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Principles of Accounting, Volume 2: Managerial Accounting

11.1 Describe Capital Investment Decisions and How They Are Applied

Principles of Accounting, Volume 2: Managerial Accounting11.1 Describe Capital Investment Decisions and How They Are Applied
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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Accounting as a Tool for Managers
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 1.1 Define Managerial Accounting and Identify the Three Primary Responsibilities of Management
    3. 1.2 Distinguish between Financial and Managerial Accounting
    4. 1.3 Explain the Primary Roles and Skills Required of Managerial Accountants
    5. 1.4 Describe the Role of the Institute of Management Accountants and the Use of Ethical Standards
    6. 1.5 Describe Trends in Today’s Business Environment and Analyze Their Impact on Accounting
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Thought Provokers
  3. 2 Building Blocks of Managerial Accounting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 2.1 Distinguish between Merchandising, Manufacturing, and Service Organizations
    3. 2.2 Identify and Apply Basic Cost Behavior Patterns
    4. 2.3 Estimate a Variable and Fixed Cost Equation and Predict Future Costs
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Multiple Choice
    8. Questions
    9. Exercise Set A
    10. Exercise Set B
    11. Problem Set A
    12. Problem Set B
    13. Thought Provokers
  4. 3 Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 3.1 Explain Contribution Margin and Calculate Contribution Margin per Unit, Contribution Margin Ratio, and Total Contribution Margin
    3. 3.2 Calculate a Break-Even Point in Units and Dollars
    4. 3.3 Perform Break-Even Sensitivity Analysis for a Single Product Under Changing Business Situations
    5. 3.4 Perform Break-Even Sensitivity Analysis for a Multi-Product Environment Under Changing Business Situations
    6. 3.5 Calculate and Interpret a Company’s Margin of Safety and Operating Leverage
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  5. 4 Job Order Costing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 4.1 Distinguish between Job Order Costing and Process Costing
    3. 4.2 Describe and Identify the Three Major Components of Product Costs under Job Order Costing
    4. 4.3 Use the Job Order Costing Method to Trace the Flow of Product Costs through the Inventory Accounts
    5. 4.4 Compute a Predetermined Overhead Rate and Apply Overhead to Production
    6. 4.5 Compute the Cost of a Job Using Job Order Costing
    7. 4.6 Determine and Dispose of Underapplied or Overapplied Overhead
    8. 4.7 Prepare Journal Entries for a Job Order Cost System
    9. 4.8 Explain How a Job Order Cost System Applies to a Nonmanufacturing Environment
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Multiple Choice
    13. Questions
    14. Exercise Set A
    15. Exercise Set B
    16. Problem Set A
    17. Problem Set B
    18. Thought Provokers
  6. 5 Process Costing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 5.1 Compare and Contrast Job Order Costing and Process Costing
    3. 5.2 Explain and Identify Conversion Costs
    4. 5.3 Explain and Compute Equivalent Units and Total Cost of Production in an Initial Processing Stage
    5. 5.4 Explain and Compute Equivalent Units and Total Cost of Production in a Subsequent Processing Stage
    6. 5.5 Prepare Journal Entries for a Process Costing System
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  7. 6 Activity-Based, Variable, and Absorption Costing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 6.1 Calculate Predetermined Overhead and Total Cost under the Traditional Allocation Method
    3. 6.2 Describe and Identify Cost Drivers
    4. 6.3 Calculate Activity-Based Product Costs
    5. 6.4 Compare and Contrast Traditional and Activity-Based Costing Systems
    6. 6.5 Compare and Contrast Variable and Absorption Costing
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  8. 7 Budgeting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 7.1 Describe How and Why Managers Use Budgets
    3. 7.2 Prepare Operating Budgets
    4. 7.3 Prepare Financial Budgets
    5. 7.4 Prepare Flexible Budgets
    6. 7.5 Explain How Budgets Are Used to Evaluate Goals
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  9. 8 Standard Costs and Variances
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 8.1 Explain How and Why a Standard Cost Is Developed
    3. 8.2 Compute and Evaluate Materials Variances
    4. 8.3 Compute and Evaluate Labor Variances
    5. 8.4 Compute and Evaluate Overhead Variances
    6. 8.5 Describe How Companies Use Variance Analysis
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  10. 9 Responsibility Accounting and Decentralization
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 9.1 Differentiate between Centralized and Decentralized Management
    3. 9.2 Describe How Decision-Making Differs between Centralized and Decentralized Environments
    4. 9.3 Describe the Types of Responsibility Centers
    5. 9.4 Describe the Effects of Various Decisions on Performance Evaluation of Responsibility Centers
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  11. 10 Short-Term Decision Making
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 10.1 Identify Relevant Information for Decision-Making
    3. 10.2 Evaluate and Determine Whether to Accept or Reject a Special Order
    4. 10.3 Evaluate and Determine Whether to Make or Buy a Component
    5. 10.4 Evaluate and Determine Whether to Keep or Discontinue a Segment or Product
    6. 10.5 Evaluate and Determine Whether to Sell or Process Further
    7. 10.6 Evaluate and Determine How to Make Decisions When Resources Are Constrained
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Questions
    12. Exercise Set A
    13. Exercise Set B
    14. Problem Set A
    15. Problem Set B
    16. Thought Provokers
  12. 11 Capital Budgeting Decisions
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 11.1 Describe Capital Investment Decisions and How They Are Applied
    3. 11.2 Evaluate the Payback and Accounting Rate of Return in Capital Investment Decisions
    4. 11.3 Explain the Time Value of Money and Calculate Present and Future Values of Lump Sums and Annuities
    5. 11.4 Use Discounted Cash Flow Models to Make Capital Investment Decisions
    6. 11.5 Compare and Contrast Non-Time Value-Based Methods and Time Value-Based Methods in Capital Investment Decisions
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  13. 12 Balanced Scorecard and Other Performance Measures
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 12.1 Explain the Importance of Performance Measurement
    3. 12.2 Identify the Characteristics of an Effective Performance Measure
    4. 12.3 Evaluate an Operating Segment or a Project Using Return on Investment, Residual Income, and Economic Value Added
    5. 12.4 Describe the Balanced Scorecard and Explain How It Is Used
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  14. 13 Sustainability Reporting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 13.1 Describe Sustainability and the Way It Creates Business Value
    3. 13.2 Identify User Needs for Information
    4. 13.3 Discuss Examples of Major Sustainability Initiatives
    5. 13.4 Future Issues in Sustainability
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Thought Provokers
  15. Financial Statement Analysis
  16. Time Value of Money
  17. Suggested Resources
  18. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
  19. Index

