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Principles of Accounting, Volume 2: Managerial Accounting

5.4 Explain and Compute Equivalent Units and Total Cost of Production in a Subsequent Processing Stage

Principles of Accounting, Volume 2: Managerial Accounting5.4 Explain and Compute Equivalent Units and Total Cost of Production in a Subsequent Processing Stage
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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Accounting as a Tool for Managers
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 1.1 Define Managerial Accounting and Identify the Three Primary Responsibilities of Management
    3. 1.2 Distinguish between Financial and Managerial Accounting
    4. 1.3 Explain the Primary Roles and Skills Required of Managerial Accountants
    5. 1.4 Describe the Role of the Institute of Management Accountants and the Use of Ethical Standards
    6. 1.5 Describe Trends in Today’s Business Environment and Analyze Their Impact on Accounting
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Thought Provokers
  3. 2 Building Blocks of Managerial Accounting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 2.1 Distinguish between Merchandising, Manufacturing, and Service Organizations
    3. 2.2 Identify and Apply Basic Cost Behavior Patterns
    4. 2.3 Estimate a Variable and Fixed Cost Equation and Predict Future Costs
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Multiple Choice
    8. Questions
    9. Exercise Set A
    10. Exercise Set B
    11. Problem Set A
    12. Problem Set B
    13. Thought Provokers
  4. 3 Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 3.1 Explain Contribution Margin and Calculate Contribution Margin per Unit, Contribution Margin Ratio, and Total Contribution Margin
    3. 3.2 Calculate a Break-Even Point in Units and Dollars
    4. 3.3 Perform Break-Even Sensitivity Analysis for a Single Product Under Changing Business Situations
    5. 3.4 Perform Break-Even Sensitivity Analysis for a Multi-Product Environment Under Changing Business Situations
    6. 3.5 Calculate and Interpret a Company’s Margin of Safety and Operating Leverage
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  5. 4 Job Order Costing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 4.1 Distinguish between Job Order Costing and Process Costing
    3. 4.2 Describe and Identify the Three Major Components of Product Costs under Job Order Costing
    4. 4.3 Use the Job Order Costing Method to Trace the Flow of Product Costs through the Inventory Accounts
    5. 4.4 Compute a Predetermined Overhead Rate and Apply Overhead to Production
    6. 4.5 Compute the Cost of a Job Using Job Order Costing
    7. 4.6 Determine and Dispose of Underapplied or Overapplied Overhead
    8. 4.7 Prepare Journal Entries for a Job Order Cost System
    9. 4.8 Explain How a Job Order Cost System Applies to a Nonmanufacturing Environment
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Multiple Choice
    13. Questions
    14. Exercise Set A
    15. Exercise Set B
    16. Problem Set A
    17. Problem Set B
    18. Thought Provokers
  6. 5 Process Costing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 5.1 Compare and Contrast Job Order Costing and Process Costing
    3. 5.2 Explain and Identify Conversion Costs
    4. 5.3 Explain and Compute Equivalent Units and Total Cost of Production in an Initial Processing Stage
    5. 5.4 Explain and Compute Equivalent Units and Total Cost of Production in a Subsequent Processing Stage
    6. 5.5 Prepare Journal Entries for a Process Costing System
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  7. 6 Activity-Based, Variable, and Absorption Costing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 6.1 Calculate Predetermined Overhead and Total Cost under the Traditional Allocation Method
