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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Managing and Performing
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 What Do Managers Do?
    3. 1.2 The Roles Managers Play
    4. 1.3 Major Characteristics of the Manager's Job
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    7. Chapter Review Questions
    8. Management Skills Application Exercises
    9. Managerial Decision Exercises
    10. Critical Thinking Case
  3. 2 Managerial Decision-Making
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Overview of Managerial Decision-Making
    3. 2.2 How the Brain Processes Information to Make Decisions: Reflective and Reactive Systems
    4. 2.3 Programmed and Nonprogrammed Decisions
    5. 2.4 Barriers to Effective Decision-Making
    6. 2.5 Improving the Quality of Decision-Making
    7. 2.6 Group Decision-Making
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    10. Chapter Review Questions
    11. Management Skills Application Exercises
    12. Managerial Decision Exercises
    13. Critical Thinking Case
  4. 3 The History of Management
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 The Early Origins of Management
    3. 3.2 The Italian Renaissance
    4. 3.3 The Industrial Revolution
    5. 3.4 Taylor-Made Management
    6. 3.5 Administrative and Bureaucratic Management
    7. 3.6 Human Relations Movement
    8. 3.7 Contingency and System Management
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    11. Chapter Review Questions
    12. Managerial Decision Exercises
  5. 4 External and Internal Organizational Environments and Corporate Culture
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 The Organization's External Environment
    3. 4.2 External Environments and Industries
    4. 4.3 Organizational Designs and Structures
    5. 4.4 The Internal Organization and External Environments
    6. 4.5 Corporate Cultures
    7. 4.6 Organizing for Change in the 21st Century
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    10. Chapter Review Questions
    11. Management Skills Application Exercises
    12. Managerial Decision Exercises
    13. Critical Thinking Case
  6. 5 Ethics, Corporate Responsibility, and Sustainability
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Ethics and Business Ethics Defined
    3. 5.2 Dimensions of Ethics: The Individual Level
    4. 5.3 Ethical Principles and Responsible Decision-Making
    5. 5.4 Leadership: Ethics at the Organizational Level
    6. 5.5 Ethics, Corporate Culture, and Compliance
    7. 5.6 Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
    8. 5.7 Ethics around the Globe
    9. 5.8 Emerging Trends in Ethics, CSR, and Compliance
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    12. Chapter Review Questions
    13. Management Skills Application Exercises
    14. Managerial Decision Exercises
    15. Critical Thinking Case
  7. 6 International Management
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Importance of International Management
    3. 6.2 Hofstede's Cultural Framework
    4. 6.3 The GLOBE Framework
    5. 6.4 Cultural Stereotyping and Social Institutions
    6. 6.5 Cross-Cultural Assignments
    7. 6.6 Strategies for Expanding Globally
    8. 6.7 The Necessity of Global Markets
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    11. Chapter Review Questions
    12. Management Skills Application Exercises
    13. Managerial Decision Exercises
    14. Critical Thinking Case
  8. 7 Entrepreneurship
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Entrepreneurship
    3. 7.2 Characteristics of Successful Entrepreneurs
    4. 7.3 Small Business
    5. 7.4 Start Your Own Business
    6. 7.5 Managing a Small Business
    7. 7.6 The Large Impact of Small Business
    8. 7.7 The Small Business Administration
    9. 7.8 Trends in Entrepreneurship and Small-Business Ownership
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    12. Chapter Review Questions
    13. Management Skills Application Exercises
    14. Managerial Decision Exercises
    15. Critical Thinking Case
  9. 8 Strategic Analysis: Understanding a Firm’s Competitive Environment
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Gaining Advantages by Understanding the Competitive Environment
    3. 8.2 Using SWOT for Strategic Analysis
    4. 8.3 A Firm's External Macro Environment: PESTEL
    5. 8.4 A Firm's Micro Environment: Porter's Five Forces
    6. 8.5 The Internal Environment
    7. 8.6 Competition, Strategy, and Competitive Advantage
    8. 8.7 Strategic Positioning
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    11. Chapter Review Questions
    12. Management Skills Application Exercises
    13. Managerial Decision Exercises
    14. Critical Thinking Case
  10. 9 The Strategic Management Process: Achieving and Sustaining Competitive Advantage
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Strategic Management
    3. 9.2 Firm Vision and Mission
    4. 9.3 The Role of Strategic Analysis in Formulating a Strategy
    5. 9.4 Strategic Objectives and Levels of Strategy
    6. 9.5 Planning Firm Actions to Implement Strategies
    7. 9.6 Measuring and Evaluating Strategic Performance
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    10. Chapter Review Questions
    11. Management Skills Application Exercises
    12. Managerial Decision Exercises
    13. Critical Thinking Case
  11. 10 Organizational Structure and Change
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Organizational Structures and Design
    3. 10.2 Organizational Change
    4. 10.3 Managing Change
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    7. Chapter Review Questions
    8. Management Skills Application Exercises
    9. Managerial Decision Exercises
    10. Critical Thinking Case
  12. 11 Human Resource Management
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 An Introduction to Human Resource Management
    3. 11.2 Human Resource Management and Compliance
    4. 11.3 Performance Management
    5. 11.4 Influencing Employee Performance and Motivation
    6. 11.5 Building an Organization for the Future
    7. 11.6 Talent Development and Succession Planning
