Skip to Content
OpenStax Logo
Buy book
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Accounting as a Tool for Managers
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 1.1 Define Managerial Accounting and Identify the Three Primary Responsibilities of Management
    3. 1.2 Distinguish between Financial and Managerial Accounting
    4. 1.3 Explain the Primary Roles and Skills Required of Managerial Accountants
    5. 1.4 Describe the Role of the Institute of Management Accountants and the Use of Ethical Standards
    6. 1.5 Describe Trends in Today’s Business Environment and Analyze Their Impact on Accounting
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Thought Provokers
  3. 2 Building Blocks of Managerial Accounting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 2.1 Distinguish between Merchandising, Manufacturing, and Service Organizations
    3. 2.2 Identify and Apply Basic Cost Behavior Patterns
    4. 2.3 Estimate a Variable and Fixed Cost Equation and Predict Future Costs
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Multiple Choice
    8. Questions
    9. Exercise Set A
    10. Exercise Set B
    11. Problem Set A
    12. Problem Set B
    13. Thought Provokers
  4. 3 Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 3.1 Explain Contribution Margin and Calculate Contribution Margin per Unit, Contribution Margin Ratio, and Total Contribution Margin
    3. 3.2 Calculate a Break-Even Point in Units and Dollars
    4. 3.3 Perform Break-Even Sensitivity Analysis for a Single Product Under Changing Business Situations
    5. 3.4 Perform Break-Even Sensitivity Analysis for a Multi-Product Environment Under Changing Business Situations
    6. 3.5 Calculate and Interpret a Company’s Margin of Safety and Operating Leverage
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  5. 4 Job Order Costing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 4.1 Distinguish between Job Order Costing and Process Costing
    3. 4.2 Describe and Identify the Three Major Components of Product Costs under Job Order Costing
    4. 4.3 Use the Job Order Costing Method to Trace the Flow of Product Costs through the Inventory Accounts
    5. 4.4 Compute a Predetermined Overhead Rate and Apply Overhead to Production
    6. 4.5 Compute the Cost of a Job Using Job Order Costing
    7. 4.6 Determine and Dispose of Underapplied or Overapplied Overhead
    8. 4.7 Prepare Journal Entries for a Job Order Cost System
    9. 4.8 Explain How a Job Order Cost System Applies to a Nonmanufacturing Environment
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Multiple Choice
    13. Questions
    14. Exercise Set A
    15. Exercise Set B
    16. Problem Set A
    17. Problem Set B
    18. Thought Provokers
  6. 5 Process Costing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 5.1 Compare and Contrast Job Order Costing and Process Costing
    3. 5.2 Explain and Identify Conversion Costs
    4. 5.3 Explain and Compute Equivalent Units and Total Cost of Production in an Initial Processing Stage
    5. 5.4 Explain and Compute Equivalent Units and Total Cost of Production in a Subsequent Processing Stage
    6. 5.5 Prepare Journal Entries for a Process Costing System
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  7. 6 Activity-Based, Variable, and Absorption Costing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 6.1 Calculate Predetermined Overhead and Total Cost under the Traditional Allocation Method
    3. 6.2 Describe and Identify Cost Drivers
    4. 6.3 Calculate Activity-Based Product Costs
    5. 6.4 Compare and Contrast Traditional and Activity-Based Costing Systems
    6. 6.5 Compare and Contrast Variable and Absorption Costing
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  8. 7 Budgeting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 7.1 Describe How and Why Managers Use Budgets
    3. 7.2 Prepare Operating Budgets
    4. 7.3 Prepare Financial Budgets
    5. 7.4 Prepare Flexible Budgets
    6. 7.5 Explain How Budgets Are Used to Evaluate Goals
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  9. 8 Standard Costs and Variances
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 8.1 Explain How and Why a Standard Cost Is Developed
    3. 8.2 Compute and Evaluate Materials Variances
    4. 8.3 Compute and Evaluate Labor Variances
    5. 8.4 Compute and Evaluate Overhead Variances
    6. 8.5 Describe How Companies Use Variance Analysis
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  10. 9 Responsibility Accounting and Decentralization
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 9.1 Differentiate between Centralized and Decentralized Management
    3. 9.2 Describe How Decision-Making Differs between Centralized and Decentralized Environments
    4. 9.3 Describe the Types of Responsibility Centers
    5. 9.4 Describe the Effects of Various Decisions on Performance Evaluation of Responsibility Centers
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  11. 10 Short-Term Decision Making
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 10.1 Identify Relevant Information for Decision-Making
    3. 10.2 Evaluate and Determine Whether to Accept or Reject a Special Order
    4. 10.3 Evaluate and Determine Whether to Make or Buy a Component
    5. 10.4 Evaluate and Determine Whether to Keep or Discontinue a Segment or Product
    6. 10.5 Evaluate and Determine Whether to Sell or Process Further
    7. 10.6 Evaluate and Determine How to Make Decisions When Resources Are Constrained
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Questions
    12. Exercise Set A
    13. Exercise Set B
    14. Problem Set A
    15. Problem Set B
    16. Thought Provokers
  12. 11 Capital Budgeting Decisions
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 11.1 Describe Capital Investment Decisions and How They Are Applied
    3. 11.2 Evaluate the Payback and Accounting Rate of Return in Capital Investment Decisions
    4. 11.3 Explain the Time Value of Money and Calculate Present and Future Values of Lump Sums and Annuities
    5. 11.4 Use Discounted Cash Flow Models to Make Capital Investment Decisions
    6. 11.5 Compare and Contrast Non-Time Value-Based Methods and Time Value-Based Methods in Capital Investment Decisions
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  13. 12 Balanced Scorecard and Other Performance Measures
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 12.1 Explain the Importance of Performance Measurement
    3. 12.2 Identify the Characteristics of an Effective Performance Measure
    4. 12.3 Evaluate an Operating Segment or a Project Using Return on Investment, Residual Income, and Economic Value Added
    5. 12.4 Describe the Balanced Scorecard and Explain How It Is Used
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  14. 13 Sustainability Reporting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 13.1 Describe Sustainability and the Way It Creates Business Value
    3. 13.2 Identify User Needs for Information
    4. 13.3 Discuss Examples of Major Sustainability Initiatives
    5. 13.4 Future Issues in Sustainability
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Thought Provokers
  15. Financial Statement Analysis
  16. Time Value of Money
  17. Suggested Resources
  18. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
  19. Index
PA1.