    3. 6.2 Describe and Identify Cost Drivers
    4. 6.3 Calculate Activity-Based Product Costs
    5. 6.4 Compare and Contrast Traditional and Activity-Based Costing Systems
    6. 6.5 Compare and Contrast Variable and Absorption Costing
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  8. 7 Budgeting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 7.1 Describe How and Why Managers Use Budgets
    3. 7.2 Prepare Operating Budgets
    4. 7.3 Prepare Financial Budgets
    5. 7.4 Prepare Flexible Budgets
    6. 7.5 Explain How Budgets Are Used to Evaluate Goals
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  9. 8 Standard Costs and Variances
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 8.1 Explain How and Why a Standard Cost Is Developed
    3. 8.2 Compute and Evaluate Materials Variances
    4. 8.3 Compute and Evaluate Labor Variances
    5. 8.4 Compute and Evaluate Overhead Variances
    6. 8.5 Describe How Companies Use Variance Analysis
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  10. 9 Responsibility Accounting and Decentralization
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 9.1 Differentiate between Centralized and Decentralized Management
    3. 9.2 Describe How Decision-Making Differs between Centralized and Decentralized Environments
    4. 9.3 Describe the Types of Responsibility Centers
    5. 9.4 Describe the Effects of Various Decisions on Performance Evaluation of Responsibility Centers
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  11. 10 Short-Term Decision Making
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 10.1 Identify Relevant Information for Decision-Making
    3. 10.2 Evaluate and Determine Whether to Accept or Reject a Special Order
    4. 10.3 Evaluate and Determine Whether to Make or Buy a Component
    5. 10.4 Evaluate and Determine Whether to Keep or Discontinue a Segment or Product
    6. 10.5 Evaluate and Determine Whether to Sell or Process Further
    7. 10.6 Evaluate and Determine How to Make Decisions When Resources Are Constrained
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Questions
    12. Exercise Set A
    13. Exercise Set B
    14. Problem Set A
    15. Problem Set B
    16. Thought Provokers
  12. 11 Capital Budgeting Decisions
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 11.1 Describe Capital Investment Decisions and How They Are Applied
    3. 11.2 Evaluate the Payback and Accounting Rate of Return in Capital Investment Decisions
    4. 11.3 Explain the Time Value of Money and Calculate Present and Future Values of Lump Sums and Annuities
    5. 11.4 Use Discounted Cash Flow Models to Make Capital Investment Decisions
    6. 11.5 Compare and Contrast Non-Time Value-Based Methods and Time Value-Based Methods in Capital Investment Decisions
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  13. 12 Balanced Scorecard and Other Performance Measures
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 12.1 Explain the Importance of Performance Measurement
    3. 12.2 Identify the Characteristics of an Effective Performance Measure
    4. 12.3 Evaluate an Operating Segment or a Project Using Return on Investment, Residual Income, and Economic Value Added
    5. 12.4 Describe the Balanced Scorecard and Explain How It Is Used
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  14. 13 Sustainability Reporting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 13.1 Describe Sustainability and the Way It Creates Business Value
    3. 13.2 Identify User Needs for Information
    4. 13.3 Discuss Examples of Major Sustainability Initiatives
    5. 13.4 Future Issues in Sustainability
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Thought Provokers
  15. Financial Statement Analysis
  16. Time Value of Money
  17. Suggested Resources
  18. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
  19. Index

