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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. Thermodynamics
    1. 1 Temperature and Heat
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium
      3. 1.2 Thermometers and Temperature Scales
      4. 1.3 Thermal Expansion
      5. 1.4 Heat Transfer, Specific Heat, and Calorimetry
      6. 1.5 Phase Changes
      7. 1.6 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 2 The Kinetic Theory of Gases
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas
      3. 2.2 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed
      4. 2.3 Heat Capacity and Equipartition of Energy
      5. 2.4 Distribution of Molecular Speeds
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 3 The First Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Thermodynamic Systems
      3. 3.2 Work, Heat, and Internal Energy
      4. 3.3 First Law of Thermodynamics
      5. 3.4 Thermodynamic Processes
      6. 3.5 Heat Capacities of an Ideal Gas
      7. 3.6 Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Reversible and Irreversible Processes
      3. 4.2 Heat Engines
      4. 4.3 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
      5. 4.4 Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics
      6. 4.5 The Carnot Cycle
      7. 4.6 Entropy
      8. 4.7 Entropy on a Microscopic Scale
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  3. Unit 2. Electricity and Magnetism
    1. 5 Electric Charges and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Electric Charge
      3. 5.2 Conductors, Insulators, and Charging by Induction
      4. 5.3 Coulomb's Law
      5. 5.4 Electric Field
      6. 5.5 Calculating Electric Fields of Charge Distributions
      7. 5.6 Electric Field Lines
      8. 5.7 Electric Dipoles
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    2. 6 Gauss's Law
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Electric Flux
      3. 6.2 Explaining Gauss’s Law
      4. 6.3 Applying Gauss’s Law
      5. 6.4 Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 7 Electric Potential
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Electric Potential Energy
      3. 7.2 Electric Potential and Potential Difference
      4. 7.3 Calculations of Electric Potential
      5. 7.4 Determining Field from Potential
      6. 7.5 Equipotential Surfaces and Conductors
      7. 7.6 Applications of Electrostatics
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 8 Capacitance
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Capacitors and Capacitance
      3. 8.2 Capacitors in Series and in Parallel
      4. 8.3 Energy Stored in a Capacitor
      5. 8.4 Capacitor with a Dielectric
      6. 8.5 Molecular Model of a Dielectric
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    5. 9 Current and Resistance
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Electrical Current
      3. 9.2 Model of Conduction in Metals
      4. 9.3 Resistivity and Resistance
      5. 9.4 Ohm's Law
      6. 9.5 Electrical Energy and Power
      7. 9.6 Superconductors
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    6. 10 Direct-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Electromotive Force
      3. 10.2 Resistors in Series and Parallel
      4. 10.3 Kirchhoff's Rules
      5. 10.4 Electrical Measuring Instruments
      6. 10.5 RC Circuits
      7. 10.6 Household Wiring and Electrical Safety
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    7. 11 Magnetic Forces and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Magnetism and Its Historical Discoveries
      3. 11.2 Magnetic Fields and Lines
      4. 11.3 Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field
      5. 11.4 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
      6. 11.5 Force and Torque on a Current Loop
      7. 11.6 The Hall Effect
      8. 11.7 Applications of Magnetic Forces and Fields
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    8. 12 Sources of Magnetic Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 The Biot-Savart Law
      3. 12.2 Magnetic Field Due to a Thin Straight Wire
      4. 12.3 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Currents
      5. 12.4 Magnetic Field of a Current Loop
      6. 12.5 Ampère’s Law
      7. 12.6 Solenoids and Toroids
      8. 12.7 Magnetism in Matter
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    9. 13 Electromagnetic Induction
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Faraday’s Law
      3. 13.2 Lenz's Law
      4. 13.3 Motional Emf
      5. 13.4 Induced Electric Fields
      6. 13.5 Eddy Currents
      7. 13.6 Electric Generators and Back Emf
      8. 13.7 Applications of Electromagnetic Induction
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    10. 14 Inductance
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Mutual Inductance
      3. 14.2 Self-Inductance and Inductors
      4. 14.3 Energy in a Magnetic Field
      5. 14.4 RL Circuits
      6. 14.5 Oscillations in an LC Circuit
      7. 14.6 RLC Series Circuits
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    11. 15 Alternating-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 AC Sources
      3. 15.2 Simple AC Circuits
      4. 15.3 RLC Series Circuits with AC
      5. 15.4 Power in an AC Circuit
      6. 15.5 Resonance in an AC Circuit
      7. 15.6 Transformers
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    12. 16 Electromagnetic Waves
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves
      3. 16.2 Plane Electromagnetic Waves
      4. 16.3 Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves
      5. 16.4 Momentum and Radiation Pressure
      6. 16.5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  4. A | Units
  5. B | Conversion Factors
  6. C | Fundamental Constants
  7. D | Astronomical Data
  8. E | Mathematical Formulas
  9. F | Chemistry
  10. G | The Greek Alphabet
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
  12. Index

Problems

11.2 Magnetic Fields and Lines

15.