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    10. Chapter Review Questions
    11. Management Skills Application Exercises
    12. Managerial Decision Exercises
    13. Critical Thinking Case
  13. 12 Diversity in Organizations
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 An Introduction to Workplace Diversity
    3. 12.2 Diversity and the Workforce
    4. 12.3 Diversity and Its Impact on Companies
    5. 12.4 Challenges of Diversity
    6. 12.5 Key Diversity Theories
    7. 12.6 Benefits and Challenges of Workplace Diversity
    8. 12.7 Recommendations for Managing Diversity
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    11. Chapter Review Questions
    12. Management Skills Application Exercises
    13. Managerial Decision Exercises
    14. Critical Thinking Case
  14. 13 Leadership
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 The Nature of Leadership
    3. 13.2 The Leadership Process
    4. 13.3 Leader Emergence
    5. 13.4 The Trait Approach to Leadership
    6. 13.5 Behavioral Approaches to Leadership
    7. 13.6 Situational (Contingency) Approaches to Leadership
    8. 13.7 Substitutes for and Neutralizers of Leadership
    9. 13.8 Transformational, Visionary, and Charismatic Leadership
    10. 13.9 Leadership Needs in the 21st Century
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    13. Chapter Review Questions
    14. Management Skills Application Exercises
    15. Managerial Decision Exercises
    16. Critical Thinking Case
  15. 14 Work Motivation for Performance
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 Motivation: Direction and Intensity
    3. 14.2 Content Theories of Motivation
    4. 14.3 Process Theories of Motivation
    5. 14.4 Recent Research on Motivation Theories
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    8. Chapter Review Questions
    9. Management Skills Application Exercises
    10. Managerial Decision Exercises
    11. Critical Thinking Case
  16. 15 Managing Teams
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 Teamwork in the Workplace
    3. 15.2 Team Development Over Time
    4. 15.3 Things to Consider When Managing Teams
    5. 15.4 Opportunities and Challenges to Team Building
    6. 15.5 Team Diversity
    7. 15.6 Multicultural Teams
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    10. Chapter Review Questions
    11. Management Skills Application Exercises
    12. Managerial Decision Exercises
    13. Critical Thinking Case
  17. 16 Managerial Communication
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 The Process of Managerial Communication
    3. 16.2 Types of Communications in Organizations
    4. 16.3 Factors Affecting Communications and the Roles of Managers
    5. 16.4 Managerial Communication and Corporate Reputation
    6. 16.5 The Major Channels of Management Communication Are Talking, Listening, Reading, and Writing
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    9. Chapter Review Questions
    10. Management Skills Application Exercises
    11. Managerial Decision Exercises
    12. Critical Thinking Case
  18. 17 Organizational Planning and Controlling
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Is Planning Important
    3. 17.2 The Planning Process
    4. 17.3 Types of Plans
    5. 17.4 Goals or Outcome Statements
    6. 17.5 Formal Organizational Planning in Practice
    7. 17.6 Employees' Responses to Planning
    8. 17.7 Management by Objectives: A Planning and Control Technique
    9. 17.8 The Control- and Involvement-Oriented Approaches to Planning and Controlling
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    12. Chapter Review Questions
    13. Management Skills Application Exercises
    14. Managerial Decision Exercises
    15. Critical Thinking Case
  19. 18 Management of Technology and Innovation
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 MTI—Its Importance Now and In the Future
    3. 18.2 Developing Technology and Innovation
    4. 18.3 External Sources of Technology and Innovation
    5. 18.4 Internal Sources of Technology and Innovation
    6. 18.5 Management Entrepreneurship Skills for Technology and Innovation
    7. 18.6 Skills Needed for MTI
    8. 18.7 Managing Now for Future Technology and Innovation
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    11. Chapter Review Questions
    12. Management Skills Application Exercises
    13. Managerial Decision Exercises
    14. Critical Thinking Case
  20. References
  21. Index

Managing and Performing

1. Hannaway, J. (1989). Managers Managing: The Workings of an Administrative System. New York: Oxford University Press, P. 39.
2. Eccles, R. G. & Nohria, N. (1992). Beyond the Hype: Rediscovering the Essence of Management. Boston: The Harvard Business School Press, p. 47.
3. Hannaway, J. (1989). Managers Managing: The Workings of an Administrative System. New York: Oxford University Press, P. 39; and Kotter, J. P. (1982). The General Managers. New York: The Free Press.
4. Mintzberg, H. (1973). The Nature of Managerial Work. New York: Harper & Row. P. 37.
5. Kotter, J. P. (1999). “What Effective General Managers Really Do,” Harvard Business Review, March–April 1999, pp. 145–159.
6. Kotter, J. P. (1999). “What Effective General Managers Really Do,” Harvard Business Review, March–April 1999, pp. 145–159.
7. Sproull, L. S. (1984).“The Nature of Managerial Attention,” in L. S. Sproull (ed.), Advances in Information Processing in Organizations. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
8. Stewart, R. (1967). Managers and Their Jobs. London: Macmillan.
9. Eccles, R. G. & Nohria, N. (1992). Beyond the Hype: Rediscovering the Essence of Management. Boston: The Harvard Business School Press, p. 47.
10. Mintzberg, H. (1973). The Nature of Managerial Work. New York: Harper & Row. P. 37.
11. Pondy, L. R. (1978). “Leadership Is a Language Game,” in M. W. McCall, Jr. and M. M. Lombardo (eds.), Leadership: Where Else Can We Go? Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
12. Mintzberg, H. (2009). Managing. San Francisco, Berrett-Kohler Publishers. P. 26-28.
13. Eccles, R. G. & Nohria, N. (1992). Beyond the Hype: Rediscovering the Essence of Management. Boston: The Harvard Business School Press, pp. 47-48.
