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Four men sitting on a wooden bench in the forest by water talking.
Figure 9.1 Group therapy can occur in a variety of settings, such as this session in the woods by a river. (credit: “Men Sitting Talking by River Outdoors” by “JourneyPure Rehab:/flickr, CC BY 2.0)

Death and dying are integral aspects of the human experience, and for health-care professionals, understanding and effectively responding to the end-of-life journey is paramount. Nurses are pivotal in providing compassionate care, support, and comfort to clients and their families during this sensitive time. Grieving individuals may experience social isolation, difficulty maintaining relationships, and hurdles to resuming daily activities. Different cultures and societies have unique beliefs, customs, and rituals surrounding death. In some instances, death-related topics may be stigmatized, leading to a lack of open discussion and support for those experiencing loss. Health-care providers must be sensitive to these diverse perspectives and accommodate individual and family preferences during the end-of-life journey.

Likewise, grief, anger, and aggression are universal human experiences, deeply ingrained within individuals’ biological and psychological makeup. As survival mechanisms, they evolved to protect us from threats and ensure our existence. When misdirected or poorly managed, however, these emotions can lead to destructive outcomes, causing harm to oneself and others.


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