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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Accounting as a Tool for Managers
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 1.1 Define Managerial Accounting and Identify the Three Primary Responsibilities of Management
    3. 1.2 Distinguish between Financial and Managerial Accounting
    4. 1.3 Explain the Primary Roles and Skills Required of Managerial Accountants
    5. 1.4 Describe the Role of the Institute of Management Accountants and the Use of Ethical Standards
    6. 1.5 Describe Trends in Today’s Business Environment and Analyze Their Impact on Accounting
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Thought Provokers
  3. 2 Building Blocks of Managerial Accounting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 2.1 Distinguish between Merchandising, Manufacturing, and Service Organizations
    3. 2.2 Identify and Apply Basic Cost Behavior Patterns
    4. 2.3 Estimate a Variable and Fixed Cost Equation and Predict Future Costs
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Multiple Choice
    8. Questions
    9. Exercise Set A
    10. Exercise Set B
    11. Problem Set A
    12. Problem Set B
    13. Thought Provokers
  4. 3 Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 3.1 Explain Contribution Margin and Calculate Contribution Margin per Unit, Contribution Margin Ratio, and Total Contribution Margin
    3. 3.2 Calculate a Break-Even Point in Units and Dollars
    4. 3.3 Perform Break-Even Sensitivity Analysis for a Single Product Under Changing Business Situations
    5. 3.4 Perform Break-Even Sensitivity Analysis for a Multi-Product Environment Under Changing Business Situations
    6. 3.5 Calculate and Interpret a Company’s Margin of Safety and Operating Leverage
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  5. 4 Job Order Costing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 4.1 Distinguish between Job Order Costing and Process Costing
    3. 4.2 Describe and Identify the Three Major Components of Product Costs under Job Order Costing
    4. 4.3 Use the Job Order Costing Method to Trace the Flow of Product Costs through the Inventory Accounts
    5. 4.4 Compute a Predetermined Overhead Rate and Apply Overhead to Production
    6. 4.5 Compute the Cost of a Job Using Job Order Costing
    7. 4.6 Determine and Dispose of Underapplied or Overapplied Overhead
    8. 4.7 Prepare Journal Entries for a Job Order Cost System
    9. 4.8 Explain How a Job Order Cost System Applies to a Nonmanufacturing Environment
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Multiple Choice
    13. Questions
    14. Exercise Set A
    15. Exercise Set B
    16. Problem Set A
    17. Problem Set B
    18. Thought Provokers
  6. 5 Process Costing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 5.1 Compare and Contrast Job Order Costing and Process Costing
    3. 5.2 Explain and Identify Conversion Costs
    4. 5.3 Explain and Compute Equivalent Units and Total Cost of Production in an Initial Processing Stage
    5. 5.4 Explain and Compute Equivalent Units and Total Cost of Production in a Subsequent Processing Stage
    6. 5.5 Prepare Journal Entries for a Process Costing System
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  7. 6 Activity-Based, Variable, and Absorption Costing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 6.1 Calculate Predetermined Overhead and Total Cost under the Traditional Allocation Method
    3. 6.2 Describe and Identify Cost Drivers
    4. 6.3 Calculate Activity-Based Product Costs
    5. 6.4 Compare and Contrast Traditional and Activity-Based Costing Systems
    6. 6.5 Compare and Contrast Variable and Absorption Costing
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  8. 7 Budgeting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 7.1 Describe How and Why Managers Use Budgets
    3. 7.2 Prepare Operating Budgets
    4. 7.3 Prepare Financial Budgets
    5. 7.4 Prepare Flexible Budgets
    6. 7.5 Explain How Budgets Are Used to Evaluate Goals
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  9. 8 Standard Costs and Variances
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 8.1 Explain How and Why a Standard Cost Is Developed
    3. 8.2 Compute and Evaluate Materials Variances
    4. 8.3 Compute and Evaluate Labor Variances
    5. 8.4 Compute and Evaluate Overhead Variances
    6. 8.5 Describe How Companies Use Variance Analysis
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  10. 9 Responsibility Accounting and Decentralization
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 9.1 Differentiate between Centralized and Decentralized Management
    3. 9.2 Describe How Decision-Making Differs between Centralized and Decentralized Environments
    4. 9.3 Describe the Types of Responsibility Centers
    5. 9.4 Describe the Effects of Various Decisions on Performance Evaluation of Responsibility Centers
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  11. 10 Short-Term Decision Making
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 10.1 Identify Relevant Information for Decision-Making
    3. 10.2 Evaluate and Determine Whether to Accept or Reject a Special Order
    4. 10.3 Evaluate and Determine Whether to Make or Buy a Component
    5. 10.4 Evaluate and Determine Whether to Keep or Discontinue a Segment or Product
    6. 10.5 Evaluate and Determine Whether to Sell or Process Further
    7. 10.6 Evaluate and Determine How to Make Decisions When Resources Are Constrained
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Questions
    12. Exercise Set A
    13. Exercise Set B
    14. Problem Set A
    15. Problem Set B
    16. Thought Provokers
  12. 11 Capital Budgeting Decisions
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 11.1 Describe Capital Investment Decisions and How They Are Applied
    3. 11.2 Evaluate the Payback and Accounting Rate of Return in Capital Investment Decisions
    4. 11.3 Explain the Time Value of Money and Calculate Present and Future Values of Lump Sums and Annuities
    5. 11.4 Use Discounted Cash Flow Models to Make Capital Investment Decisions
    6. 11.5 Compare and Contrast Non-Time Value-Based Methods and Time Value-Based Methods in Capital Investment Decisions
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  13. 12 Balanced Scorecard and Other Performance Measures
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 12.1 Explain the Importance of Performance Measurement
    3. 12.2 Identify the Characteristics of an Effective Performance Measure
    4. 12.3 Evaluate an Operating Segment or a Project Using Return on Investment, Residual Income, and Economic Value Added
    5. 12.4 Describe the Balanced Scorecard and Explain How It Is Used
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  14. 13 Sustainability Reporting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 13.1 Describe Sustainability and the Way It Creates Business Value
    3. 13.2 Identify User Needs for Information
    4. 13.3 Discuss Examples of Major Sustainability Initiatives
    5. 13.4 Future Issues in Sustainability
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Thought Provokers
  15. Financial Statement Analysis
  16. Time Value of Money
  17. Suggested Resources
  18. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
  19. Index