14. Mintzberg, H. (1990). “The Manager’s Job: Folklore and Fact.” Harvard Business Review, March–April 1990, pp. 166–167.
15. Mintzberg, H. (1990). “The Manager’s Job: Folklore and Fact.” Harvard Business Review, March–April 1990, p. 167.
16. Mintzberg, H. (1990). “The Manager’s Job: Folklore and Fact.” Harvard Business Review, March–April 1990, p. 168.
17. McGregor, J. (2008). “Bezos: How Frugality Drives Innovation,” BusinessWeek, April 28, 2008, pp. 64–66.
18. Stewart, R. (1967). Managers and Their Jobs. London: Macmillan.
19. Mintzberg, H. (1990). “The Manager’s Job: Folklore and Fact.” Harvard Business Review, March–April 1990.
20. Mintzberg, H. (1990). “The Manager’s Job: Folklore and Fact.” Harvard Business Review, March–April 1990, p. 167.
21. Katz, Robert L., (1974). “Skills of an Effective Administrator.” Harvard Business Review, September-October 1974.

Managerial Decision-Making

1. Lynn Stout. 2012. The Shareholder Value Myth: How Putting Shareholders First Harms Investors, Corporations, and the Public. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
2. Peter A. Facione & Noreen C. Facione. 2007. Thinking and Reasoning in Human Decision Making: The Method of Argument and Heuristic Analysis, Millbrae, CA: The California Academic Press.
3. Matthew D. Lieberman. 2003. “Reflexive and reflective judgment processes: A social cognitive neuroscience approach.” In (Eds.) Joseph P. Forgas, Kipling D. Williams, & William von Hippel’s: Social judgments: Implicit and explicit processes, 44-67. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
4. Adam L. Darlow & Steven A. Sloman. 2010. “Two systems of reasoning: Architecture and relation to emotion,” WIREs Cognitive Science, 1: 382-392.
5. Malcolm Gladwell. 2005. Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking. New York: Back Bay Books.
6. Jennifer M. George. 2000. “Emotions and leadership: The role of emotional intelligence.” Human Relations, 53, 1027-1055.
7. Christopher L. Aberson, Michael Healy, & Victoria Romero. 2000. Ingroup Bias and Self-Esteem: A Meta-Analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4: 157-173.
8. Elizabeth Kolbert. 2017. Why Facts Don’t Change our Minds. The New Yorker, February 27, 2017.
9. Karen A. Jehn & Elizabeth A. Mannix. 2001. The Dynamic Nature of Conflict: A Longitudinal Study of Intragroup Conflict and Group Performance. Academy of Management Journal, 44: 238-251.
10. Linda K. Trevino & Michael E. Brown. 2004. Managing to be ethical: Debunking five business ethics myths. Academy of Management Executive, 18: 69-81.
11. James R. Rest. 1986. Moral development: Advances in research and theory. Praeger Publishers.

The History of Management

1. Jackson, Eric, “Sun Tzu's 31 Best Pieces Of Leadership Advice”, Forbes, May 23, 2014. https://www.forbes.com/sites/ryanholiday/2012/05/07/9-lessons-on-leadership-from-genghis-khan-yes-genghis-khan/; https://www.forbes.com/sites/ericjackson/2014/05/23/sun-tzus-33-best-pieces-of-leadership-advice/#124ac8a05e5e
2. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2010/09/20/the-face-of-facebook
3. George, Claude S. (1972). History of Management Thought. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs New Jersey.
4. Wren, D. A., & Bedeian, A. G. 2009. The evolution of management thought. (6th ed.), New York: Wiley.
5. Wren, D. A., & Bedeian, A. G. 2009. The evolution of management thought. (6th ed.), New York: Wiley.
6. Wren, D. A., & Bedeian, A. G. 2009. The evolution of management thought. (6th ed.), New York: Wiley.
7. Fairbank, J.K. (1991). China: a New History. Harvard University Press. Cambridge.
8. Ruggiero, Guido. The Renaissance in Italy: A Social and Cultural History of the Rinascimento (Cambridge University Press, 2015).
9. Muldoon, J., & Marin, D. B. (2012). John Florio and the introduction of management into the English vocabulary. Journal of Management History, 18(2), 129-136.
10. Haynes, M.S. (1991), The Italian Renaissance and Its Influence on Western Civilization, University Press of America, New York, NY.
11. Bridgen, S. (2001), New Worlds, Lost Worlds: The Rule of the Tudors, 1485‐1603, Viking Penguin, New York, NY.
12. Muldoon, J., & Marin, D. B. (2012). John Florio and the introduction of management into the English vocabulary. Journal of Management History, 18(2), 129-136.
13. Bryce, George (1968). The Remarkable History of Hudson's Bay Company. New York: B. Franklin.
14. Williams, Roger (2015). London's Lost Global Giant: In Search of the East India Company. London: Bristol Book Publishing.
