Skip to Content
OpenStax Logo
Buy book
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Accounting as a Tool for Managers
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 1.1 Define Managerial Accounting and Identify the Three Primary Responsibilities of Management
    3. 1.2 Distinguish between Financial and Managerial Accounting
    4. 1.3 Explain the Primary Roles and Skills Required of Managerial Accountants
    5. 1.4 Describe the Role of the Institute of Management Accountants and the Use of Ethical Standards
    6. 1.5 Describe Trends in Today’s Business Environment and Analyze Their Impact on Accounting
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Thought Provokers
  3. 2 Building Blocks of Managerial Accounting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 2.1 Distinguish between Merchandising, Manufacturing, and Service Organizations
    3. 2.2 Identify and Apply Basic Cost Behavior Patterns
    4. 2.3 Estimate a Variable and Fixed Cost Equation and Predict Future Costs
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Multiple Choice
    8. Questions
    9. Exercise Set A
    10. Exercise Set B
    11. Problem Set A
    12. Problem Set B
    13. Thought Provokers
  4. 3 Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 3.1 Explain Contribution Margin and Calculate Contribution Margin per Unit, Contribution Margin Ratio, and Total Contribution Margin
    3. 3.2 Calculate a Break-Even Point in Units and Dollars
    4. 3.3 Perform Break-Even Sensitivity Analysis for a Single Product Under Changing Business Situations
    5. 3.4 Perform Break-Even Sensitivity Analysis for a Multi-Product Environment Under Changing Business Situations
    6. 3.5 Calculate and Interpret a Company’s Margin of Safety and Operating Leverage
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  5. 4 Job Order Costing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 4.1 Distinguish between Job Order Costing and Process Costing
    3. 4.2 Describe and Identify the Three Major Components of Product Costs under Job Order Costing
    4. 4.3 Use the Job Order Costing Method to Trace the Flow of Product Costs through the Inventory Accounts
    5. 4.4 Compute a Predetermined Overhead Rate and Apply Overhead to Production
    6. 4.5 Compute the Cost of a Job Using Job Order Costing
    7. 4.6 Determine and Dispose of Underapplied or Overapplied Overhead
    8. 4.7 Prepare Journal Entries for a Job Order Cost System
    9. 4.8 Explain How a Job Order Cost System Applies to a Nonmanufacturing Environment
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Multiple Choice
    13. Questions
    14. Exercise Set A
    15. Exercise Set B
    16. Problem Set A
    17. Problem Set B
    18. Thought Provokers
  6. 5 Process Costing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 5.1 Compare and Contrast Job Order Costing and Process Costing
    3. 5.2 Explain and Identify Conversion Costs
    4. 5.3 Explain and Compute Equivalent Units and Total Cost of Production in an Initial Processing Stage
    5. 5.4 Explain and Compute Equivalent Units and Total Cost of Production in a Subsequent Processing Stage
    6. 5.5 Prepare Journal Entries for a Process Costing System
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  7. 6 Activity-Based, Variable, and Absorption Costing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 6.1 Calculate Predetermined Overhead and Total Cost under the Traditional Allocation Method
    3. 6.2 Describe and Identify Cost Drivers
    4. 6.3 Calculate Activity-Based Product Costs
    5. 6.4 Compare and Contrast Traditional and Activity-Based Costing Systems
    6. 6.5 Compare and Contrast Variable and Absorption Costing
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  8. 7 Budgeting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 7.1 Describe How and Why Managers Use Budgets
    3. 7.2 Prepare Operating Budgets
    4. 7.3 Prepare Financial Budgets
    5. 7.4 Prepare Flexible Budgets
    6. 7.5 Explain How Budgets Are Used to Evaluate Goals
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  9. 8 Standard Costs and Variances
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 8.1 Explain How and Why a Standard Cost Is Developed
    3. 8.2 Compute and Evaluate Materials Variances
    4. 8.3 Compute and Evaluate Labor Variances
    5. 8.4 Compute and Evaluate Overhead Variances
    6. 8.5 Describe How Companies Use Variance Analysis
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  10. 9 Responsibility Accounting and Decentralization
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 9.1 Differentiate between Centralized and Decentralized Management
    3. 9.2 Describe How Decision-Making Differs between Centralized and Decentralized Environments
    4. 9.3 Describe the Types of Responsibility Centers
    5. 9.4 Describe the Effects of Various Decisions on Performance Evaluation of Responsibility Centers
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  11. 10 Short-Term Decision Making
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 10.1 Identify Relevant Information for Decision-Making
    3. 10.2 Evaluate and Determine Whether to Accept or Reject a Special Order
    4. 10.3 Evaluate and Determine Whether to Make or Buy a Component
    5. 10.4 Evaluate and Determine Whether to Keep or Discontinue a Segment or Product
    6. 10.5 Evaluate and Determine Whether to Sell or Process Further
    7. 10.6 Evaluate and Determine How to Make Decisions When Resources Are Constrained
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Questions
    12. Exercise Set A
    13. Exercise Set B
    14. Problem Set A
    15. Problem Set B
    16. Thought Provokers
  12. 11 Capital Budgeting Decisions
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 11.1 Describe Capital Investment Decisions and How They Are Applied
    3. 11.2 Evaluate the Payback and Accounting Rate of Return in Capital Investment Decisions
    4. 11.3 Explain the Time Value of Money and Calculate Present and Future Values of Lump Sums and Annuities
    5. 11.4 Use Discounted Cash Flow Models to Make Capital Investment Decisions
    6. 11.5 Compare and Contrast Non-Time Value-Based Methods and Time Value-Based Methods in Capital Investment Decisions
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  13. 12 Balanced Scorecard and Other Performance Measures
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 12.1 Explain the Importance of Performance Measurement
    3. 12.2 Identify the Characteristics of an Effective Performance Measure
    4. 12.3 Evaluate an Operating Segment or a Project Using Return on Investment, Residual Income, and Economic Value Added
    5. 12.4 Describe the Balanced Scorecard and Explain How It Is Used
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  14. 13 Sustainability Reporting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 13.1 Describe Sustainability and the Way It Creates Business Value
    3. 13.2 Identify User Needs for Information
    4. 13.3 Discuss Examples of Major Sustainability Initiatives
    5. 13.4 Future Issues in Sustainability
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Thought Provokers
  15. Financial Statement Analysis
  16. Time Value of Money
  17. Suggested Resources
  18. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
  19. Index
EB1.