LO 3.1A company sells small motors as a component part to automobiles. The Model 101 motor sells for $850 and has per-unit variable costs of $400 associated with its production. The company has fixed expenses of $90,000 per month. In August, the company sold 425 of the Model 101 motors.

  1. Calculate the contribution margin per unit for the Model 101.
  2. Calculate the contribution margin ratio of the Model 101.
  3. Prepare a contribution margin income statement for the month of August.
PA2.

LO 3.1A company manufactures and sells racing bicycles to specialty retailers. The Bomber model sells for $450 and has per-unit variable costs of $200 associated with its production. The company has fixed expenses of $40,000 per month. In May, the company sold 225 of the Bomber model bikes.

  1. Calculate the contribution margin per unit for the Bomber.
  2. Calculate the contribution margin ratio of the Bomber.
  3. Prepare a contribution margin income statement for the month of May.
PA3.

LO 3.2Fill in the missing amounts for the four companies. Each case is independent of the others. Assume that only one product is being sold by each company.

Company A, Company B, Company C, Company D (respectively): Units Sold 600, ?, ?, 900; Sales in Dollars $30,000, 70,000, 240,000, ?; Total Variable Expenses $7,200, ?, ?, $144,000; Per Unit C/M ?, $80, $270, $140; Total Fixed Expenses $20,000, 50,000, 145,000, ?; Net Operating Income (loss) ?, $6,000, $(10,000), $(24,000).
PA4.

