Skip to Content
OpenStax Logo
Statistics

Practice

StatisticsPractice
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Sampling and Data
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Definitions of Statistics, Probability, and Key Terms
    3. 1.2 Data, Sampling, and Variation in Data and Sampling
    4. 1.3 Frequency, Frequency Tables, and Levels of Measurement
    5. 1.4 Experimental Design and Ethics
    6. 1.5 Data Collection Experiment
    7. 1.6 Sampling Experiment
    8. Key Terms
    9. Chapter Review
    10. Practice
    11. Homework
    12. Bringing It Together: Homework
    13. References
    14. Solutions
  3. 2 Descriptive Statistics
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Stem-and-Leaf Graphs (Stemplots), Line Graphs, and Bar Graphs
    3. 2.2 Histograms, Frequency Polygons, and Time Series Graphs
    4. 2.3 Measures of the Location of the Data
    5. 2.4 Box Plots
    6. 2.5 Measures of the Center of the Data
    7. 2.6 Skewness and the Mean, Median, and Mode
    8. 2.7 Measures of the Spread of the Data
    9. 2.8 Descriptive Statistics
    10. Key Terms
    11. Chapter Review
    12. Formula Review
    13. Practice
    14. Homework
    15. Bringing It Together: Homework
    16. References
    17. Solutions
  4. 3 Probability Topics
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Terminology
    3. 3.2 Independent and Mutually Exclusive Events
    4. 3.3 Two Basic Rules of Probability
    5. 3.4 Contingency Tables
    6. 3.5 Tree and Venn Diagrams
    7. 3.6 Probability Topics
    8. Key Terms
    9. Chapter Review
    10. Formula Review
    11. Practice
    12. Bringing It Together: Practice
    13. Homework
    14. Bringing It Together: Homework
    15. References
    16. Solutions
  5. 4 Discrete Random Variables
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Probability Distribution Function (PDF) for a Discrete Random Variable
    3. 4.2 Mean or Expected Value and Standard Deviation
    4. 4.3 Binomial Distribution (Optional)
    5. 4.4 Geometric Distribution (Optional)
    6. 4.5 Hypergeometric Distribution (Optional)
    7. 4.6 Poisson Distribution (Optional)
    8. 4.7 Discrete Distribution (Playing Card Experiment)
    9. 4.8 Discrete Distribution (Lucky Dice Experiment)
    10. Key Terms
    11. Chapter Review
    12. Formula Review
    13. Practice
    14. Homework
    15. References
    16. Solutions
  6. 5 Continuous Random Variables
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Continuous Probability Functions
    3. 5.2 The Uniform Distribution
    4. 5.3 The Exponential Distribution (Optional)
    5. 5.4 Continuous Distribution
    6. Key Terms
    7. Chapter Review
    8. Formula Review
    9. Practice
    10. Homework
    11. References
    12. Solutions
  7. 6 The Normal Distribution
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 The Standard Normal Distribution
    3. 6.2 Using the Normal Distribution
    4. 6.3 Normal Distribution—Lap Times
    5. 6.4 Normal Distribution—Pinkie Length
    6. Key Terms
    7. Chapter Review
    8. Formula Review
    9. Practice
    10. Homework
    11. References
    12. Solutions
  8. 7 The Central Limit Theorem
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 The Central Limit Theorem for Sample Means (Averages)
    3. 7.2 The Central Limit Theorem for Sums (Optional)
    4. 7.3 Using the Central Limit Theorem
    5. 7.4 Central Limit Theorem (Pocket Change)
    6. 7.5 Central Limit Theorem (Cookie Recipes)
    7. Key Terms
    8. Chapter Review
    9. Formula Review
    10. Practice
    11. Homework
    12. References