What is the direction of the magnetic force on a positive charge that moves as shown in each of the six cases?

Case a: B is out of the page, v is down. Case b: B is to the right, v is up. Case c: B is in, v is to the right. Case d: B is to the right, v is to the left. Case e: B is up, v is into the page. Case f: B is to the left, v is out of the page.
16.

Repeat previous exercise for a negative charge.

17.

What is the direction of the velocity of a negative charge that experiences the magnetic force shown in each of the three cases, assuming it moves perpendicular to B?

Case a: B is out of the page, F is up. Case b: B is to the right, F is up. Case c: B is into the page, F is to the right.
18.

Repeat previous exercise for a positive charge.

19.

What is the direction of the magnetic field that produces the magnetic force on a positive charge as shown in each of the three cases, assuming BB is perpendicular to vv?

Case a: v is up, F is to the left. Case b: v is down, F is into the page. Case c: v is to the left, F is up.
20.

Repeat previous exercise for a negative charge.

21.

(a) Aircraft sometimes acquire small static charges. Suppose a supersonic jet has a 0.500-μC charge and flies due west at a speed of 660. m/s over Earth’s south magnetic pole, where the 8.00×10−5T8.00×10−5T magnetic field points straight down into the ground. What are the direction and the magnitude of the magnetic force on the plane? (b) Discuss whether the value obtained in part (a) implies this is a significant or negligible effect.

22.

(a) A cosmic ray proton moving toward Earth at 5.00×107m/s5.00×107m/s experiences a magnetic force of 1.70×10−16N.1.70×10−16N. What is the strength of the magnetic field if there is a 45º angle between it and the proton’s velocity? (b) Is the value obtained in part a. consistent with the known strength of Earth’s magnetic field on its surface? Discuss.

23.

An electron moving at 4.00×103m/s4.00×103m/s in a 1.25-T magnetic field experiences a magnetic force of 1.40×10−16N.1.40×10−16N. What angle does the velocity of the electron make with the magnetic field? There are two answers.

24.

(a) A physicist performing a sensitive measurement wants to limit the magnetic force on a moving charge in her equipment to less than 1.00×10−12N.1.00×10−12N. What is the greatest the charge can be if it moves at a maximum speed of 30.0 m/s in Earth’s field? (b) Discuss whether it would be difficult to limit the charge to less than the value found in (a) by comparing it with typical static electricity and noting that static is often absent.

11.3 Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field

25.

A cosmic-ray electron moves at 7.5×106m/s7.5×106m/s perpendicular to Earth’s magnetic field at an altitude where the field strength is 1.0×10−5T.1.0×10−5T. What is the radius of the circular path the electron follows?

26.

(a) Viewers of Star Trek have heard of an antimatter drive on the Starship Enterprise. One possibility for such a futuristic energy source is to store antimatter charged particles in a vacuum chamber, circulating in a magnetic field, and then extract them as needed. Antimatter annihilates normal matter, producing pure energy. What strength magnetic field is needed to hold antiprotons, moving at 5.0×107m/s5.0×107m/s in a circular path 2.00 m in radius? Antiprotons have the same mass as protons but the opposite (negative) charge. (b) Is this field strength obtainable with today’s technology or is it a futuristic possibility?

27.

(a) An oxygen-16 ion with a mass of 2.66×10−26kg2.66×10−26kg travels at 5.0×106m/s5.0×106m/s perpendicular to a 1.20-T magnetic field, which makes it move in a circular arc with a 0.231-m radius. What positive charge is on the ion? (b) What is the ratio of this charge to the charge of an electron? (c) Discuss why the ratio found in (b) should be an integer.

28.

An electron in a TV CRT moves with a speed of 6.0×106m/s,6.0×106m/s, in a direction perpendicular to Earth’s field, which has a strength of 5.0×10−5T.5.0×10−5T. (a) What strength electric field must be applied perpendicular to the Earth’s field to make the electron moves in a straight line? (b) If this is done between plates separated by 1.00 cm, what is the voltage applied? (Note that TVs are usually surrounded by a ferromagnetic material to shield against external magnetic fields and avoid the need for such a correction.)