Multiple Choice

1.

B

3.

A

5.

C

7.

C

9.

A

11.

C

13.

B

15.

D

17.

D

19.

B

Questions

1.

A management control system allows management to establish, implement, and monitor the organization’s achievement of strategic goals. Once the goals are developed, goals must be communicated throughout the organization and activities of the organization should align to achieve the strategic goals. The control system must also provide feedback and allow for alterations, as necessary, to the organization’s strategic goals.

3.

Centralized organizations reserve decision-making authority for top management. Decentralized organizations disperse decision-making throughout the organization. Companies of all sizes may exhibit tendencies for both centralized and decentralized decision-making. For example, while Apple might give its stores great latitude to meet customer needs, the company will reserve research and development activities for the highest levels of the organization.

5.

Daily decisions are frequent and usually have a short-term impact. Strategic decisions are infrequent and usually have a long-term impact. Daily decisions impact the operational effectiveness and efficiency of the organization while strategic decisions address the long-term aspect of the business. For example, daily decisions for a grocery store might relate to signage, displays, and inventory levels to maintain. Strategic decisions for a grocery store might include whether or not to offer online ordering or leasing in-store space to other businesses such as a coffee shop, nail salon, or bank.

7.

These activities represent a significant cost to the organization, require specialization, relate to strategic and quality goals, and allow for benefits related to buying power. Also, there is the possibility that without centralizing some of these costs, they might experience a significant cost overrun. For example, the company might want to finance capital improvements, and they often can do so less expensively, in terms of interest rates, by packaging bonds into one issue. Similar cost savings and improvements in operational efficiencies could probably be identified in the other examples listed.

9.

Answers will vary. Sample answer: McDonald’s might have a policy that all stores must sell items at a price set by the company. The purpose of this is to prevent stores from competing with each other based on price and causing confusion or frustration with customers.

11.

Answers will vary. Responses should include factors relating to establishing a competitive pay rate based on the local economy, hiring experienced workers, investing in training, and other factors necessary to ensure the store’s success.

13.

Netflix has three segments: Domestic Streaming, International Streaming, and Domestic DVD. Responses should present the following information:

Domestic Streaming 2017       2016       2015      
Paid memberships 54,750 47,905 43,401
Revenues $6,153,025 $5,077,307 $4,180,339
Contribution profit/(loss) $2,280,454 $1,838,686 $1,375,500
International Streaming 2017       2016       2015      
Paid memberships 62,832 41,185 27,438
Revenues $5,089,191 $3,211,095 $1,953,435
Contribution profit/(loss) $226,589 ($308,521) ($333,386)
Domestic DVD 2017       2016       2015      
Paid memberships 3,380 4,029 4,787
Revenues $450,497 $542,267 $645,737
Contribution profit/(loss) $249,972 $279,525 $321,829

Responses may note that Domestic Streaming memberships, revenues, and contribution profit are all increasing. International streaming is experiencing significant increases in memberships and revenues, but the contribution loss continues (the loss decreased from 2016 to 2017). The Domestic DVD segment is experiencing declining memberships, revenues, and contribution profit.

15.

Answers will vary. Responses should include an organizational chart for a decentralized structure that includes three divisions: residential, corporate, and nonprofit. Under each of these divisions would be the mowing, trimming, and landscaping activities. Alternative responses may present three divisions: mowing, trimming, and landscaping activities with the client categories (residential, corporate, and nonprofit) below each. This is less desirable due to inefficiency. The advantage of this approach is the speed of decision-making and responding to clients. Lavell would need to ensure the quality of the services remains at a high standard.

17.

Answers will vary. One example is the transportation division in a school system. The goal of the transportation division is to manage costs while maintaining safety in transporting students.

19.

Answers will vary. The benefits of an ROI structure include consideration for the segment’s investment and evaluation of management’s ability to generate profitability. In addition, this framework incentivizes management to undertake value-added investments. A disadvantage is that the segment may prioritize the segment over company financial goals.

21.

Answers will vary. Managers can influence controllable costs but have little or no ability to influence uncontrollable costs. While it is common to include uncontrollable (including allocated) costs in the financial information of the responsibility center, managers should be evaluated only on controllable costs.

23.

Answers will vary. An advantage of a market-based approach is that the company remains up-to-date on current cost levels. This allows the business to compare its current cost structure to the market and to identify areas where changes are necessary. A disadvantage is this approach is that it requires a significant investment of time and resources on the part of the business.

25.

Answers will vary. An advantage of a negotiated approach is that the responsibility center management must be actively involved in the process of establishing the transfer price. This approach may encourage managers to remain attentive to opportunities for cost improvements. A disadvantage would include the possibility of significant disagreements between responsibility center managers.

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