15. Ross, Ian Simpson (2010). The Life of Adam Smith (2 ed.). Oxford University Press.
16. Smith, Adam (1977) [1776]. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. University of Chicago Press
17. Ashton, Thomas S. (1948). "The Industrial Revolution (1760–1830)". Oxford University Press.
18. Landes, David (1999). The Wealth and Poverty of Nations. W. W. Norton & Company.
19. Wren, D. A., & Bedeian, A. G. 2009. The evolution of management thought. (6th ed.), New York: Wiley
20. Lacey, Robert. Ford: The Men and the Machine Little, Brown, 1986.
21. Hassard, J. S. (2012). Rethinking the Hawthorne Studies: The Western Electric research in its social, political and historical context. Human Relations, 65(11), 1431-1461.
22. Howe, D. W. (2008). What God Hath Wrought. New York Oxford University Press.
23. Bendickson, J., Muldoon, J., Liguori, E., & Davis, P. E. (2016). Agency theory: the times, they are a-changin’. Management Decision, 54(1), 174-193.
24. Bendickson, J., Muldoon, J., Ligouri, E.W. and Davis, P.E. (2016), “Agency theory: background and epistemology”, Journal of Management History, Vol. 22 No. 4, pp. 437-449
25. Bendickson, J., Muldoon, J., Ligouri, E.W. and Davis, P.E. (2016), “Agency theory: background and epistemology”, Journal of Management History, Vol. 22 No. 4, pp. 437-449
26. Wren, D. A., & Bedeian, A. G. 2009. The evolution of management thought. (6th ed.), New York: Wiley.
27. Wren, D.A. (2005), The History of Management Thought, 5th ed., John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ
28. McGerr, Michael. A Fierce Discontent: The Rise and Fall of the Progressive Movement in America, 1870–1920 (2003
29. Wiebe, Robert. The Search For Order, 1877–1920 (1967)
30. Kanigel, Robert (1997) The one best way : Frederick Winslow Taylor and the enigma of efficiency (London : Little, Brown)
31. Kanigel, Robert (1997) The one best way : Frederick Winslow Taylor and the enigma of efficiency (London : Little, Brown)
32. Wren, D. A., & Bedeian, A. G. 2009. The evolution of management thought. (6th ed.), New York: Wiley.
33. Wren, D. A., & Bedeian, A. G. 2009. The evolution of management thought. (6th ed.), New York: Wiley.
34. Drucker, P.F. 1954: The Practice of Management (New York: Harper & Brothers)
35. Kakar, Sudhir (1970). Frederick Taylor: a study in personality and innovation. Cambridge: University of Wisconsin Press.
36. Spencer Klaw, “Frederick Winslow Taylor: The Messiah of Time and Motion.” American Heritage, 1979, 30(5), 26-39.
37. Charles D. Wrege and Ronald G. Greenwood, Frederick W. Taylor: The Father of Scientific Management (Homewood, IL: Business One Irwin, 1991), 253-260.
38. The Principles of Scientific Management. New York and London, Harper & brothers
39. Wren, D. A., & Bedeian, A. G. 2009. The evolution of management thought. (6th ed.), New York: Wiley.
40. Krenn, M. (2011). From Scientific Management to homemaking: Lillian M. Gilbreth's contributions to the development of management thought. Management & Organizational History, 6(2), 145-161.
41. Charles D. Wrege and Ronald G. Greenwood, Frederick W. Taylor: The Father of Scientific Management (Homewood, IL: Business One Irwin, 1991), 253-260.
42. Edwin A. Locke, “The Ideas of Frederick W. Taylor: An Evaluation.” Academy of Management Review, 1982, 7, 14-24
43. Pryor, J.L.; Guthrie, C. (2010). "The private life of Henri Fayol and his motivation to build a management science". Journal of Management History.
44. Daniel A. Wren, Arthur G. Bedeian, John D. Breeze, (2002) "The foundations of Henri Fayol’s administrative theory", Management Decision, Vol. 40 Iss: 9, pp.906 - 918
45. Industrial and General Administration. Translated by J.A. Coubrough, London: Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons.
46. Max Weber, “Ideal Bureaucracy” in The Theory of Social and Economic Organizations (ed. & trans. Talcott Parsons & Alexander H. Henderson). (New York: Oxford University Press, 1922/1947)
47. Robert K. Merton, “Bureaucratic Structure and Personality.” Social Forces, 1940, 18, 500-508.
48. Jeffrey A. Sonnenfeld, “Shedding Light on the Hawthorne Studies.” Journalof Occupational Behavior, 1985, 6, 111-130.
49. Wren, D. A., & Bedeian, A. G. 2009. The evolution of management thought. (6th ed.), New York: Wiley.
50. Wren, D. A., & Bedeian, A. G. 2009. The evolution of management thought. (6th ed.), New York: Wiley.
51. Gehani, R. Ray (2002) "Chester Barnard's “executive” and the knowledge-based firm", Management Decision 40(10): 980 - 991.
52. Chester I. Barnard, The Functions of the Executive (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1938),
53. Wren, D. A., & Bedeian, A. G. 2009. The evolution of management thought. (6th ed.), New York: Wiley.
54. Mary P. Follett: Creating Democracy, Transforming Management, Tonn, Joan C., New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003
55. Mary P. Follett: Creating Democracy, Transforming Management, Tonn, Joan C., New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003
56. Follett, M. P. (1926). The psychological foundations: Constructive conflict in Henry metcalf. Scientific Foundations of Business administration, Baltimore, MD, The Williams & Wilkins Company pg. 116.
