Skip to Content
OpenStax Logo
Buy book
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Accounting as a Tool for Managers
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 1.1 Define Managerial Accounting and Identify the Three Primary Responsibilities of Management
    3. 1.2 Distinguish between Financial and Managerial Accounting
    4. 1.3 Explain the Primary Roles and Skills Required of Managerial Accountants
    5. 1.4 Describe the Role of the Institute of Management Accountants and the Use of Ethical Standards
    6. 1.5 Describe Trends in Today’s Business Environment and Analyze Their Impact on Accounting
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Thought Provokers
  3. 2 Building Blocks of Managerial Accounting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 2.1 Distinguish between Merchandising, Manufacturing, and Service Organizations
    3. 2.2 Identify and Apply Basic Cost Behavior Patterns
    4. 2.3 Estimate a Variable and Fixed Cost Equation and Predict Future Costs
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Multiple Choice
    8. Questions
    9. Exercise Set A
    10. Exercise Set B
    11. Problem Set A
    12. Problem Set B
    13. Thought Provokers
  4. 3 Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 3.1 Explain Contribution Margin and Calculate Contribution Margin per Unit, Contribution Margin Ratio, and Total Contribution Margin
    3. 3.2 Calculate a Break-Even Point in Units and Dollars
    4. 3.3 Perform Break-Even Sensitivity Analysis for a Single Product Under Changing Business Situations
    5. 3.4 Perform Break-Even Sensitivity Analysis for a Multi-Product Environment Under Changing Business Situations
    6. 3.5 Calculate and Interpret a Company’s Margin of Safety and Operating Leverage
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  5. 4 Job Order Costing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 4.1 Distinguish between Job Order Costing and Process Costing
    3. 4.2 Describe and Identify the Three Major Components of Product Costs under Job Order Costing
    4. 4.3 Use the Job Order Costing Method to Trace the Flow of Product Costs through the Inventory Accounts
    5. 4.4 Compute a Predetermined Overhead Rate and Apply Overhead to Production
    6. 4.5 Compute the Cost of a Job Using Job Order Costing
    7. 4.6 Determine and Dispose of Underapplied or Overapplied Overhead
    8. 4.7 Prepare Journal Entries for a Job Order Cost System
    9. 4.8 Explain How a Job Order Cost System Applies to a Nonmanufacturing Environment
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Multiple Choice
    13. Questions
    14. Exercise Set A
    15. Exercise Set B
    16. Problem Set A
    17. Problem Set B
    18. Thought Provokers
  6. 5 Process Costing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 5.1 Compare and Contrast Job Order Costing and Process Costing
    3. 5.2 Explain and Identify Conversion Costs
    4. 5.3 Explain and Compute Equivalent Units and Total Cost of Production in an Initial Processing Stage
    5. 5.4 Explain and Compute Equivalent Units and Total Cost of Production in a Subsequent Processing Stage
    6. 5.5 Prepare Journal Entries for a Process Costing System
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  7. 6 Activity-Based, Variable, and Absorption Costing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 6.1 Calculate Predetermined Overhead and Total Cost under the Traditional Allocation Method
    3. 6.2 Describe and Identify Cost Drivers
    4. 6.3 Calculate Activity-Based Product Costs
    5. 6.4 Compare and Contrast Traditional and Activity-Based Costing Systems
    6. 6.5 Compare and Contrast Variable and Absorption Costing
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  8. 7 Budgeting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 7.1 Describe How and Why Managers Use Budgets
    3. 7.2 Prepare Operating Budgets
    4. 7.3 Prepare Financial Budgets
    5. 7.4 Prepare Flexible Budgets
    6. 7.5 Explain How Budgets Are Used to Evaluate Goals
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  9. 8 Standard Costs and Variances
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 8.1 Explain How and Why a Standard Cost Is Developed
    3. 8.2 Compute and Evaluate Materials Variances
    4. 8.3 Compute and Evaluate Labor Variances
    5. 8.4 Compute and Evaluate Overhead Variances
    6. 8.5 Describe How Companies Use Variance Analysis
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  10. 9 Responsibility Accounting and Decentralization
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 9.1 Differentiate between Centralized and Decentralized Management
    3. 9.2 Describe How Decision-Making Differs between Centralized and Decentralized Environments
    4. 9.3 Describe the Types of Responsibility Centers
    5. 9.4 Describe the Effects of Various Decisions on Performance Evaluation of Responsibility Centers
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  11. 10 Short-Term Decision Making
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 10.1 Identify Relevant Information for Decision-Making
    3. 10.2 Evaluate and Determine Whether to Accept or Reject a Special Order
    4. 10.3 Evaluate and Determine Whether to Make or Buy a Component
    5. 10.4 Evaluate and Determine Whether to Keep or Discontinue a Segment or Product
    6. 10.5 Evaluate and Determine Whether to Sell or Process Further
    7. 10.6 Evaluate and Determine How to Make Decisions When Resources Are Constrained
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Questions
    12. Exercise Set A
    13. Exercise Set B
    14. Problem Set A
    15. Problem Set B
    16. Thought Provokers
  12. 11 Capital Budgeting Decisions
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 11.1 Describe Capital Investment Decisions and How They Are Applied
    3. 11.2 Evaluate the Payback and Accounting Rate of Return in Capital Investment Decisions
    4. 11.3 Explain the Time Value of Money and Calculate Present and Future Values of Lump Sums and Annuities
    5. 11.4 Use Discounted Cash Flow Models to Make Capital Investment Decisions
    6. 11.5 Compare and Contrast Non-Time Value-Based Methods and Time Value-Based Methods in Capital Investment Decisions
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  13. 12 Balanced Scorecard and Other Performance Measures
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 12.1 Explain the Importance of Performance Measurement
    3. 12.2 Identify the Characteristics of an Effective Performance Measure
    4. 12.3 Evaluate an Operating Segment or a Project Using Return on Investment, Residual Income, and Economic Value Added
    5. 12.4 Describe the Balanced Scorecard and Explain How It Is Used
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  14. 13 Sustainability Reporting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 13.1 Describe Sustainability and the Way It Creates Business Value
    3. 13.2 Identify User Needs for Information
    4. 13.3 Discuss Examples of Major Sustainability Initiatives
    5. 13.4 Future Issues in Sustainability
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Thought Provokers
  15. Financial Statement Analysis
  16. Time Value of Money
  17. Suggested Resources
  18. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
  19. Index
EA1.