LO 3.2Markham Farms reports the following contribution margin income statement for the month of August. The company has the opportunity to purchase new machinery that will reduce its variable cost per unit by $2 but will increase fixed costs by 15%. Prepare a projected contribution margin income statement for Markham Farms assuming it purchases the new equipment. Assume sales level remains unchanged.

Markham Farms, Contribution Margin Income Statement: Sales (1,500 units at $75 per unit) $112,500 less Variable Costs (1,500 units at $15 per unit) 22,500 equals Contribution Margin 90,000. Subtract Fixed Costs 40,000 equals Net Income $50,000.
PA5.

LO 3.3Kylie’s Cookies is considering the purchase of a larger oven that will cost $2,200 and will increase her fixed costs by $59. What would happen if she purchased the new oven to realize the variable cost savings of $0.10 per cookie, and what would happen if she raised her price by just $0.20? She feels confident that such a small price increase will decrease the sales by only 25 units and may help her offset the increase in fixed costs. Given the following current prices how would the break-even in units and dollars change if she doesn’t increase the selling price and if she does increase the selling price? Complete the monthly contribution margin income statement for each of these cases.

Selling Price, Variable Cost, and Fixed Cost Change Analysis with Current Price, with Decreased VC and Increased FC, and with Increased SP, Decreased VC, and Increased FC (respectively): Sales price per unit $1.75, -, -; Variable cost per unit 0.40, -, -; Contribution margin per unit $1.35, -, -; Fixed costs $405, -, -; Break-even in units 300, -, -; Break-even in dollars $525.00, -, -. Monthly Contribution Margin Income Statement with Current Price, with Decreased VC and Increased FC, and with Increased SP, Decreased VC, and Increased FC (respectively): Unit sales, expected 800, -, -; Sales -, -, -; Variable costs -, -, -; Contribution Margin -, -, -; Fixed costs -, -, -; Net income -, -, -.
PA6.

LO 3.4Morris Industries manufactures and sells three products (AA, BB, and CC). The sales price and unit variable cost for the three products are as follows:

Product, Sales Price per Unit, Variable Cost per Unit (respectively): AA $50, $30; BB 40, 15; CC 30, 10.

Their sales mix is reflected as a ratio of 5:3:2. Annual fixed costs shared by the three products are $258,000 per year.

  1. What are total variable costs for Morris with their current product mix?
  2. Calculate the number of units of each product that will need to be sold in order for Morris to break even.
  3. What is their break-even point in sales dollars?
  4. Using an income statement format, prove that this is the break-even point.
PA7.

LO 3.4Manatoah Manufacturing produces 3 models of window air conditioners: model 101, model 201, and model 301. The sales price and variable costs for these three models are as follows:

Product, Sales Price per Unit, Variable Cost per Unit (respectively): Model 101 $275, $185; Model 201 350, 215; Model 301 400, 245.

The current product mix is 4:3:2. The three models share total fixed costs of $430,000.

  1. Calculate the sales price per composite unit.
  2. What is the contribution margin per composite unit?
  3. Calculate Manatoah’s break-even point in both dollars and units.
  4. Using an income statement format, prove that this is the break-even point.
PA8.

LO 3.5Jakarta Company is a service firm with current service revenue of $400,000 and a 40% contribution margin. Its fixed costs are $80,000. Maldives Company has current sales of $6,610,000 and a 45% contribution margin. Its fixed costs are $1,800,000.

  1. What is the margin of safety for Jakarta and Maldives?
  2. Compare the margin of safety in dollars between the two companies. Which is stronger?
  3. Compare the margin of safety in percentage between the two companies. Now, which one is stronger?
  4. Compute the degree of operating leverage for both companies. Which company will benefit most from a 15% increase in sales? Explain why. Illustrate your findings in an Income Statement that is increased by 15%.
Citation/Attribution

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book is Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License 4.0 and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/principles-managerial-accounting/pages/1-why-it-matters
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/principles-managerial-accounting/pages/1-why-it-matters
Citation information

© Feb 14, 2019 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License 4.0 license. The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.