29.

(a) At what speed will a proton move in a circular path of the same radius as the electron in the previous exercise? (b) What would the radius of the path be if the proton had the same speed as the electron? (c) What would the radius be if the proton had the same kinetic energy as the electron? (d) The same momentum?

30.

(a) What voltage will accelerate electrons to a speed of 6.00×10−7m/s?6.00×10−7m/s? (b) Find the radius of curvature of the path of a proton accelerated through this potential in a 0.500-T field and compare this with the radius of curvature of an electron accelerated through the same potential.

31.

An alpha-particle (m=6.64×10−27kg,(m=6.64×10−27kg, q=3.2×10−19C)q=3.2×10−19C) travels in a circular path of radius 25 cm in a uniform magnetic field of magnitude 1.5 T. (a) What is the speed of the particle? (b) What is the kinetic energy in electron-volts? (c) Through what potential difference must the particle be accelerated in order to give it this kinetic energy?

32.

A particle of charge q and mass m is accelerated from rest through a potential difference V, after which it encounters a uniform magnetic field B. If the particle moves in a plane perpendicular to B, what is the radius of its circular orbit?

11.4 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor

33.

What is the direction of the magnetic force on the current in each of the six cases?

Case a: I is down, B is out of the page. Case b: I is up, B is to the right. Case c: I is to the right, B is into the page. Case d: I is to the left , B is to the right. Case e: I is into the page, B is up. Case f: I is out of the page, B is to the left.
34.

What is the direction of a current that experiences the magnetic force shown in each of the three cases, assuming the current runs perpendicular to BB?

Case a: B is out of the page, F is up. Case b: B is to the right, F is up. Case c: B is into the page, F is to the left.
35.

What is the direction of the magnetic field that produces the magnetic force shown on the currents in each of the three cases, assuming BB is perpendicular to I?

Case a: I is up, F is to the left. Case b: I is down, F is into the page. Case c: I is to the left, F is up.
36.

(a) What is the force per meter on a lightning bolt at the equator that carries 20,000 A perpendicular to Earth’s 3.0×10−5T3.0×10−5T field? (b) What is the direction of the force if the current is straight up and Earth’s field direction is due north, parallel to the ground?

37.

(a) A dc power line for a light-rail system carries 1000 A at an angle of 30.0º to Earth’s 5.0×10−5T5.0×10−5T field. What is the force on a 100-m section of this line? (b) Discuss practical concerns this presents, if any.

38.

A wire carrying a 30.0-A current passes between the poles of a strong magnet that is perpendicular to its field and experiences a 2.16-N force on the 4.00 cm of wire in the field. What is the average field strength?

11.5 Force and Torque on a Current Loop

39.

(a) By how many percent is the torque of a motor decreased if its permanent magnets lose 5.0% of their strength? (b) How many percent would the current need to be increased to return the torque to original values?

40.

(a) What is the maximum torque on a 150-turn square loop of wire 18.0 cm on a side that carries a 50.0-A current in a 1.60-T field? (b) What is the torque when θ is 10.9º?

41.

Find the current through a loop needed to create a maximum torque of 9.0N·m.9.0N·m. The loop has 50 square turns that are 15.0 cm on a side and is in a uniform 0.800-T magnetic field.

42.

Calculate the magnetic field strength needed on a 200-turn square loop 20.0 cm on a side to create a maximum torque of 300 N ⋅ m if the loop is carrying 25.0 A.

43.

Since the equation for torque on a current-carrying loop is τ = NIAB sin θ, the units of N ⋅ m must equal units of A ⋅ m2 T. Verify this.

44.

(a) At what angle θ is the torque on a current loop 90.0% of maximum? (b) 50.0% of maximum? (c) 10.0% of maximum?

45.

A proton has a magnetic field due to its spin. The field is similar to that created by a circular current loop 0.65×10−15m0.65×10−15m in radius with a current of 1.05×104A.1.05×104A. Find the maximum torque on a proton in a 2.50-T field. (This is a significant torque on a small particle.)

46.

(a) A 200-turn circular loop of radius 50.0 cm is vertical, with its axis on an east-west line. A current of 100 A circulates clockwise in the loop when viewed from the east. Earth’s field here is due north, parallel to the ground, with a strength of 3.0×10−5T.3.0×10−5T. What are the direction and magnitude of the torque on the loop? (b) Does this device have any practical applications as a motor?