57. Kenneth E. Boulding, “General Systems Theory C The Skeleton of Science.”Management Science, 1956, 2, 197-208.
58. Woodward, J. 1970. Industrial organization: Behavior and control. London: Oxford University Press.
59. Sutton, R., & Staw, B. (1995). What theory is not. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40, 371-384.
60. Pfeffer, J. and Sutton, R.I. (2006). Harvard Business Review, 84 (1) 62-74.; and Pfeffer, J. and Sutton, R.I. (2006). Hard Facts, Dangerous Half-Truths and Total Nonsense: Profiting From Evidence-Based Management. Cambridge: Harvard Business School Press.

External and Internal Organizational Environments and Corporate Culture

1. Panetta, Kasey, “Gartner Top 10 Strategic Technology Trends for 2018”, Gartner, October 3, 2017. https://www.gartner.com/smarterwithgartner/gartner-top-10-strategic-technology-trends-for-2018/
2. Mearian, Lucas, “What is blockchain? The most disruptive technology in decades”, Computerworld, May 31, 2018. https://www.computerworld.com/article/3191077/security/what-is-blockchain-the-most-disruptive-tech-in-decades.html; https://www.forbes.com/sites/theyec/2018/01/10/23-trends-that-will-shake-the-business-world-in-2018/#6b6c3524583f
3. Young Entrepreneurship Council, “23 Trends That Will Shake the Business World in 2018”, Forbes, January 10, 2018. https://www.forbes.com/sites/theyec/2018/01/10/23-trends-that-will-shake-the-business-world-in-2018/#6b6c3524583f
4. This is a broad definition which has been used in different forms. The source here is “What is an External Environment in Business” Chapter 5, study.com, Accessed October 15, 2018. https://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-an-external-environment-in-business-definition-types-factors.html
5. Jamrisko, Michelle, “China’s Economy to Overtake Euro Zone This Year”, Bloomberg, March 6, 2018. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-03-06/china-s-economy-is-set-to-overtake-combined-euro-area-this-year
6. China Owns US Debt, but How Much? | Investopedia, April 6, 2018. https://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/080615/china-owns-us-debt-how-much.asp#ixzz5DcHG4d7k
7. Rawlinson, Paul, “A prediction for globalization in 2018”, World Economic Forum, January 22, 2018. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/01/prediction-globalization-2018/
8. Bersin, Josh and Mazor, Art, “Culture Engagement and Beyond”, Deloitte Insights, February 28, 2017. https://www2.deloitte.com/insights/us/en/focus/human-capital-trends/2017/improving-the-employee-experience-culture-engagement.html?id=us:2ps:3gl:confidence:eng:cons:::na:LIxmKVLK:1079836504:244787795449:b:RLSA_Human_Capital_Trends::nb
9. Cilluffo, Anthony and Cohen, D’Vera, “10 demographic trends shaping the U. S. and the World in 2017”, Pew Research Center, April 27, 2017. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/04/27/10-demographic-trends-shaping-the-u-s-and-the-world-in-2017/
10. Graf, Nikki, Sexual Harassment at work in the Era of #MeToo”, Pew Research Center, April 4, 2018. http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2018/04/04/sexual-harassment-at-work-in-the-era-of-metoo/
11. The Global Risks Report 2018 13th Edition. (2018). The World Economic Forum, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GRR18_Report.pdf, p. 6. Also see http://reports.weforum.org/global-risks-2018/global-risks-landscape-2018/
12. Fry, Richard, “It’s becoming more common for young adults to live at home for longer stretches”, Pew Research Center, May 5, 2017. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/05/05/its-becoming-more-common-for-young-adults-to-live-at-home-and-for-longer-stretches/
13. DeSilver, Drew, “Women scarce at the top of U.S. business- and in the job that lead there”, Pew Research Center, April 30, 2018. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/04/30/women-scarce-at-top-of-u-s-business-and-in-the-jobs-that-lead-there/
14. Hunt, Vivian et al, “Delivering Through Diversity”, McKinsey, January 2018. https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey/Business%20Functions/Organization/Our%20Insights/Delivering%20through%20diversity/Delivering-through-diversity_full-report.ashx
15. The Global Economic Report, 13th Edition, World Economic Forum, 2018. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GRR18_Report.pdf
16. Rice, Doyle, “Thousands of low-lying islands may become 'uninhabitable' within decades as seas rise”, USA Today, April 25, 2018. https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2018/04/25/thousands-low-lying-islands-may-become-uninhabitable-within-decades-seas-rise/550659002/
17. Felice De Toni, A. and G. De Zan. (2016), The complexity dilemma, Three tips for dealing with complexity in organizations, Practitioner, Dec. 31, https://journal.emergentpublications.com/article/the-complexity-dilemma/
18. Eisenhardt, K. M., & Sull, D. N. (2001). “Strategy as simple rules”, Harvard Business Review, 79(1): 106-119
19. Ibid.
20. Bersin, Josh, et al, “2017 Global Human Capital trends”, Deloitte Insights, February 28, 2017. https://www2.deloitte.com/insights/us/en/focus/human-capital-trends/2017/organization-of-the-future.html
21. Ibid.
22. Burns, T. & Stalker, G. M. (1961), The Management of Innovation, Tavistock, London; Mintzberg, H. 1979. The structuring of organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall; Emery, Fred E. and Eric L. Trist, (1965), "The Causal Texture of Organizational Environments", pp 21-32 in Human Relations, February 1965
23. Anand, N. and R. Daft. (2007). What is the Right Organization Design? Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 329–344.