    13. Solutions
  9. 8 Confidence Intervals
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 A Single Population Mean Using the Normal Distribution
    3. 8.2 A Single Population Mean Using the Student's t-Distribution
    4. 8.3 A Population Proportion
    5. 8.4 Confidence Interval (Home Costs)
    6. 8.5 Confidence Interval (Place of Birth)
    7. 8.6 Confidence Interval (Women's Heights)
    8. Key Terms
    9. Chapter Review
    10. Formula Review
    11. Practice
    12. Homework
    13. References
    14. Solutions
  10. 9 Hypothesis Testing with One Sample
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Null and Alternative Hypotheses
    3. 9.2 Outcomes and the Type I and Type II Errors
    4. 9.3 Distribution Needed for Hypothesis Testing
    5. 9.4 Rare Events, the Sample, and the Decision and Conclusion
    6. 9.5 Additional Information and Full Hypothesis Test Examples
    7. 9.6 Hypothesis Testing of a Single Mean and Single Proportion
    8. Key Terms
    9. Chapter Review
    10. Formula Review
    11. Practice
    12. Homework
    13. References
    14. Solutions
  11. 10 Hypothesis Testing with Two Samples
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Two Population Means with Unknown Standard Deviations
    3. 10.2 Two Population Means with Known Standard Deviations
    4. 10.3 Comparing Two Independent Population Proportions
    5. 10.4 Matched or Paired Samples (Optional)
    6. 10.5 Hypothesis Testing for Two Means and Two Proportions
    7. Key Terms
    8. Chapter Review
    9. Formula Review
    10. Practice
    11. Homework
    12. Bringing It Together: Homework
    13. References
    14. Solutions
  12. 11 The Chi-Square Distribution
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Facts About the Chi-Square Distribution
    3. 11.2 Goodness-of-Fit Test
    4. 11.3 Test of Independence
    5. 11.4 Test for Homogeneity
    6. 11.5 Comparison of the Chi-Square Tests
    7. 11.6 Test of a Single Variance
    8. 11.7 Lab 1: Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit
    9. 11.8 Lab 2: Chi-Square Test of Independence
    10. Key Terms
    11. Chapter Review
    12. Formula Review
    13. Practice
    14. Homework
    15. Bringing It Together: Homework
    16. References
    17. Solutions
  13. 12 Linear Regression and Correlation
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Linear Equations
    3. 12.2 The Regression Equation
    4. 12.3 Testing the Significance of the Correlation Coefficient (Optional)
    5. 12.4 Prediction (Optional)
    6. 12.5 Outliers
    7. 12.6 Regression (Distance from School) (Optional)
    8. 12.7 Regression (Textbook Cost) (Optional)
    9. 12.8 Regression (Fuel Efficiency) (Optional)
    10. Key Terms
    11. Chapter Review
    12. Formula Review
    13. Practice
    14. Homework
    15. Bringing It Together: Homework
    16. References
    17. Solutions
  14. 13 F Distribution and One-way Anova
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 One-Way ANOVA
    3. 13.2 The F Distribution and the F Ratio
    4. 13.3 Facts About the F Distribution
    5. 13.4 Test of Two Variances
    6. 13.5 Lab: One-Way ANOVA
    7. Key Terms
    8. Chapter Review
    9. Formula Review
    10. Practice
    11. Homework
    12. References
    13. Solutions
  15. A | Appendix A Review Exercises (Ch 3–13)
  16. B | Appendix B Practice Tests (1–4) and Final Exams
  17. C | Data Sets
  18. D | Group and Partner Projects
  19. E | Solution Sheets
  20. F | Mathematical Phrases, Symbols, and Formulas
  21. G | Notes for the TI-83, 83+, 84, 84+ Calculators
  22. H | Tables
  23. Index