LO 2.1Winterfell Products manufactures electrical switches for the aerospace industry. For the year ending 2019, they reported these revenues and expenses. Use this information to construct an income statement for the year 2019.

Sales Revenue $865,000, Cost of Goods Sold 354,000, Operating Expenses 315,000.
EB2.

LO 2.1CPK & Associates is a mid-size legal firm, specializing in closings and real estate law in the south. In 2019, they generated $945,000 in sales revenue. Their expenses related to this year’s revenue are shown:

Operating Expenses (including salaries) $312,000, Cost of Services: Total Cost per client 1,750, Clients served in 2019 225.

Based on the information provided for the year, what was their net operating income?

EB3.

LO 2.1Flip or Flop is a retail shop selling a wide variety of sandals and beach footwear. In 2019, they had gross revenue from sales totaling $93,200. Their operating expenses for this same period were $34,000. If their Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) was 21% of gross revenue, what was their net operating income for the year?

EB4.

Roper Furniture manufactures office furniture and tracks cost data across their process. The following are some of the costs that they incur. Classify these costs as fixed or variable costs, and as product costs or period costs.

  1. Wood used to produce desks ($125.00 per desk)
  2. Production labor used to produce desks ($15 per hour)
  3. Production supervisor salary ($45,000 per year)
  4. Depreciation on factory equipment ($60,000 per year)
  5. Selling and administrative expenses ($45,000 per year)
  6. Rent on corporate office ($44,000 per year)
  7. Nails, glue, and other materials required to produce desks (varies per desk)
  8. Utilities expenses for production facility
  9. Sales staff commission (5% of gross sales)
EB5.

LO 2.2Baxter Company has a relevant range of production between 15,000 and 30,000 units. The following cost data represents average variable costs per unit for 25,000 units of production.

Average Cost per Unit: Direct materials $10, Direct labor 9, Indirect materials 3, Fixed manufacturing overhead 6, Variable manufacturing overhead 2, Fixed selling and administrative expenses 8.

