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University Physics Volume 1

Conceptual Questions

University Physics Volume 1Conceptual Questions
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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. Mechanics
    1. 1 Units and Measurement
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Scope and Scale of Physics
      3. 1.2 Units and Standards
      4. 1.3 Unit Conversion
      5. 1.4 Dimensional Analysis
      6. 1.5 Estimates and Fermi Calculations
      7. 1.6 Significant Figures
      8. 1.7 Solving Problems in Physics
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 2 Vectors
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Scalars and Vectors
      3. 2.2 Coordinate Systems and Components of a Vector
      4. 2.3 Algebra of Vectors
      5. 2.4 Products of Vectors
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 3 Motion Along a Straight Line
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Position, Displacement, and Average Velocity
      3. 3.2 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed
      4. 3.3 Average and Instantaneous Acceleration
      5. 3.4 Motion with Constant Acceleration
      6. 3.5 Free Fall
      7. 3.6 Finding Velocity and Displacement from Acceleration
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 4 Motion in Two and Three Dimensions
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Displacement and Velocity Vectors
      3. 4.2 Acceleration Vector
      4. 4.3 Projectile Motion
      5. 4.4 Uniform Circular Motion
      6. 4.5 Relative Motion in One and Two Dimensions
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    5. 5 Newton's Laws of Motion
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Forces
      3. 5.2 Newton's First Law
      4. 5.3 Newton's Second Law
      5. 5.4 Mass and Weight
      6. 5.5 Newton’s Third Law
      7. 5.6 Common Forces
      8. 5.7 Drawing Free-Body Diagrams
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    6. 6 Applications of Newton's Laws
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Solving Problems with Newton’s Laws
      3. 6.2 Friction
      4. 6.3 Centripetal Force
      5. 6.4 Drag Force and Terminal Speed
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    7. 7 Work and Kinetic Energy
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Work
      3. 7.2 Kinetic Energy
      4. 7.3 Work-Energy Theorem
      5. 7.4 Power
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    8. 8 Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Potential Energy of a System
      3. 8.2 Conservative and Non-Conservative Forces
      4. 8.3 Conservation of Energy
      5. 8.4 Potential Energy Diagrams and Stability
      6. 8.5 Sources of Energy
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    9. 9 Linear Momentum and Collisions
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Linear Momentum
      3. 9.2 Impulse and Collisions
      4. 9.3 Conservation of Linear Momentum
      5. 9.4 Types of Collisions
      6. 9.5 Collisions in Multiple Dimensions
      7. 9.6 Center of Mass
      8. 9.7 Rocket Propulsion
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    10. 10 Fixed-Axis Rotation
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Rotational Variables
      3. 10.2 Rotation with Constant Angular Acceleration
      4. 10.3 Relating Angular and Translational Quantities
      5. 10.4 Moment of Inertia and Rotational Kinetic Energy
      6. 10.5 Calculating Moments of Inertia
      7. 10.6 Torque
      8. 10.7 Newton’s Second Law for Rotation
      9. 10.8 Work and Power for Rotational Motion
      10. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    11. 11 Angular Momentum
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Rolling Motion
      3. 11.2 Angular Momentum
      4. 11.3 Conservation of Angular Momentum
      5. 11.4 Precession of a Gyroscope
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    12. 12 Static Equilibrium and Elasticity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Conditions for Static Equilibrium
      3. 12.2 Examples of Static Equilibrium
      4. 12.3 Stress, Strain, and Elastic Modulus
      5. 12.4 Elasticity and Plasticity
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    13. 13 Gravitation
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
      3. 13.2 Gravitation Near Earth's Surface
      4. 13.3 Gravitational Potential Energy and Total Energy
      5. 13.4 Satellite Orbits and Energy
      6. 13.5 Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
      7. 13.6 Tidal Forces
      8. 13.7 Einstein's Theory of Gravity
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    14. 14 Fluid Mechanics
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Fluids, Density, and Pressure
      3. 14.2 Measuring Pressure
      4. 14.3 Pascal's Principle and Hydraulics
      5. 14.4 Archimedes’ Principle and Buoyancy
      6. 14.5 Fluid Dynamics
      7. 14.6 Bernoulli’s Equation
      8. 14.7 Viscosity and Turbulence
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  3. Unit 2. Waves and Acoustics
    1. 15 Oscillations
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 Simple Harmonic Motion
      3. 15.2 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion
      4. 15.3 Comparing Simple Harmonic Motion and Circular Motion
      5. 15.4 Pendulums
      6. 15.5 Damped Oscillations
      7. 15.6 Forced Oscillations
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 16 Waves
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Traveling Waves
      3. 16.2 Mathematics of Waves
      4. 16.3 Wave Speed on a Stretched String
      5. 16.4 Energy and Power of a Wave
      6. 16.5 Interference of Waves
      7. 16.6 Standing Waves and Resonance
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 17 Sound
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Sound Waves
      3. 17.2 Speed of Sound
      4. 17.3 Sound Intensity
      5. 17.4 Normal Modes of a Standing Sound Wave
      6. 17.5 Sources of Musical Sound
      7. 17.6 Beats
      8. 17.7 The Doppler Effect
      9. 17.8 Shock Waves
      10. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  4. A | Units
  5. B | Conversion Factors
  6. C | Fundamental Constants
  7. D | Astronomical Data
  8. E | Mathematical Formulas
  9. F | Chemistry
  10. G | The Greek Alphabet
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
  12. Index