A vertical circular loop is shown along with the compass directions. The axis (perpendicular to the plane of the loop) is on the east-west line. The magnetic field points north. The current in the loop is circulates clockwise as viewed from the east. The torque on the loop is clockwise as viewed when looking down at the top of the loop.
47.

Repeat the previous problem, but with the loop lying flat on the ground with its current circulating counterclockwise (when viewed from above) in a location where Earth’s field is north, but at an angle 45.0° below the horizontal and with a strength of 6.0×10−5T.6.0×10−5T.

A horizontal circular loop is shown along with the compass directions. The magnetic field points 45 degrees below the horizontal. The loop is shown rotating clockwise as viewed from the east.

11.6 The Hall Effect

48.

A strip of copper is placed in a uniform magnetic field of magnitude 2.5 T. The Hall electric field is measured to be 1.5×10−3V/m.1.5×10−3V/m. (a) What is the drift speed of the conduction electrons? (b) Assuming that n = 8.0×10288.0×1028 electrons per cubic meter and that the cross-sectional area of the strip is 5.0×10−6m2,5.0×10−6m2, calculate the current in the strip. (c) What is the Hall coefficient 1/nq?

49.

The cross-sectional dimensions of the copper strip shown are 2.0 cm by 2.0 mm. The strip carries a current of 100 A, and it is placed in a magnetic field of magnitude B = 1.5 T. What are the value and polarity of the Hall potential in the copper strip?

A horizontal 2.0 cm by 2.0 cm square copper strip has current I flowing through it to the right. A magnetic field, B, points up, perpendicular to the face of the strip.
50.

The magnitudes of the electric and magnetic fields in a velocity selector are 1.8×105V/m1.8×105V/m and 0.080 T, respectively. (a) What speed must a proton have to pass through the selector? (b) Also calculate the speeds required for an alpha-particle and a singly ionized sO16sO16 atom to pass through the selector.

51.

A charged particle moves through a velocity selector at constant velocity. In the selector, E = 1.0×104N/C1.0×104N/C and B = 0.250 T. When the electric field is turned off, the charged particle travels in a circular path of radius 3.33 mm. Determine the charge-to-mass ratio of the particle.

52.

A Hall probe gives a reading of 1.5μV1.5μV for a current of 2 A when it is placed in a magnetic field of 1 T. What is the magnetic field in a region where the reading is 2μV2μV for 1.7 A of current?

11.7 Applications of Magnetic Forces and Fields

53.

A physicist is designing a cyclotron to accelerate protons to one-tenth the speed of light. The magnetic field will have a strength of 1.5 T. Determine (a) the rotational period of the circulating protons and (b) the maximum radius of the protons’ orbit.

54.

The strengths of the fields in the velocity selector of a Bainbridge mass spectrometer are B = 0.500 T and E = 1.2×105V/m,1.2×105V/m, and the strength of the magnetic field that separates the ions is Bo=0.750T.Bo=0.750T. A stream of singly charged Li ions is found to bend in a circular arc of radius 2.32 cm. What is the mass of the Li ions?

55.

The magnetic field in a cyclotron is 1.25 T, and the maximum orbital radius of the circulating protons is 0.40 m. (a) What is the kinetic energy of the protons when they are ejected from the cyclotron? (b) What is this energy in MeV? (c) Through what potential difference would a proton have to be accelerated to acquire this kinetic energy? (d) What is the period of the voltage source used to accelerate the protons? (e) Repeat the calculations for alpha-particles.

56.

A mass spectrometer is being used to separate common oxygen-16 from the much rarer oxygen-18, taken from a sample of old glacial ice. (The relative abundance of these oxygen isotopes is related to climatic temperature at the time the ice was deposited.) The ratio of the masses of these two ions is 16 to 18, the mass of oxygen-16 is 2.66×10−26kg,2.66×10−26kg, and they are singly charged and travel at 5.00×106m/s5.00×106m/s in a 1.20-T magnetic field. What is the separation between their paths when they hit a target after traversing a semicircle?

57.

(a) Triply charged uranium-235 and uranium-238 ions are being separated in a mass spectrometer. (The much rarer uranium-235 is used as reactor fuel.) The masses of the ions are 3.90×10−25kg3.90×10−25kg and 3.95×10−25kg,3.95×10−25kg, respectively, and they travel at 3.0×105m/s3.0×105m/s in a 0.250-T field. What is the separation between their paths when they hit a target after traversing a semicircle? (b) Discuss whether this distance between their paths seems to be big enough to be practical in the separation of uranium-235 from uranium-238.

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