Skip to ContentGo to accessibility pageKeyboard shortcuts menu
OpenStax Logo

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2019, July). What is cultural and linguistic competence?

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2020, September). The share approach-overcoming communication barriers with your clients: A reference guide for health care providers.

American Nurses Association. (2018, February 15). Code of ethics.

American Nurses Association. (2021). Nursing: Scope and standards of practice (4th ed.). American Nurses Association.

American Psychological Association. (n.d.). APA dictionary of psychology.

Bhattacharya, S., Kumar, R., Sharma, N., & Thiyagarajan, A. (2019). Cultural competence in family practice and primary care setting. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 8(1), 1.

Boston Medical Center. (n.d.). Genetic screening: Ancestry based.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022a, December 8). Advancing health equity in chronic disease prevention and management.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022b, December 8). NCCDPHP health equity glossary.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2024, February 23). Cultural competence in health and human services.

Cruz, M. L., Christie, S., Allen, E., Meza, E., Nápoles, A. M., & Mehta, K. M. (2022). Traditional healers as health care providers for the Latine community in the United States, a systematic review. Health Equity, 6(1), 412–426.

Department of Justice. (2020, April). Drug fact sheet: Peyote & Mescaline. Retrieved February 28, 2023, from

Douglas, M. K., Rosenkoetter, M., Pacquiao, D. F., Callister, L. C., Hattar-Pollara, M. Lauderdale, J., Milstead, J., Nardi, D., Purnell, L. (2011, October). Standards of practice for culturally competent nursing care: 2011 update. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 22(4), 317–333.

EveryNurse. (2023). Seven steps to become a more culturally sensitive nurse.

Fatehi, K., Priestley, J. L., & Taasoobshirazi, G. (2020). The expanded view of individualism and collectivism: One, two, or four dimensions? International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 20(1), 7–24.

Fidler, M. (2023, November 23). How high-quality medical interpreters can reduce costs and improve patient outcomes. The Journal of mHealth.

Firenzuoli, F., & Gori, L. (2007). European traditional medicine – international congress – introductory statement. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 4(s1), 3–4.

Giger, J. N., & Davidhizar, R. (2002). The Giger and Davidhizar transcultural assessment model. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 13(3), 185–188.

Givler, A., & Bhatt, H. (2022, May 23). The importance of cultural competence in pain and palliative care. StatPearls.

Haldar S., Pillai, D., Artiga, S. (2023, July 7). Overview of health coverage and care for individuals with limited English proficiency (LEP).

Hall, E. T. (1966). The Hidden Dimension. Anchor Books.

Harvard Divinity School. (2021, October 4). The Native American Church and the sacrament of peyote. YouTube. (n.d.). Mental health and substance abuse health coverage options.

Hughes, V., Delva, S., Nkimbeng, M., Spaulding, E., Turkson-Ocran, R.-A., Cudjoe, J., Ford, A., Rushton, C., D’Aoust, R., & Han, H.-R. (2020). Not missing the opportunity: Strategies to promote cultural humility among future nursing faculty. Journal of Professional Nursing, 36(1), 28–33.

Jensen, E. (2022, June 10). 2020 U.S. population more racially and ethnically diverse than measured in 2010.

Johns Hopkins Medicine. (2019a, December 2). Ayurveda.

Johns Hopkins Medicine. (2019b, December 2). Chinese medicine.

Johnson & Johnson Nursing. (2018, December 3). Becoming a culturally competent nurse. YouTube.

Jolley, C., & Peck, J. (2022). Diversity, equity, & inclusion policies of national nursing organizations. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 27(2).

Jones, N. (2022, June 10). 2020 census illuminates racial and ethnic composition of the country.

Keisler-Starkey, K., & Bunch, L. N. (2022, November 15). Health insurance coverage in the United States: 2021.

Leonti, M., & Verpoorte, R. (2017). Traditional Mediterranean and European herbal medicines. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 199, 161–167.

Lu, C., & Wan, C. (2018). Cultural self-awareness as awareness of culture’s influence on the self: Implications for cultural identification and well-being. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 44(6), 823–837.

Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (2021, February 13). St. John’s Wort. Mayo Clinic.

McCall, W. V. (2006). Psychiatry and psychology in the writings of L. Ron Hubbard. Journal of Religion and Health, 46(3), 437–447.

McFarland, M. R., & Wehbe-Alamah, H. B. (2019). Leininger’s theory of culture care diversity and universality: An overview with a historical retrospective and a view toward the future. Journal of Transcultural Nursing: Official Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society, 30(6), 540–557.

Medicaid. (n.d.). Behavioral health services.

Mersha, T. B., & Beck, A. F. (2020, November 24). The social, economic, political, and genetic value of race and ethnicity in 2020 - human genomics. BioMed Central.

Mokgobi, M. G. (2014, September). Understanding traditional African healing. African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation, and Dance, 20(Suppl 2), 24–34.

Moore, E. (2023). Native knowledge. American Nurse Journal, 18(11), 32–34.

National Academies of Sciences. (2017). The Root Causes of Health Inequality. Essay. In Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. The National Academies Press.

National Institutes of Health. (n.d.). Native Voices-Native Peoples’ Concepts of Health and Illness. U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Perreira, K. M., Wassink, J., & Harris, K. M. (2019). Beyond race/ethnicity: skin color, gender, and the health of young adults in the United States. Population Research and Policy Review, 38(2), 271–299.

Project Implicit. (n.d.). Take a test.

QSEN Institute. (n.d.) QSEN competencies.

Raghupathi, V., & Raghupathi, W. (2020). The influence of education on health: An empirical assessment of OECD countries for the period 1995–2015. Arch Public Health, 78, 20.

Sabin, J. A. (2022). Tackling implicit bias in health care. New England Journal of Medicine, 387(2), 105–107.

Slavin, S., Kuo, A., & Galanti, G-A. (2019). The 4C’s. Understanding cultural diversity in healthcare.

Spector, R. E. (2017). Cultural diversity in health and illness (9th ed.). Pearson Education.

Stubbe, D. E. (2020). Practicing cultural competence and cultural humility in the care of diverse clients. FOCUS, 18(1), 49–51.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2014). Quick guide for clinicians: Improving cultural competence.

Swihart, D. L., Yarrarapu, S. N. S., & Martin, R. L. (2022, November 14). Cultural religious competence in clinical practice. StatPearls.

U. S. Census Bureau. (2021, October 27). 2020 census demographic data map viewer.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2017, September). Naturopathy. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.-a). Complementary, alternative, or integrative health: What’s in a name? National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.-b). Cultural responsiveness. Cultural Responsiveness - Child Welfare Information Gateway.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.-c). Homeopathy. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health.

VanPuymbrouck, L., Friedman, C., & Feldner, H. (2020). Explicit and implicit disability attitudes of healthcare providers. Rehabilitation Psychology, 65(2), 101–112.

Veterans Affairs. (n.d.). Eligibility for VA health care.

Viinikainen J., Bryson, A., Böckerman, P., Kari, J. T., Lehtimäki, T., Raitakari, O., Viikari, J., & Pehkonen, J. (2022). Does better education mitigate risky health behavior? A mendelian randomization study. Economics & Human Biology. 46, 101–134.

Walter-McCabe, H., & Chen, A. (2022). Editors’ introduction: Transgender health equity and the law. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: A Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 50(3), 401–408.

Weinstein, J. N., Geller, A., Negussie, Y., & Baciu, A. (Eds.). (2017). The State of Health Disparities in the United States. In Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. essay, The National Academies Press.

World Health Organization. (n.d.). WHO Global Traditional Medicine Centre.

Zuma, T., Wight, D., Rochat, T., & Moshabela, M. (2016). The role of traditional health practitioners in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: Generic or mode specific?. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 16(1), 304.


This book may not be used in the training of large language models or otherwise be ingested into large language models or generative AI offerings without OpenStax's permission.

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution License and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at
Citation information

© Jun 12, 2024 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.