24. Ibid.
25. This section draws on a number of scholarly and practitioner sources, including the following: R. Daft. (2016). Organization Theory & Design, 12th ed. Cengage Learning, Boston, MA; https://blog.hubspot.com/marketing/team-structure-diagrams; Burton and Obel. (2018). Journal of Organization Design Vol. 7, Issue 5, Devaney, Erik, “7 types of organizational Structure & Whom They’re Suited For [Diagrams], Hubspot, accessed November 18, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41469-018-0029-2; “Matrix Teams”, Global Integration, accessed November 18, 2018. http://www.global-integration.com/glossary/matrix-teams/; and Bersin, josh, “The organization of the Future: Arriving Now’, 2017 Global Human Capital Trends, Deloitte Insights, February 28, 2017. https://www2.deloitte.com/insights/us/en/focus/human-capital-trends/2017/organization-of-the-future.html
26. Brent Durbin. Matrix organization, Encyclopedia Britannica, https://www.britannica.com/topic/matrix-organization
27. “Matrix Teams”, Global Integration, accessed November 18, 2018. http://www.global-integration.com/glossary/matrix-teams/
28. ibid.
29. G. Satell. (June 8, 2015). What Makes an Organization “Networked”, Harvard Business Review, https://hbr.org/2015/06/what-makes-an-organization-networked
30. Satell, Greg, “The Story of Networks”, Digital Tonto, September 26, 2010. https://www.digitaltonto.com/2010/the-story-of-networks/; and “Networked Organizations”, Global Integration, accessed November 18, 2018. http://www.global-integration.com/glossary/matrix-teams/ http://www.global-integration.com/glossary/networked-organization/
31. J. Bersin, T. McDowell, A. Rahnema, and Yves Van Durme. (February 28, 2017), “The organization of the future: Arriving now, 2017” Global Human Capital Trends, Deloitte. https://www2.deloitte.com/insights/us/en/focus/human-capital-trends/2017/organization-of-the-future.html
32. Lister, Jonathan, “The Disadvantages of Network-based organizational Structure”, Chron, accessed November 18, 2018. http://smallbusiness.chron.com/disadvantages-networkbased-organization-structure-35988.html
33. Sources in this section include the following: C. Handy. (May–June 1995). Trust and the Virtual Organization, Harvard Business Review, https://hbr.org/1995/05/trust-and-the-virtual-organization; M. Ahuja and K. Carley. (1999), Network Structure in Virtual Organizations, Organization Science, Volume 10, Issue 6, June, pp. 741 – 757; http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/organization/what-is-virtual-organisation-definition-characteristics-and-types/35533
34. D. Onley. (Apr 29, 2015), Environment, https://www.shrm.org/ResourcesAndTools/hr-topics/technology/Pages/How-Telecommuting-Helps-the-Environment.aspx
35. I. McCarthy, T. Lawrence, B. Wixted, and B. Gordon. (2010). A Multidimensional Conceptualization of Environmental Velocity, Academy of Management Review 34, no. 4, pp. 604-626
36. Katz, D. & Kahn R. L. (1966). The social psychology of organizations, John Wiley, New York, N.Y.
37. Bertalanffy, L. (1968). General System Theory, George Braziller, publisher, New York.
38. Adapted from Arie Y. Lewin and Carroll U. Stephens, “CEO Attributes as Determinants of Organization Design: An integrated Model,” Organization Studies 15, no. 2 (1994): 183-212
39. J. Trevor and B. Varcoe. (2017). How Aligned Is Your Organization? Harvard Business Review, February, https://hbr.org/2017/02/how-aligned-is-your-organization
40. Dalavagas, Iason, “McDonald’s Corp: A Short SWOT Analysis, Value line, May 11, 2015. http://www.valueline.com/Stocks/Highlights/McDonalds_Corp___A_Short_SWOT_Analysis.aspx#.WyqOj1VKiig
41. “Amazon accounts for 43% of US online retail sales” Business Insider, February 3, 2017. http://www.businessinsider.com/amazon-accounts-for-43-of-us-online-retail-sales-2017-2
42. Dudovskiy, John, “Amazon Organizational Structure”, Research Methodology, August 1, 2018 https://research-methodology.net/amazon-organizational-structure-2/
43. Meyer, Pauline, “Amazon.com Inc.’s Organizational Structure Characteristics (An Analysis)”, Panmore Institute, September 8, 2018 http://panmore.com/amazon-com-inc-organizational-structure-characteristics-analysis
44. Ibid.
45. Cohan, Peter, “3 Reasons Amazon Is the World’s Best Business”, Forbes, February 2, 2018. https://www.forbes.com/sites/petercohan/2018/02/02/3-reasons-amazon-is-the-worlds-best- business/#563e86e63565
46. Hyken, Shep, “Drucker said Culture Eats Strategy for Breakfast”, Forbes, December 5, 2015. https://www.forbes.com/sites/shephyken/2015/12/05/drucker-said-culture-eats-strategy-for-breakfast-and-enterprise-rent-a-car-proves-it/#7a7572822749
47. Ed Schein. (2010). Organizational Culture and Leadership, 4th ed., San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; J.W. Weiss. (2014). An Introduction to Leadership, 2nd ed., Bridgepoint Education, Inc.C
48. This discussion of the CVF is based on these sources: K. Cameron, R. Quinn, J. Degraff, and A. Thakor, (2014). Competing Values Leadership, 2nd ed., New Horizons in Management, Northampton, MA; K. Cameron and R. Quinn (2006). Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture: Based on the Competing Values Framework, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; and https://www.ocai-online.com/blog/2016/09/Organizational-culture-Create-Collaborate-Control-Compete
49. T. Yu and N. Wu. (2009). “A Review of Study on the Competing Values Framework”, International Journal of Business Management, Vol.4, No. 7, July, pp. 47-42.
