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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Accounting as a Tool for Managers
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 1.1 Define Managerial Accounting and Identify the Three Primary Responsibilities of Management
    3. 1.2 Distinguish between Financial and Managerial Accounting
    4. 1.3 Explain the Primary Roles and Skills Required of Managerial Accountants
    5. 1.4 Describe the Role of the Institute of Management Accountants and the Use of Ethical Standards
    6. 1.5 Describe Trends in Today’s Business Environment and Analyze Their Impact on Accounting
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Thought Provokers
  3. 2 Building Blocks of Managerial Accounting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 2.1 Distinguish between Merchandising, Manufacturing, and Service Organizations
    3. 2.2 Identify and Apply Basic Cost Behavior Patterns
    4. 2.3 Estimate a Variable and Fixed Cost Equation and Predict Future Costs
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Multiple Choice
    8. Questions
    9. Exercise Set A
    10. Exercise Set B
    11. Problem Set A
    12. Problem Set B
    13. Thought Provokers
  4. 3 Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 3.1 Explain Contribution Margin and Calculate Contribution Margin per Unit, Contribution Margin Ratio, and Total Contribution Margin
    3. 3.2 Calculate a Break-Even Point in Units and Dollars
    4. 3.3 Perform Break-Even Sensitivity Analysis for a Single Product Under Changing Business Situations
    5. 3.4 Perform Break-Even Sensitivity Analysis for a Multi-Product Environment Under Changing Business Situations
    6. 3.5 Calculate and Interpret a Company’s Margin of Safety and Operating Leverage
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  5. 4 Job Order Costing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 4.1 Distinguish between Job Order Costing and Process Costing
    3. 4.2 Describe and Identify the Three Major Components of Product Costs under Job Order Costing
    4. 4.3 Use the Job Order Costing Method to Trace the Flow of Product Costs through the Inventory Accounts
    5. 4.4 Compute a Predetermined Overhead Rate and Apply Overhead to Production
    6. 4.5 Compute the Cost of a Job Using Job Order Costing
    7. 4.6 Determine and Dispose of Underapplied or Overapplied Overhead
    8. 4.7 Prepare Journal Entries for a Job Order Cost System
    9. 4.8 Explain How a Job Order Cost System Applies to a Nonmanufacturing Environment
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Multiple Choice
    13. Questions
    14. Exercise Set A
    15. Exercise Set B
    16. Problem Set A
    17. Problem Set B
    18. Thought Provokers
  6. 5 Process Costing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 5.1 Compare and Contrast Job Order Costing and Process Costing
    3. 5.2 Explain and Identify Conversion Costs
    4. 5.3 Explain and Compute Equivalent Units and Total Cost of Production in an Initial Processing Stage
    5. 5.4 Explain and Compute Equivalent Units and Total Cost of Production in a Subsequent Processing Stage
    6. 5.5 Prepare Journal Entries for a Process Costing System
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  7. 6 Activity-Based, Variable, and Absorption Costing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 6.1 Calculate Predetermined Overhead and Total Cost under the Traditional Allocation Method
    3. 6.2 Describe and Identify Cost Drivers
    4. 6.3 Calculate Activity-Based Product Costs
    5. 6.4 Compare and Contrast Traditional and Activity-Based Costing Systems
    6. 6.5 Compare and Contrast Variable and Absorption Costing
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  8. 7 Budgeting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 7.1 Describe How and Why Managers Use Budgets
    3. 7.2 Prepare Operating Budgets
    4. 7.3 Prepare Financial Budgets
    5. 7.4 Prepare Flexible Budgets
    6. 7.5 Explain How Budgets Are Used to Evaluate Goals
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  9. 8 Standard Costs and Variances
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 8.1 Explain How and Why a Standard Cost Is Developed
    3. 8.2 Compute and Evaluate Materials Variances
    4. 8.3 Compute and Evaluate Labor Variances
    5. 8.4 Compute and Evaluate Overhead Variances
    6. 8.5 Describe How Companies Use Variance Analysis
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  10. 9 Responsibility Accounting and Decentralization
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 9.1 Differentiate between Centralized and Decentralized Management
    3. 9.2 Describe How Decision-Making Differs between Centralized and Decentralized Environments
    4. 9.3 Describe the Types of Responsibility Centers
    5. 9.4 Describe the Effects of Various Decisions on Performance Evaluation of Responsibility Centers
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  11. 10 Short-Term Decision Making
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 10.1 Identify Relevant Information for Decision-Making
    3. 10.2 Evaluate and Determine Whether to Accept or Reject a Special Order
    4. 10.3 Evaluate and Determine Whether to Make or Buy a Component
    5. 10.4 Evaluate and Determine Whether to Keep or Discontinue a Segment or Product
    6. 10.5 Evaluate and Determine Whether to Sell or Process Further
    7. 10.6 Evaluate and Determine How to Make Decisions When Resources Are Constrained
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Questions
    12. Exercise Set A
    13. Exercise Set B
    14. Problem Set A
    15. Problem Set B
    16. Thought Provokers
  12. 11 Capital Budgeting Decisions
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 11.1 Describe Capital Investment Decisions and How They Are Applied
    3. 11.2 Evaluate the Payback and Accounting Rate of Return in Capital Investment Decisions
    4. 11.3 Explain the Time Value of Money and Calculate Present and Future Values of Lump Sums and Annuities
    5. 11.4 Use Discounted Cash Flow Models to Make Capital Investment Decisions
    6. 11.5 Compare and Contrast Non-Time Value-Based Methods and Time Value-Based Methods in Capital Investment Decisions
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  13. 12 Balanced Scorecard and Other Performance Measures
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 12.1 Explain the Importance of Performance Measurement
    3. 12.2 Identify the Characteristics of an Effective Performance Measure
    4. 12.3 Evaluate an Operating Segment or a Project Using Return on Investment, Residual Income, and Economic Value Added
    5. 12.4 Describe the Balanced Scorecard and Explain How It Is Used
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  14. 13 Sustainability Reporting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 13.1 Describe Sustainability and the Way It Creates Business Value
    3. 13.2 Identify User Needs for Information
    4. 13.3 Discuss Examples of Major Sustainability Initiatives
    5. 13.4 Future Issues in Sustainability
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Thought Provokers
  15. Financial Statement Analysis
  16. Time Value of Money
  17. Suggested Resources
  18. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
  19. Index
EA1.

