### Summary

### 13.1 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation

- All masses attract one another with a gravitational force proportional to their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
- Spherically symmetrical masses can be treated as if all their mass were located at the center.
- Nonsymmetrical objects can be treated as if their mass were concentrated at their center of mass, provided their distance from other masses is large compared to their size.

### 13.2 Gravitation Near Earth's Surface

- The weight of an object is the gravitational attraction between Earth and the object.
- The gravitational field is represented as lines that indicate the direction of the gravitational force; the line spacing indicates the strength of the field.
- Apparent weight differs from actual weight due to the acceleration of the object.

### 13.3 Gravitational Potential Energy and Total Energy

- The acceleration due to gravity changes as we move away from Earth, and the expression for gravitational potential energy must reflect this change.
- The total energy of a system is the sum of kinetic and gravitational potential energy, and this total energy is conserved in orbital motion.
- Objects must have a minimum velocity, the escape velocity, to leave a planet and not return.
- Objects with total energy less than zero are bound; those with zero or greater are unbounded.

### 13.4 Satellite Orbits and Energy

- Orbital velocities are determined by the mass of the body being orbited and the distance from the center of that body, and not by the mass of a much smaller orbiting object.
- The period of the orbit is likewise independent of the orbiting object’s mass.
- Bodies of comparable masses orbit about their common center of mass and their velocities and periods should be determined from Newton’s second law and law of gravitation.

### 13.5 Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion

- All orbital motion follows the path of a conic section. Bound or closed orbits are either a circle or an ellipse; unbounded or open orbits are either a parabola or a hyperbola.
- The areal velocity of any orbit is constant, a reflection of the conservation of angular momentum.
- The square of the period of an elliptical orbit is proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of that orbit.

### 13.6 Tidal Forces

- Earth’s tides are caused by the difference in gravitational forces from the Moon and the Sun on the different sides of Earth.
- Spring or neap (high) tides occur when Earth, the Moon, and the Sun are aligned, and neap or (low) tides occur when they form a right triangle.
- Tidal forces can create internal heating, changes in orbital motion, and even destruction of orbiting bodies.

### 13.7 Einstein's Theory of Gravity

- According to the theory of general relativity, gravity is the result of distortions in space-time created by mass and energy.
- The principle of equivalence states that that both mass and acceleration distort space-time and are indistinguishable in comparable circumstances.
- Black holes, the result of gravitational collapse, are singularities with an event horizon that is proportional to their mass.
- Evidence for the existence of black holes is still circumstantial, but the amount of that evidence is overwhelming.