In many production departments, units are typically transferred from the initial stage to the next stage in the process. When the units are transferred, the accumulated cost per unit is transferred along with them. Since the unit being produced includes work from all of the prior departments, the transferred-in cost is the cost of the work performed in all earlier departments.

When the hickory size 5A drumsticks have completed the shaping process, they are transferred to the packaging department along with the inventory costs of $29,775. The inventory costs of $29,775 were $8,775 for materials and $21,000 for conversion costs and were calculated in Figure 5.6. During the month of July, Rock City Percussion purchased raw material inventory of $2,000 for the packaging department. As with the shaping department, the packaging department tracks its costs and requisitions the raw material from the material storeroom. The packaging department has computed direct material costs of $2,000, direct labor costs of $13,000, and applied overhead of $9,100, for a total of $22,100 in conversion costs. Equivalent units are computed for this department, and a new cost per unit is computed.

Materials, Conversion, and Total (respectively): Beginning WIP $1,600, 6,580, 8,180; Transferred in 8,775, 21,000, 29,775; Added this month 2,000, 22,100, 24,100; Total $12,375, 49,680, 62,055.

As with calculating the equivalent units and total cost of production in the initial processing stage, there are four steps for calculating these costs in a subsequent processing stage.

Step One: Determining the Stage 2 Units to Which Costs Will Be Assigned

In the initial manufacturing department, there is beginning inventory, and units are started in production. In subsequent stages, instead of starting new units, units are transferred in from the prior department, but the accounting process is the same. Returning to the example, Rock City Percussion had a beginning inventory of 750 units in the packaging department. When the 7,500 sticks are transferred into the packaging department from the shaping department, the total number of units to account for in the reconciliation is 8,250, which is the total of the beginning WIP and the units transferred in:

Units to Account for: Beginning WIP 750, Units transferred in 7,500, Total units to account for 8,250.

The reconciliation of units to account for are the same for each department. The units that were completed and transferred out plus the ending inventory equal the total units to account for. The packaging department for Rock City Percussion completed 6,500 units and transferred them into finished goods inventory. Since the maximum number of units to possibly be completed is 8,250 and no units were lost to spoilage, the number of units in the packaging department’s ending inventory must be 1,750. The total of the 6,500 units completed and transferred out and the 1,750 units in ending inventory equal the 8,250 possible units in the packaging department.

Units Accounted For: Completed and transferred out 6,500, Ending WIP 1,750, Total units to account for 8,250.

Step Two: Computing the Stage 2 Equivalent Units of Production

The only direct material added in the packaging department for the 5A sticks is packaging. The packaging materials are added at the beginning of the process, so all the materials have been added before the units are transferred out, but all of the conversion elements have not. As a result, the number of equivalent units for material costs and for conversion costs remaining in ending inventory is different for the testing and sorting department. As you’ve learned, all of the units transferred to the next department must be 100% complete with regard to that department’s cost, or they would not be transferred. The process cost system must calculate the equivalent units of production for units completed (with respect to materials and conversion) and for ending WIP with respect to materials and conversion.

For the packaging department, the materials are 100% complete with regard to materials costs and 40% complete with regard to conversion costs. The 6,500 units completed and transferred out to the finishing department must be 100% complete with regard to materials and conversion, so they make up 6,500 (6,500 × 100%) units. The 1,750 ending WIP units are 100% complete with regard to material and have 1,750 (1,750 × 100%) equivalent units for material. The 1,750 ending WIP units are only 40% complete with regard to conversion costs and represent 700 (1,750 × 40%) equivalent units.

WIP completion percent Units Accounted For (Total Units, Material Units, and Conversion Units, respectively): Completed and transferred out 6,500, 6,500, 6,500; Ending WIP 1,70, 1,750, 700; Total equivalent units for packaging 8,250, 8,250, 7,200.

Step Three: Determining the Stage 2 Cost per Equivalent Unit

Once the equivalent units for materials and conversion are known for the packaging department, the cost per equivalent unit is computed in a manner similar to the calculation for the units accounted for. The costs for material and conversion need to reconcile with the department’s beginning inventory and the costs incurred for the department during that month.

Costs to account for (Materials, Conversion, and Total, respectively): Beginning WIP $1,600, 6,580, 8,180; Incurred during the period 10,775, 43,100, 53,875; Total costs to account for 12,375, 49,680, 62,055; Equivalent units 8,250, 7,200, –; Cost per equivalent unit $1.50, 6.90, 8.40.

The total materials costs for the period (including any beginning inventory costs) are computed and divided by the equivalent units for materials. The same process is then completed for the total conversion costs. The total of the cost per unit for materials ($1.50) and for conversion costs ($6.90) is the total cost of each unit transferred to the testing and sorting department.

Step Four: Allocating the Costs to the Units in the Finishing Department

Now you can determine the cost of the units transferred out and the cost of the units still in process in the finishing department. For the goods transferred out, simply take the units transferred out times the sum of the two equivalent unit costs (materials and conversion) because all items transferred to the next department are complete with respect to materials and conversion, so each unit brings all its costs. But the ending WIP value is determined by taking the product of the work in process materials units and the cost per equivalent unit for materials plus the product of the work in process conversion units and the cost per equivalent unit for conversion.

Transferred out costs (6,500 units times $1.50) plus (6,500 units times $6.90) equals $54,600; Ending WIP: materials (1,750 times $1.50) equals $2,625; Ending WIP: conversion (700 times $6.90) equals $4,830; Ending WIP: Total $2,625 plus 4,830 equals $7,455.
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