Conceptual Questions

16.1 Traveling Waves

1.

Give one example of a transverse wave and one example of a longitudinal wave, being careful to note the relative directions of the disturbance and wave propagation in each.

2.

A sinusoidal transverse wave has a wavelength of 2.80 m. It takes 0.10 s for a portion of the string at a position x to move from a maximum position of y=0.03my=0.03m to the equilibrium position y=0.y=0. What are the period, frequency, and wave speed of the wave?

3.

What is the difference between propagation speed and the frequency of a mechanical wave? Does one or both affect wavelength? If so, how?

4.

Consider a stretched spring, such as a slinky. The stretched spring can support longitudinal waves and transverse waves. How can you produce transverse waves on the spring? How can you produce longitudinal waves on the spring?

5.

Consider a wave produced on a stretched spring by holding one end and shaking it up and down. Does the wavelength depend on the distance you move your hand up and down?

6.

A sinusoidal, transverse wave is produced on a stretched spring, having a period T. Each section of the spring moves perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the wave, in simple harmonic motion with an amplitude A. Does each section oscillate with the same period as the wave or a different period? If the amplitude of the transverse wave were doubled but the period stays the same, would your answer be the same?

7.

An electromagnetic wave, such as light, does not require a medium. Can you think of an example that would support this claim?

16.2 Mathematics of Waves

8.

If you were to shake the end of a taut spring up and down 10 times a second, what would be the frequency and the period of the sinusoidal wave produced on the spring?

9.

If you shake the end of a stretched spring up and down with a frequency f, you can produce a sinusoidal, transverse wave propagating down the spring. Does the wave number depend on the frequency you are shaking the spring?

10.

Does the vertical speed of a segment of a horizontal taut string through which a sinusoidal, transverse wave is propagating depend on the wave speed of the transverse wave?

11.

In this section, we have considered waves that move at a constant wave speed. Does the medium accelerate?

12.

If you drop a pebble in a pond you may notice that several concentric ripples are produced, not just a single ripple. Why do you think that is?

16.3 Wave Speed on a Stretched String

13.

If the tension in a string were increased by a factor of four, by what factor would the wave speed of a wave on the string increase?

14.

Does a sound wave move faster in seawater or fresh water, if both the sea water and fresh water are at the same temperature and the sound wave moves near the surface? (ρw1000kgm3,ρs1030kgm3,Bw=2.15×109Pa,(ρw1000kgm3,ρs1030kgm3,Bw=2.15×109Pa, Bs=2.34×109Pa)Bs=2.34×109Pa)

15.

Guitars have strings of different linear mass density. If the lowest density string and the highest density string are under the same tension, which string would support waves with the higher wave speed?

16.

Shown below are three waves that were sent down a string at different times. The tension in the string remains constant. (a) Rank the waves from the smallest wavelength to the largest wavelength. (b) Rank the waves from the lowest frequency to the highest frequency.

Figure shows three waves labeled A, B and C on the same graph. All have their equilibrium positions on the x axis. Wave A has amplitude of 4 units. It has crests at x = 1.5 and x = 7.5. Wave B has amplitude of 3 units. It has a crest at x = 2 and a trough at x = 6. Wave C has amplitude of 2 units. It has crests at x = 1 and x = 5.
17.

Electrical power lines connected by two utility poles are sometimes heard to hum when driven into oscillation by the wind. The speed of the waves on the power lines depend on the tension. What provides the tension in the power lines?