50. Nocera, Joe, “Jeff Bezos and The Amazon way”, The New York Times, August 21, 2015. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/22/opinion/joe-nocera-jeff-bezos-and-the-amazon-way.html
51. Farber, Madeline, “Amazon Employee Attempts Suicide After Sending Email to Colleagues”, Fortune, November 29, 2016. http://fortune.com/2016/11/29/amazon-employee-suicide-attempt/
52. The Global Economic Report, 13th Edition, World Economic Forum, 2018. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GRR18_Report.pdf, p. 8 and pp. 54-57.
53. Agarwal, Dimple, “Introduction: The Rise of the Social Enterprise”, Deloitte Insights, March 28, 2018.? https://www2.deloitte.com/insights/us/en/focus/human-capital-trends/2018/introduction.html
54. Ibid.
55. Ibid.

Ethics, Corporate Responsibility, and Sustainability

1. Hartman, L., J. DesJardins and MacDonald, C. (2018). Business Ethics: Decision Making for Personal Integrity and Social Responsibility, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, New York; and Weiss, J.W. (2014). Business Ethics, A Stakeholder and Issues Management Approach, 6th ed. Oakland, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
2. Eleazar Melendez. (2013). Financial Crisis Cost Tops $22 Trillion. https://www.huffingtonpost.co/2013/02/14/financial-crisis-cost-gao_n_2687553.html
3. James Flanigan. (2002). Enron Is Proving Costly to Economy, http://articles.latimes.com/2002/jan/20/news/mn-23790
4. David Auerbach. (2015). The Programs That Become the Programmers, http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/bitwise/2015/09/pedro_domingos_master_algorithm_how_machine_learning_is_reshaping_how_we.html
5. Julia Angwin, Jeff Larson, Surya Mattu and Lauren Kirchner. (2016). Machine Bias. ProPublica analysis of data from Broward County, Fla., https://www.propublica.org/article/machine-bias-risk-assessments-in-criminal-sentencing
6. Hern, A. “Growth of AI Could Boost Cybercrime and Security Threats, Report Warns”, The Guardian, February 21, 2018. https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/feb/21/ai-security-threats-cybercrime-political-disruption-physical-attacks-report
7. Nevejans, N. (2016). European Civil Law Rules in Robotics, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2016/571379/IPOL_STU(2016)571379_EN.pdf
8. Ripple, W., World Scientists’ Warning to Humanity: A Second Warning”, XXXX / Vol. XX No. X • BioScience, 2017, http://scientists.forestry.oregonstate.edu/sites/sw/files/Ripple_et_al_warning_2017.pdf.
9. Samuel Chiu. (2017). Climate experts release latest science on sea level rise projections, https://phys.org/news/2017-04-climate-experts-latest-science-sea.html
10. Friedman, Z. (2018). Trump Administration Requests $0 In Funding For Consumer Protection Agency, https://www.forbes.com/sites/zackfriedman/2018/01/19/cfpb-funding-trump/#61dd837c1826
11. AACSB, A Collective Vision for Business Education, AACSB International, 2016, https://www.aacsb.edu/-/media/aacsb/publications/research-reports/collective-vision/collective-vision-for-business-education.ashx
12. ECI Connects. (2016). https://connects.ethics.org/search?executeSearch=true&SearchTerm=22+percent&l=1
13. Rokeach, M., The Nature of Human Values, Free Press, 1973, p. 56.
14. Ibid.
15. Comrie, H. (2017). Wells Fargo Fake Accounts Scandal, https://sevenpillarsinstitute.org/wells-fargo-fake-accounts-scandal/
16. Carouchi, R. (2016). Why Ethical People Make Unethical Choices, https://hbr.org/2016/12/why-ethical-people-make-unethical-choices
17. This section is based on and taken from J.W. Weiss, (2014), Business Ethics, A Stakeholder and Issues Management Approach, 6th edition, Barrett-Koehler Publishers, Oakland, CA.
18. Covey, S. R. (2004). The 7 habits of highly effective people: Restoring the character ethic. New York: Free Press.
19. Sarros, J., Cooper, B.K., and Santora, J.C., “Building a Climate for Innovation Through Transformational Leadership and Organizational Culture”, Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, June 30, 2008.
20. Velasquez, M., Andre, C., Shanks, T., & Meyer, M. (2014). Can Ethics Be Taught? http://www.scu.edu/ethics-center/aboutcenter
21. Sisodia, R., Wolfe, D., and Sheth, J. (2007). Firms of endearment: How world- class companies profit from passion and purpose, 137. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Wharton School Publishing.
22. Collins, J. (2001). Good to great, 21. New York: HarperCollins; and parts of this section are based on J.W.Weiss (2015), Introduction to Leadership, 2nd edition, Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
23. Barnard, C. (1939). The functions of the executive, 259. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
24. Rost, J. C., and Barker, R.A., “Leadership Education in Colleges: Toward a 21st Century Paradigm”, Journal of Organizational Studies, January 1, 2000.