12.1 Linear Equations

Use the following information to answer the next three exercises. A vacation resort rents scuba equipment to certified divers. The resort charges an up-front fee of $25 and another fee of $12.50 an hour.

1.

What are the dependent and independent variables?

2.

Find the equation that expresses the total fee in terms of the number of hours the equipment is rented.

3.

Graph the equation from Exercise 12.2.


Use the following information to answer the next two exercises. A credit card company charges $10 when a payment is late and $5 a day each day the payment remains unpaid.

4.

Find the equation that expresses the total fee in terms of the number of days the payment is late.

5.

Graph the equation from Exercise 12.4.

6.

Is the equation y = 10 + 5x – 3x2 linear? Why or why not?

7.

Which of the following equations are linear?

a. y = 6x + 8

b. y + 7 = 3x

c. yx = 8x2

d. 4y = 8

8.

Does the graph in Figure 12.23 show a linear equation? Why or why not?

This is a graph of an equation. The x-axis is labeled in intervals of 1 from -5 to 5; the y-axis is labeled in intervals of 1 from 0 - 8. The equation's graph is a parabola, a u-shaped curve that has a minimum value at (0, 0).
Figure 12.23

Use the following information to answer the next exercise. Table 12.13 contains real data for the first two decades of flu reporting.

Year Number of Flu Cases Diagnosed Number of Flu Deaths
Pre-1981 91 29
1981 319 121
1982 1,170 453
1983 3,076 1,482
1984 6,240 3,466
1985 11,776 6,878
1986 19,032 11,987
1987 28,564 16,162
1988 35,447 20,868
1989 42,674 27,591
1990 48,634 31,335
1991 59,660 36,560
1992 78,530 41,055
1993 78,834 44,730
1994 71,874 49,095
1995 68,505 49,456
1996 59,347 38,510
1997 47,149 20,736
1998 38,393 19,005
1999 25,174 18,454
2000 25,522 17,347
2001 25,643 17,402
2002 26,464 16,371
Total 802,118 489,093
Table 12.13
9.

Use the columns Year and Number of Flu Cases Diagnosed. Why is year the independent variable and number of flu cases diagnosed the dependent variable (instead of the reverse)?


Use the following information to answer the next two exercises. A specialty cleaning company charges an equipment fee and an hourly labor fee. A linear equation that expresses the total amount of the fee the company charges for each session is y = 50 + 100x.

10.

What are the independent and dependent variables?

11.

What is the y-intercept, and what is the slope? Interpret them using complete sentences.


Use the following information to answer the next three questions. As a result of erosion, a river shoreline is losing several thousand pounds of soil each year. A linear equation that expresses the total amount of soil lost per year is y = 12,000x.

12.

What are the independent and dependent variables?

13.

How many pounds of soil does the shoreline lose in a year?

14.

What is the y-intercept? Interpret its meaning.


Use the following information to answer the next two exercises. The price of a single issue of stock can fluctuate throughout the day. A linear equation that represents the price of stock for Shipment Express is y = 15 – 1.5x, where x is the number of hours passed in an eight-hour day of trading.

15.

What are the slope and y-intercept? Interpret their meaning.

16.

If you owned this stock, would you want a positive or negative slope? Why?

12.2 The Regression Equation

17.

Table 12.16 below represents the relationship between the number of hours spent studying and final exam grades.

x (number of hours spent studying) y (final exam grades)
3 50
5 72
1 45
2 51
6 80
8 96
4 65
7 90
Table 12.14

Fill in the following chart as a first step in finding the line of best fit, using the median–median approach.

Group x (no. of hours spent studying) y (final exam grades) Median x Value Median y Value
1
2
3
Table 12.15

Use the following information to answer the next five exercises. A random sample of 10 professional athletes produced the following data, where x is the number of endorsements the player has and y is the amount of money made, in millions of dollars.

x y x y
0 2 5 12
3 8 4 9
2 7 3 9
1 3 0 3
5 13 4 10
Table 12.16
18.

Draw a scatter plot of the data.

19.

Use regression to find the equation for the line of best fit.

20.

Draw the line of best fit on the scatter plot.

21.

What is the slope of the line of best fit? What does it represent?

22.

What is the y-intercept of the line of best fit? What does it represent?

23.

What does an r value of zero mean?

24.

When n = 2 and r = 1, are the data significant? Explain.

25.

When n = 100 and r = –0.89, is there a significant correlation? Explain.

12.3 Testing the Significance of the Correlation Coefficient (Optional)

26.

When testing the significance of the correlation coefficient, what is the null hypothesis?

27.

When testing the significance of the correlation coefficient, what is the alternative hypothesis?

28.

If the level of significance is 0.05 and the p-value is 0.04, what conclusion can you draw?

12.4 Prediction (Optional)

Use the following information to answer the next two exercises. An electronics retailer used regression to find a simple model to predict sales growth in the first quarter of the new year (January through March). The model is good for 90 days, where x is the day. The model can be written as ŷ = 101.32 + 2.48x, where ŷ is in thousands of dollars.