Assume that you own a small printing store that provides custom printing applications for general business use. Your printers are used daily, which is good for business but results in heavy wear on each printer. After some time, and after a few too many repairs, you consider whether it is best to continue to use the printers you have or to invest some of your money in a new set of printers. A capital investment decision like this one is not an easy one to make, but it is a common occurrence faced by companies every day. Companies will use a step-by-step process to determine their capital needs, assess their ability to invest in a capital project, and decide which capital expenditures are the best use of their resources.

Fundamentals of Capital Investment Decisions

Capital investment (sometimes also referred to as capital budgeting) is a company’s contribution of funds toward the acquisition of long-lived (long-term or capital) assets for further growth. Long-term assets can include investments such as the purchase of new equipment, the replacement of old machinery, the expansion of operations into new facilities, or even the expansion into new products or markets. These capital expenditures are different from operating expenses. An operating expense is a regularly-occurring expense used to maintain the current operations of the company, but a capital expenditure is one used to grow the business and produce a future economic benefit.

Capital investment decisions occur on a frequent basis, and it is important for a company to determine its project needs to establish a path for business development. This decision is not as obvious or as simple as it may seem. There is a lot at stake with a large outlay of capital, and the long-term financial impact may be unknown due to the capital outlay decreasing or increasing over time. To help reduce the risk involved in capital investment, a process is required to thoughtfully select the best opportunity for the company.

The process for capital decision-making involves several steps:

  1. Determine capital needs for both new and existing projects.
  2. Identify and establish resource limitations.
  3. Establish baseline criteria for alternatives.
  4. Evaluate alternatives using screening and preference decisions.
  5. Make the decision.

