of R=100ΩR=100Ω is P=2.0WP=2.0W. What are the current through and the voltage drop across the resistor?

60.

Running late to catch a plane, a driver accidentally leaves the headlights on after parking the car in the airport parking lot. During takeoff, the driver realizes the mistake. Having just replaced the battery, the driver knows that the battery is a 12-V automobile battery, rated at 100 A·hA·h. The driver, knowing there is nothing that can be done, estimates how long the lights will shine, assuming there are two 12-V headlights, each rated at 40 W. What did the driver conclude?

61.

A physics student has a single-occupancy dorm room. The student has a small refrigerator that runs with a current of 3.00 A and a voltage of 110 V, a lamp that contains a 100-W bulb, an overhead light with a 60-W bulb, and various other small devices adding up to 3.00 W. (a) Assuming the power plant that supplies 110 V electricity to the dorm is 10 km away and the two aluminum transmission cables use 0-gauge wire with a diameter of 8.252 mm, estimate the percentage of the total power supplied by the power company that is lost in the transmission. (b) What would be the result is the power company delivered the electric power at 110 kV?

62.

A 0.50-W, 220-Ω220-Ω resistor carries the maximum current possible without damaging the resistor. If the current were reduced to half the value, what would be the power consumed?

9.6 Superconductors

63.

Consider a power plant is located 60 km away from a residential area uses 0-gauge (A=42.40mm2)(A=42.40mm2) wire of copper to transmit power at a current of I=100.00AI=100.00A. How much more power is dissipated in the copper wires than it would be in superconducting wires?

64.

A wire is drawn through a die, stretching it to four times its original length. By what factor does its resistance increase?

65.

Digital medical thermometers determine temperature by measuring the resistance of a semiconductor device called a thermistor (which has α=−0.06/°Cα=−0.06/°C) when it is at the same temperature as the patient. What is a patient’s temperature if the thermistor’s resistance at that temperature is 82.0% of its value at 37°C37°C (normal body temperature)?

66.

Electrical power generators are sometimes “load tested” by passing current through a large vat of water. A similar method can be used to test the heat output of a resistor. A R=30ΩR=30Ω resistor is connected to a 9.0-V battery and the resistor leads are waterproofed and the resistor is placed in 1.0 kg of room temperature water (T=20°C)(T=20°C). Current runs through the resistor for 20 minutes. Assuming all the electrical energy dissipated by the resistor is converted to heat, what is the final temperature of the water?

67.

A 12-gauge gold wire has a length of 1 meter. (a) What would be the length of a silver 12-gauge wire with the same resistance? (b) What are their respective resistances at the temperature of boiling water?

68.

What is the change in temperature required to decrease the resistance for a carbon resistor by 10%?

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