Using the costs data from Rose Company, answer the following questions:

  1. If 15,000 units are produced, what is the variable cost per unit?
  2. If 28,000 units are produced, what is the variable cost per unit?
  3. If 21,000 units are produced, what are the total variable costs?
  4. If 29,000 units are produced, what are the total variable costs?
  5. If 17,000 units are produced, what are the total manufacturing overhead costs incurred?
  6. If 23,000 units are produced, what are the total manufacturing overhead costs incurred?
  7. If 30,000 units are produced, what are the per unit manufacturing overhead costs incurred?
  8. If 15,000 units are produced, what are the per unit manufacturing overhead costs incurred?
EB6.

LO 2.2Sanchez & Vukmin, LLP, is a full-service accounting firm located near Chicago, Illinois.

Last year, Sanchez provided tax preparation services to 500 clients. Total fixed costs were $265,000 with total variable costs of $180,000. Based on this information, complete this chart.

Columns are: 500 clients, 800 clients, 900 clients. Rows are: Total costs: Fixed costs, Variable costs, Total costs. Cost per client: Fixed cost, Variable cost, Total cost per client.
EB7.

LO 2.2Case Airlines provides charter airline services. The fixed expenses to operate the company’s aircraft are $377,300 in January and $378,880 in February. It costs Case Airlines $0.45 per mile in variable costs. In January, Case aircraft flew a total of 385,000 miles, and in February, Case aircraft flew a total of 296,000 miles. Using this information, answer the following:

  1. What were the total costs to operate the aircraft in January and February, respectively?
  2. What were the total costs per mile to operate the fleet in January and February, respectively?
EB8.

LO 2.2Suppose that a company has fixed costs of $11 per unit and variable costs $6 per unit when 11,000 units are produced. What are the fixed costs per unit when 20,000 units are produced?

EB9.

LO 2.3The cost data for BC Billing Solutions for the year 2020 is as follows:

Month, Invoices Processed, Overtime Wages, respectively: January, 10,000, $7,700; February, 8,000, 6,800; March, 1,000, 6,000; April, 7,000, 6,100; May, 5,000, 6,200; June, 10,000, 7,300; July, 12,000, 7,400; August, 9,000, 6,900; September, 5,000, 6,500; October, 9,000, 6,600; November, 8,000, 6,800; December, 12,000, 7,450.
  1. Using the high-low method, express the company’s overtime wages as an equation where x represents number of invoices processed. Assume BC has monthly fixed costs of $3,800.
  2. Predict the overtime wages if 9,000 invoices are processed.
  3. Predict the overtime wages if 6,500 invoices are processed.
  4. Using Excel, create a scatter graph of the cost data and explain the relationship between the number of invoices processed and overtime wage expense.
EB10.

LO 2.3This cost data from Hickory Furniture is for the year 2017.

Month, Number of Chairs Produced, Factory Utility Expenses, respectively: January, 425, $1,659; February, 510, 1,964; March, 625, 2,406; April, 725, 2,791; May, 685, 2,637; June, 575, 2,214; July, 510, 1,964; August, 810, 3,119; September, 700, 2,695; October, 650, 2,503; November, 875, 3,369; December, 680, 2,618.
  1. Using the high-low method, express the factory utility expenses as an equation where x represents number of chairs produced.
  2. Predict the utility costs if 900 chairs are produced.
  3. Predict the utility costs if 750 chairs are produced.
  4. Using Excel, create a scatter graph of the cost data and explain the relationship between number of chairs processed and utility expenses.
EB11.

LO 2.3Able Transport operates a tour bus that they lease with terms that involve a fixed fee each month plus a charge for each mile driven. Able Transport drove the tour bus 4,000 miles and paid a total of $1,250 in March. In April, they paid $970 for 3,000 miles. What is the variable cost per mile if Able Transport uses the high-low method to analyze costs?

EB12.

LO 2.3Able Transport operates a tour bus that they lease with terms that involve a fixed fee each month plus a charge for each mile driven. Able Transport drove the bus 7,000 miles and paid a total of $1,360 in June. In October, Able Transport paid $1,280 for the 5,000 miles driven. If Able Transport uses the high-low method to analyze costs, how much would Able Transport pay in December, if they drove 6,000 miles?

Citation/Attribution

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book is Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License 4.0 and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/principles-managerial-accounting/pages/1-why-it-matters
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/principles-managerial-accounting/pages/1-why-it-matters
Citation information

© Feb 14, 2019 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License 4.0 license. The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.