LO 8.1Moisha is developing material standards for her company. The operations manager wants grade A widgets because they are the easiest to work with and are the quality the customers want. Grade B will not work because customers do not want the lower grade, and it takes more time to assemble the product than with grade A materials. Moisha calls several suppliers to get prices for the widget. All are within $0.05 of each other. Since they will use millions of widgets, she decides that the $0.05 difference is important. The supplier who has the lowest price is known for delivering late and low-quality materials. Moisha decides to use the supplier who is $0.02 more but delivers on time and at the right quality. This supplier charges $0.48 per widget. Each unit of product requires four widgets. What is the standard cost per unit for widgets?

EA2.

LO 8.1Rene is working with the operations manager to determine what the standard labor cost is for a spice chest. He has watched the process from start to finish and taken detailed notes on what each employee does. The first employee selects and mills the wood, so it is smooth on all four sides. This takes the employee 1 hour for each chest. The next employee takes the wood and cuts it to the proper size. This takes 30 minutes. The next employee assembles and sands the chest. Assembly takes 2 hours. The chest then goes to the finishing department. It takes 1.5 hours to finish the chest. All employees are cross-trained so they are all paid the same amount per hour, $17.50.

  1. What are the standard hours per chest?
  2. What is the standard cost per chest for labor?
EA3.

LO 8.1Fiona cleans offices. She is allowed 5 seconds per square foot. She cleans building A, which is 3,000 square feet, and building B, which is 2,460 square feet. Will she finish these two buildings in an 8-hour shift? Will she have time for a break?

EA4.

LO 8.1Use the information provided to create a standard cost card for production of one glove box switch. To make one switch it takes 16 feet of plastic-coated copper wire and 0.5 pounds of plastic material. The plastic material can usually be purchased for $20.00 per pound, and the wire costs $2.50 per foot. The labor necessary to assemble a switch consists of two types. The first type of labor is assembly, which takes 3.5 hours. These workers are paid $27.00 per hour. The second type of labor is finishing, which takes 2 hours. These workers are paid $29.00 per hour. Overhead is applied using labor hours. The variable overhead rate is $14.90 per labor hour. The fixed overhead rate is $15.60 per hour.

EA5.

LO 8.2Sitka Industries uses a cost system that carries direct materials inventory at a standard cost. The controller has established these standards for one ladder (unit):

Standard Quantity times Standard Price equals Standard Cost. Direct materials, 3 pounds, $4.50 per pound, $13.50. Direct labor, 2.00 hours, $12.00 per hour, $24.00. Total cost, -, -, $37.50.