LO 11.1Bob’s Auto Repair has determined that it needs new lift equipment to acquire more business opportunities. However, one or more alternatives meet or exceed the minimum expectations Bob has for the new lift equipment. As a result, what type of decision should Bob make for his company?

EA2.

LO 11.1In practice, external factors can impact a capital investment. Give a current external factor that may currently impact or cause instability of capital spending either here or abroad.

EA3.

LO 11.2If a copy center is considering the purchase of a new copy machine with an initial investment cost of $150,000 and the center expects an annual net cash flow of $20,000 per year, what is the payback period?

EA4.

LO 11.2Assume a company is going to make an investment of $450,000 in a machine and the following are the cash flows that two different products would bring in years one through four. Which of the two options would you choose based on the payback method?

Option A, Product A; Option B, Product B (respectively): $190,000, $150,000; 190,000, 180,000; 60,000, 60,000; 20,000, 70,000.
EA5.

LO 11.2If a garden center is considering the purchase of a new tractor with an initial investment cost of $120,000, and the center expects a return of $30,000 in year one, $20,000 in years two and three, $15,000 in years four and five, and $10,000 in year six and beyond, what is the payback period?

EA6.

LO 11.2The management of Kawneer North America is considering investing in a new facility and the following cash flows are expected to result from the investment:

Year, Investment (cash outflow), Cash Inflow (respectively): 1, $1,900,000, 100,000; 2, $550,000, 200,000; 3, - , 360,000; 4, - , 480,000; 5, - , 510,000; 6, - , 600,000; 7, - , 590,000; 8, - , 300,000; 9, - , 250,000; 10, - , 250,000.
  1. What is the payback period of this uneven cash flow?
  2. Does your answer change if year 10’s cash inflow changes to $500,000?
EA7.