18.

Two strings, one with a low mass density and one with a high linear density are spliced together. The higher density end is tied to a lab post and a student holds the free end of the low-mass density string. The student gives the string a flip and sends a pulse down the strings. If the tension is the same in both strings, does the pulse travel at the same wave velocity in both strings? If not, where does it travel faster, in the low density string or the high density string?

16.4 Energy and Power of a Wave

19.

Consider a string with under tension with a constant linear mass density. A sinusoidal wave with an angular frequency and amplitude produced by some external driving force. If the frequency of the driving force is decreased to half of the original frequency, how is the time-averaged power of the wave affected? If the amplitude of the driving force is decreased by half, how is the time-averaged power affected? Explain your answer.

20.

Circular water waves decrease in amplitude as they move away from where a rock is dropped. Explain why.

21.

In a transverse wave on a string, the motion of the string is perpendicular to the motion of the wave. If this is so, how is possible to move energy along the length of the string?

22.

The energy from the sun warms the portion of the earth facing the sun during the daylight hours. Why are the North and South Poles cold while the equator is quite warm?

23.

The intensity of a spherical waves decreases as the wave moves away from the source. If the intensity of the wave at the source is I0,I0, how far from the source will the intensity decrease by a factor of nine?

16.5 Interference of Waves

24.

An incident sinusoidal wave is sent along a string that is fixed to the wall with a wave speed of v. The wave reflects off the end of the string. Describe the reflected wave.

25.

A string of a length of 2.00 m with a linear mass density of μ=0.006kg/mμ=0.006kg/m is attached to the end of a 2.00-m-long string with a linear mass density of μ=0.012kg/m.μ=0.012kg/m. The free end of the higher-density string is fixed to the wall, and a student holds the free end of the low-density string, keeping the tension constant in both strings. The student sends a pulse down the string. Describe what happens at the interface between the two strings.

26.

A long, tight spring is held by two students, one student holding each end. Each student gives the end a flip sending one wavelength of a sinusoidal wave down the spring in opposite directions. When the waves meet in the middle, what does the wave look like?

27.

Many of the topics discussed in this chapter are useful beyond the topics of mechanical waves. It is hard to conceive of a mechanical wave with sharp corners, but you could encounter such a wave form in your digital electronics class, as shown below. This could be a signal from a device known as an analog to digital converter, in which a continuous voltage signal is converted into a discrete signal or a digital recording of sound. What is the result of the superposition of the two signals?

Figure a shows the graph of a red wave with sharp corners. The y value is 0 at x=0. At x=3, the y value rises to 2 and stays constant till x=5. Here, it rises to 3 and stays constant till x=8. Here, it dips down to -2 and stays constant till x=9. Here it rises to 0 and stays constant. Figure b shows the graph of a blue wave with sharp corners. The y value is 0 at x=0. At x=3, the y value rises to 2 and stays constant till x=7. Here it dips to -1 and stays constant till x=9. Here it rises to 0 and stays constant.
28.

A string of a constant linear mass density is held taut by two students, each holding one end. The tension in the string is constant. The students each send waves down the string by wiggling the string. (a) Is it possible for the waves to have different wave speeds? (b) Is it possible for the waves to have different frequencies? (c) Is it possible for the waves to have different wavelengths?

16.6 Standing Waves and Resonance

29.

A truck manufacturer finds that a strut in the engine is failing prematurely. A sound engineer determines that the strut resonates at the frequency of the engine and suspects that this could be the problem. What are two possible characteristics of the strut can be modified to correct the problem?

30.

Why do roofs of gymnasiums and churches seem to fail more than family homes when an earthquake occurs?

31.

Wine glasses can be set into resonance by moistening your finger and rubbing it around the rim of the glass. Why?

32.

Air conditioning units are sometimes placed on the roof of homes in the city. Occasionally, the air conditioners cause an undesirable hum throughout the upper floors of the homes. Why does this happen? What can be done to reduce the hum?

33.

Consider a standing wave modeled as y(x,t)=4.00cmsin(3m−1x)cos(4s−1t).y(x,t)=4.00cmsin(3m−1x)cos(4s−1t). Is there a node or an antinode at x=0.00m?x=0.00m? What about a standing wave modeled as y(x,t)=4.00cmsin(3m−1x+π2)cos(4s−1t)?y(x,t)=4.00cmsin(3m−1x+π2)cos(4s−1t)? Is there a node or an antinode at the x=0.00mx=0.00m position?

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