Sitka Industries made 3,000 ladders in July and used 8,800 pounds of material to make these units. Smith Industries bought 15,500 pounds of material in the current period. There was a $250 unfavorable direct materials price variance.

  1. How much in total did Sitka pay for the 15,500 pounds?
  2. What is the direct materials quantity variance?
  3. What is the total direct material cost variance?
  4. What if 9,500 pounds were used to make these ladders, what would be the direct materials quantity variance?
  5. If there was a $340 favorable direct materials price variance, how much did Sitka pay for the 15,500 pounds of material?
EA6.

LO 8.2Use the information provided to answer the questions.

Actual price paid per pound of material $14.50, Total standard pounds for units produced this period 12,500, Pounds of material used 13,250, Direct materials price variance favorable $4,637.50.

All material purchased was used in production.

  1. What is the standard price paid for materials?
  2. What is the direct materials quantity variance?
  3. What is the total direct materials cost variance?
  4. If the direct materials price variance was unfavorable, what would be the standard price?
EA7.

LO 8.2Dog Bone Bakery, which bakes dog treats, makes a special biscuit for dogs. Each biscuit uses 0.75 cup of pure semolina flour. They buy 4,000 cups of flour at $0.55 per cup. They use 3,550 cups of flour to make 4,750 biscuits. The standard cost per cup of flour is $0.53.

  1. What are the direct materials price variance, the direct materials quantity variances, and the total direct materials cost variance?
  2. What is the standard cost per biscuit for the semolina flour?
EA8.

LO 8.3Queen Industries uses a standard costing system in the manufacturing of its single product. It requires 2 hours of labor to produce 1 unit of final product. In February, Queen Industries produced 12,000 units. The standard cost for labor allowed for the output was $90,000, and there was an unfavorable direct labor time variance of $5,520.

  1. What was the standard cost per hour?
  2. How many actual hours were worked?
  3. If the workers were paid $3.90 per hour, what was the direct labor rate variance?
EA9.

LO 8.3Penny Company manufactures only one product and uses a standard cost system. The following information is from Penny’s records for May:

Direct labor rate variance $15,000 favorable. Direct labor time variance $25,000 unfavorable. Standard hours per unit produced 2.5. Standard rate per hour $25.

During May, the company used 12.5% more hours than the standard allowed.

  1. What were the total standard hours allowed for the units manufactured during the month?
  2. What were the actual hours worked?
  3. How many actual units were produced during May?
EA10.

LO 8.4ThingOne Company has the following information available for the past year. They use machine hours to allocate overhead.

Actual total overhead $75,000. Actual fixed overhead $32,500. Actual machine hours 10,000. Standard hours for the units produced 9,500. Standard variable overhead rate $4.50.

What is the variable overhead efficiency variance?

EA11.

LO 8.4A manufacturer planned to use $78 of variable overhead per unit produced, but in the most recent period, it actually used $76 of variable overhead per unit produced. During this same period, the company planned to produce 500 units but actually produced 540 units. What is the variable overhead spending variance?

EA12.

LO 8.5Acme Inc. has the following information available:

Actual price paid for material $1.00. Standard price for material $1.20. Actual quantity purchased and used in production 100. Standard quantity for units produced 110. Actual labor rate per hour $15. Standard labor rate per hour $16. Actual hours 200. Standard hours for units produced 220.
  1. Compute the material price and quantity, and the labor rate and efficiency variances.
  2. Describe the possible causes for this combination of favorable and unfavorable variances.
EA13.

LO 8.5Acme Inc. has the following information available:

Actual price paid for material $1.00. Standard price for material $0.90. Actual quantity purchased and used in production 100. Standard quantity for units produced 110. Actual labor rate per hour $15. Standard labor rate per hour $16. Actual hours 200. Standard hours for units produced 220.
  1. Compute the material price and quantity, and the labor rate and efficiency variances.
  2. Describe the possible causes for this combination of favorable and unfavorable variances.
EA14.

LO 8.5Acme Inc. has the following information available:

Actual price paid for material $1.00. Standard price for material $0.90. Actual quantity purchased and used in production 100. Standard quantity for units produced 110. Actual labor rate per hour $15. Standard labor rate per hour $14. Actual hours 200. Standard hours for units produced 220.
  1. Compute the material price and quantity, and the labor rate and efficiency variances.
  2. Describe the possible causes for this combination of favorable and unfavorable variances.
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