LO 11.2A mini-mart needs a new freezer and the initial investment will cost $300,000. Incremental revenues, including cost savings, are $200,000, and incremental expenses, including depreciation, are $125,000. There is no salvage value. What is the accounting rate of return (ARR)?

EA8.

LO 11.3You put $250 in the bank for 5 years at 12%.

  1. If interest is added at the end of the year, how much will you have in the bank after one year? Calculate the amount you will have in the bank at the end of year two and continue to calculate all the way to the end of the fifth year.
  2. Use the future value of $1 table in Appendix B and verify that your answer is correct.
EA9.

LO 11.3If you invest $12,000 today, how much will you have in (for further instructions on future value in Excel, see Appendix C):

  1. 10 years at 9%
  2. 8 years at 12%
  3. 14 years at 15%
  4. 19 years at 18%
EA10.

LO 11.3You have been depositing money into an account yearly based on the following amounts, rates, and times. What is the value of that investment account at the end of that period?

Amount of Investment, Rate, Time, Value at the End of the Period (respectively): $8,000, 20%, 15 years, ?; 12,000, 15, 10 years, ?; 15,500, 12, 5 years, ?; 35,500, 10, 2 years, ?
EA11.

LO 11.3How much would you invest today in order to receive $30,000 in each of the following (for further instructions on present value in Excel, see Appendix C):

  1. 10 years at 9%
  2. 8 years at 12%
  3. 14 years at 15%
  4. 19 years at 18%
EA12.

LO 11.3Your friend has a trust fund that will pay her the following amounts at the given interest rate for the given number of years. Calculate the current (present) value of your friend’s trust fund payments. For further instructions on future value in Excel, see Appendix C.

Amount of Yearly Receipt, Rate, Time, Current Value (respectively): $6,200, 10%, 5 years, ?; 12,200, 12, 10 years, ?; 18,000, 15, 15 years, ?; 22,500, 20, 20 years, ?
EA13.

LO 11.3Julio Company is considering the purchase of a new bubble packaging machine. If the machine will provide $20,000 annual savings for 10 years and can be sold for $50,000 at the end of the period, what is the present value of the machine investment at a 9% interest rate with savings realized at year end?

EA14.

LO 11.3How much must be invested now to receive $30,000 for 10 years if the first $30,000 is received one year from now and the rate is 8%?

EA15.

LO 11.4Project A costs $5,000 and will generate annual after-tax net cash inflows of $1,800 for five years. What is the NPV using 8% as the discount rate?

EA16.

LO 11.4Project B cost $5,000 and will generate after-tax net cash inflows of $500 in year one, $1,200 in year two, $2,000 in year three, $2,500 in year four, and $2,000 in year five. What is the NPV using 8% as the discount rate? For further instructions on net present value in Excel, see Appendix C.

EA17.

LO 11.4Gardner Denver Company is considering the purchase of a new piece of factory equipment that will cost $420,000 and will generate $95,000 per year for 5 years. Calculate the IRR for this piece of equipment. For further instructions on internal rate of return in Excel, see Appendix C.

EA18.

LO 11.4Consolidated Aluminum is considering the purchase of a new machine that will cost $308,000 and provide the following cash flows over the next five years: $88,000, 92,000, $91,000, $72,000, and $71,000. Calculate the IRR for this piece of equipment. For further instructions on internal rate of return in Excel, see Appendix C.

EA19.

LO 11.4Redbird Company is considering a project with an initial investment of $265,000 in new equipment that will yield annual net cash flows of $45,800 each year over its seven-year life. The company’s minimum required rate of return is 8%. What is the internal rate of return? Should Redbird accept the project based on IRR?

EA20.

LO 11.5Towson Industries is considering an investment of $256,950 that is expected to generate returns of $90,000 per year for each of the next four years. What is the investment’s internal rate of return?

EA21.

LO 11.5Cinemar Productions bought a piece of equipment for $55,898 that will last for 5 years. The equipment will generate net operating cash flows of $14,000 per year and will have no salvage value at the end of its life. What is the internal rate of return?

Citation/Attribution

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book is Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License 4.0 and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/principles-managerial-accounting/pages/1-why-it-matters
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/principles-managerial-accounting/pages/1-why-it-matters
Citation information

© Feb 14, 2019 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License 4.0 license. The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.