29.

What would you predict the sales to be on day 60?

30.

What would you predict the sales to be on day 90?


Use the following information to answer the next three exercises. A landscaping company is hired to mow the grass for several large properties. The total area of the properties is 1,345 acres. The rate at which one person can mow is ŷ = 1350 – 1.2x, where x is the number of hours and ŷ represents the number of acres left to mow.

31.

How many acres are left to mow after 20 hours of work?

32.

How many acres are left to mow after 100 hours of work?

33.

How many hours does it take to mow all the lawns, or when is ŷ = 0?

Use the following information to answer the next 14 exercises. Table 12.17 contains real data for the first two decades of flu reporting.

Year Number of Flu Cases Diagnosed Number of Flu Deaths
Pre-1981 91 29
1981 319 121
1982 1,170 453
1983 3,076 1,482
1984 6,240 3,466
1985 11,776 6,878
1986 19,032 11,987
1987 28,564 16,162
1988 35,447 20,868
1989 42,674 27,591
1990 48,634 31,335
1991 59,660 36,560
1992 78,530 41,055
1993 78,834 44,730
1994 71,874 49,095
1995 68,505 49,456
1996 59,347 38,510
1997 47,149 20,736
1998 38,393 19,005
1999 25,174 18,454
2000 25,522 17,347
2001 25,643 17,402
2002 26,464 16,371
Total 802,118 489,093
Table 12.17 Adults and Adolescents Only, United States
34.

Graph year versus number of flu cases diagnosed (plot the scatter plot). Do not include pre-1981 data.

35.

Perform a linear regression. What is the linear equation? Round to the nearest whole number. Find the following:

Write the equations:

  • Linear equation: __________
  • a = ________
  • b = ________
  • r = ________
  • n = ________
36.

Solve.

  1. When x = 1985, ŷ = _____.
  2. When x = 1990, ŷ = _____.
  3. When x = 1970, ŷ = _____. Why doesn’t this answer make sense?
37.

Does the line seem to fit the data? Why or why not?

38.

What does the correlation imply about the relationship between time (years) and the number of diagnosed flu cases reported in the United States?

39.

Plot the two points on the graph. Then, connect the two points to form the regression line.

40.

Write the equation: ŷ = ____________.

41.

Hand-draw a smooth curve on the graph that shows the flow of the data.

42.

Does the line seem to fit the data? Why or why not?

43.

Do you think a linear fit is best? Why or why not?

44.

What does the correlation imply about the relationship between time (years) and the number of diagnosed flu cases reported in the United States?

45.

Graph year vs. number flu cases diagnosed. Do not include pre-1981. Label both axes with words. Scale both axes.

46.

Enter your data into your calculator or computer. The pre-1981 data should not be included. Why is that so?

Write the linear equation, rounding to four decimal places.

47.

Calculate the following:

  • a = _____
  • b = _____
  • correlation = _____
  • n = _____

12.5 Outliers

48.

Marcus states that all outliers are influential points. Is he correct? Explain.

Use the following information to answer the next four exercises. The scatter plot shows the relationship between hours spent studying and exam scores. The line shown is the calculated line of best fit. The correlation coefficient is 0.69.

A graph is shown. The y-axis has tick marks at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100. The x axis has tick marks at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14. The line goes up steadily from 68 and ends around 100.
Figure 12.24
49.

Do there appear to be any outliers?

50.

A point is removed and the line of best fit is recalculated. The new correlation coefficient is 0.98. Does the point appear to have been an outlier? Why?

51.

What effect did the potential outlier have on the line of best fit?

52.

Are you more or less confident in the predictive ability of the new line of best fit?

53.

The sum of squared errors (SSE) for a data set of 18 numbers is 49. What is the standard deviation?

54.

The standard deviation for the SSE for a data set is 9.8. What is the cutoff for the vertical distance that a point can be from the line of best fit to be considered an outlier?

Citation/Attribution

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book is Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/statistics/pages/1-introduction
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/statistics/pages/1-introduction
Citation information

© May 8, 2020 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 license. The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.