The company must first determine its needs by deciding what capital improvements require immediate attention. For example, the company may determine that certain machinery requires replacement before any new buildings are acquired for expansion. Or, the company may determine that the new machinery and building expansion both require immediate attention. This latter situation would require a company to consider how to choose which investment to pursue first, or whether to pursue both capital investments concurrently.

Concepts In Practice

Brexit

The decision to invest money in capital expenditures may not only be impacted by internal company objectives, but also by external factors. In 2016, Great Britain voted to leave the European Union (EU) (termed “Brexit”), which separates their trade interests and single-market economy from other participating European nations. This has led to uncertainty for United Kingdom (UK) businesses.

Because of this instability, capital spending slowed or remained stagnant immediately following the Brexit vote and has not yet recovered growth momentum.1 The largest decrease in capital spending has occurred in the expansions of businesses into new markets. The UK is expected to separate from the EU in 2019.

The second step, exploring resource limitations, evaluates the company’s ability to invest in capital expenditures given the availability of funds and time. Sometimes a company may have enough resources to cover capital investments in many projects. Many times, however, they only have enough resources to invest in a limited number of opportunities. If this is the situation, the company must evaluate both the time and money needed to acquire each asset. Time allocation considerations can include employee commitments and project set-up requirements. Fund limitations may result from a lack of capital fundraising, tied-up capital in non-liquid assets, or extensive up-front acquisition costs that extend beyond investment means (Table 11.1). Once the ability to invest has been established, the company needs to establish baseline criteria for alternatives.

Resource Limitations
Time Considerations Money Considerations
  • Employee commitments
  • Project set-up
  • Time-frame necessary to secure financing
  • Lack of liquidity
  • Tied up in non-liquid assets
  • Up-front acquisition costs
Table 11.1 When resources are limited, capital budgeting procedures are needed.

Alternatives are the options available for investment. For example, if a company needs to purchase new printing equipment, all possible printing equipment options are considered alternatives. Since there are so many alternative possibilities, a company will need to establish baseline criteria for the investment. Baseline criteria are measurement methods that can help differentiate among alternatives. Common measurement methods include the payback method, accounting rate of return, net present value, or internal rate of return. These methods have varying degrees of complexity and will be discussed in greater detail in Evaluate the Payback and Accounting Rate of Return in Capital Investment Decisions and Explain the Time Value of Money and Calculate Present and Future Values of Lump Sums and Annuities

To evaluate alternatives, businesses will use the measurement methods to compare outcomes. The outcomes will not only be compared against other alternatives, but also against a predetermined rate of return on the investment (or minimum expectation) established for each project consideration. The rate of return concept is discussed in more detail in Balanced Scorecard and Other Performance Measures. A company may use experience or industry standards to predetermine factors used to evaluate alternatives. Alternatives will first be evaluated against the predetermined criteria for that investment opportunity, in a screening decision. The screening decision allows companies to remove alternatives that would be less desirable to pursue given their inability to meet basic standards. For example, if there were three different printing equipment options and a minimum return had been established, any printers that did not meet that minimum return requirement would be removed from consideration.

If one or more of the alternatives meets or exceeds the minimum expectations, a preference decision is considered. A preference decision compares potential projects that meet screening decision criteria and will rank the alternatives in order of importance, feasibility, or desirability to differentiate among alternatives. Once the company determines the rank order, it is able to make a decision on the best avenue to pursue (Figure 11.2). When making the final decision, all financial and non-financial factors are deliberated.

Three arrows in order pointing right. The first represents the Screening Decision, has Alternatives 1, 2, and 3 on it, and is pointing at the second, which represents the Preference Decision. This arrow only has Alternatives 1 and 2 on it and points at the third arrow, which represents Make Decision. It only has Alternative 1 on it.
Figure 11.2 Select Between Alternatives. Screening and preference decisions can narrow alternatives in making a selection. (attribution: Copyright Rice University, OpenStax, under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license)

Ethical Considerations

Volkswagen Diesel Emissions Scandal

Sometimes a company makes capital decisions due to outside pressures or unforeseen circumstances. The New York Times reported in 2015 that the car company Volkswagen was “scarred by an emissions-cheating scandal,” and “would need to cut its budget next year for new technology and research—a reversal after years of increased spending aimed at becoming the world’s biggest carmaker.”2 This was a huge setback for Volkswagen, not only because the company had budgeted and planned to become the largest car company in the world, but also because the scandal damaged its reputation and set it back financially.

Volkswagen “set aside about 9 billion euros ($9.6 billion) to cover costs related to making the cars compliant with pollution regulations;” however, the sums were “unlikely to cover the costs of potential legal judgments or other fines.”3 All of the costs related to the company’s unethical actions needed to be included in the capital budget, as company resources were limited. Volkswagen used capital budgeting procedures to allocate funds for buying back the improperly manufactured cars and paying any legal claims or penalties. Other companies might take other approaches, but an unethical action that results in lawsuits and fines often requires an adjustment to the capital decision-making process.

Let’s broadly consider what the five-step process for capital decision-making looks like for Melanie’s Sewing Studio. Melanie owns a sewing studio that produces fabric patterns for wholesale.

  1. Determine capital needs for both new and existing projects.
    Upon review of her future needs, Melanie determines that her five-year-old commercial sewing machine could be replaced. The old machine is still working, but production has slowed in recent months with an increase in repair needs and replacement parts. Melanie expects a new sewing machine to make her production process more efficient, which could also increase her current business volume. She decides to explore the possibility of purchasing a new sewing machine.
  2. Identify and establish resource limitations.
    Melanie must consider if she has enough time and money to invest in a new sewing machine. The Sewing Studio has been in business for three years and has shown steady financial growth year over year. Melanie expects to make enough profit to afford a capital investment of $50,000. If she does purchase a new sewing machine, she will have to train her staff on how to use the machine and will have to cease production while the new machine is installed. She anticipates a loss of $20,000 for training and production time. The estimation of the $20,000 loss is based on the downtime in production for both labor and product output.
  3. Establish baseline criteria for alternatives.
    Melanie is considering two different sewing machines for purchase. Before she evaluates which option is a better investment, she must establish minimum requirements for the investment. She determines that the new machine must return her initial investment back to her in three years at a rate of 20%, and the initial investment cost cannot exceed her future earnings. This established a baseline for what she considers reasonable for this type of investment, and she will not consider any investment alternative that does not meet these minimum criteria.
  4. Evaluate alternatives using screening and preference decisions.
    Now that she has established minimum requirements for the new machine, she can evaluate each of these machines to see if they meet or exceed her criteria. The first sewing machine costs $45,000. She is expected to recoup her initial investment in two-and-a-half years. The return rate is 25%, and her future earnings would exceed the initial cost of the machine.
    The second machine will cost $55,000. She expects to recoup her initial investment in three years. The return rate is $18%, and her future earnings would be less than the initial cost of the machine.
  5. Make the decision.
    Melanie will now decide which sewing machine to invest in. The first machine meets or exceeds her established minimum requirements in cost, payback, return rate, and future earnings compared to the initial investment. For the second machine, the $55,000 cost exceeds the cash available for investment. In addition, the second machine does not meet the return rate of 20% and the anticipated future earnings does not compare well to the value of the initial investment. Based on this information, Melanie would choose to purchase the first sewing machine.
    These steps make it seem as if narrowing down the alternatives and making a selection is a simple process. However, a company needs to use analysis techniques, including the payback method and the accounting rate of return method, as well as other, more sophisticated and complex techniques, to help them make screening and preference decisions. These techniques can assist management in making a final investment decision that is best for the company. We begin learning about these various screening and preference decisions in Evaluate the Payback and Accounting Rate of Return in Capital

Footnotes

  • 1 G. Jackson “UK Business Investment Stalls in Year since Brexit Vote.” The Financial Times. August 24, 2017. https://www.ft.com/content/daff3ffe-88ac-11e7-8bb1-5ba57d47eff7
  • 2 Jack Ewing and Jad Mouawad. “VW Cuts Its R&D Budget in Face of Costly Emissions Scandal.” New York Times. November 20, 2015. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/21/business/international/volkswagen-emissions-scandal.html
  • 3 Jack Ewing and Jad Mouawad. “VW Cuts Its R&D Budget in Face of Costly Emissions Scandal.” New York Times. November 20, 2015. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/21/business/international/volkswagen-emissions-scandal.html
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