25. Kauflin,J. (2017). The World’s Most Ethical Companies, https://www.forbes.com/sites/jeffkauflin/2017/03/14/the-worlds-most-ethical-companies-2017/#1a0f42e07bc3
26. Ephisphsere, (2017). Worlds Most Ethical Companies. http://worldsmostethicalcompanies.com/honorees/
27. Beauchamp, T. L., & Bowie, N. F. (1988). Ethical theory and business (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
28. Lelyveld, J. Great Soul: Mahatma Gandhi and His Struggle with India , Knopf, 2011.
29. The Guardian. (2014). Corporate transparency: why honesty is the best policy, https://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/corporate-transparency-honesty-best-policy
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31. Oates, D., “Young Dallas philanthropist impacts the world from her Deep Ellum shop”, Culture Map, October 30, 2014, http://dallas.culturemap.com/news/fashion/10-30-14-akola-project-flagship-store-deep-ellum-brittany-underwood/#slide=0.
32. Xavier University News and Events, “Former Malden Mills CEO Aaron Feuerstein speaking at Heroes of Professional Ethics event March 30”, March 24, 2009, https://www2.xavier.edu/campusuite25/modules/news.cfm?seo_file=Former-Malden-Mills-CEO-Aaron-Feuerstein-speaking-at-Heroes-of-Professional-Ethics-event-March-30&grp_id=1#.W6FLZPZFyUk
33. Lussier, R. and Achua, C., Leadership: Theory, Application, and Skill Development, Thomson/South-Western, 2006.
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35. DeGraaf, D., Tilley C., & Neal, L. (2004). Servant-leadership characteristics in organizational life.
36. Driscoll, D. M., and Hoffman, W. (2000). Ethics matters, 68. Waltham, MA: Center for Business Ethics.
37. Fortune editors. (2016). The World’s 19 Most Disappointing Leaders, http://fortune.com/2016/03/30/most-disappointing-leaders/
38. Schein, E. (2017). Organizational culture and leadership, 5th ed., Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons.
39. Cameron, K. and R. Quinn. (2011). Diagnosing and Changing Organization Culture, 3rd ed. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons publishers.
40. Schein, E. (2017). Organizational culture and leadership, 5th ed., Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons.
41. Coleman, J. (2013). Six Components of a Great Corporate Culture, https://hbr.org/2013/05/six-components-of-culture
42. This section is based on and extrapolates from Ephisphere’s Erica Salmon Byrnes’ 2017 article “ Culture Matters: The Advantages of a Strong Ethical Culture are Manifold,” found at https://insights.ethisphere.com/culture-matters/:
43. Killingsworth, S. (2012), Modeling the Message: Communicating Compliance through Organizational Values and Culture. The Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics,Vol. 25:961-987. file:///C:/Users/jweiss/Downloads/SSRN-id2161076.pdf
44. This section is based on and extrapolates from Ephisphere’s Erica Salmon Byrnes’ 2017 article “ Culture Matters: The Advantages of a Strong Ethical Culture are Manifold,” found at https://insights.ethisphere.com/culture-matters/
45. Weller, A. (2017). Exploring Practitioners’ Meaning of “Ethics,” “Compliance,” and “Corporate Social Responsibility” Practices: A Communities of Practice Perspective, Business & Society, pp. 1-27, http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0007650317719263
46. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. (March 2003). PricewaterhouseCoopers. http://www.pwc.com/en_US/us/sarbanes-oxley/assets/so_overview_final.pdf, accessed February 13, 2012.
47. Carroll, A. B. (2008). A History of Corporate Social Responsibility: Concepts and Practices, in The Oxford Handbook of Corporate Social Responsibility, Chapter: Chapter 2, Publisher: Oxford University Press, pp.19 - 46
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49. Rudominer, R. (2017). Corporate Social Responsibility Matters: Ignore Millennials at Your Peril. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/ryan-rudominer/corporate-social-responsi_9_b_9155670.html
50. Ibid.
51. Elkington, J., Cannibals with Forks, Oxford University Press, 1999.
52. Villas, N. (2017). Top 20 Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives for 2017, https://www.smartrecruiters.com/blog/top-20-corporate-social-responsibility-initiatives-for-2017/
53. Friedman, Z. (2018). Trump Administration Requests $0 In Funding For Consumer Protection Agency, https://www.forbes.com/sites/zackfriedman/2018/01/19/cfpb-funding-trump/#61dd837c1826
54. Teng, D. and R. Yazdanifard. (2014). Does Corporate Social Responsibility make any differences when it comes to “Un-substitutable” Product from Customer Point of View, Journal of Research in Marketing Volume 2 No.2 April, pp. 167-171.
55. Menichini, T. and Rosati, F., “The Strategic Impact of CSR Consumer-Company Alignment”, Procedia- Behavioral and Social Sciences, 109 ( 2014 ) 360 – 364, and Becker-Olsen and Hill, “The impact of perceived corporate social responsibility on consumer behavior”, Journal of Business Research, 59 (1) (2006), pp. 46-53.
56. Orlitzky, O, F. Schmidt and S.Rynes. (2003). Corporate Social and Financial Performance: A Meta-Analysis, Organization Studies, 24:3 pp.403-441.
57. Robbins, R. (2015, May 5). Does Corporate Social Responsibility Increase Profits?, http://business-ethics.com/2015/05/05/does-corporate-social-responsibility-increase-profits/
58. Berman, S., Wicks, A., Kotha, S., and Jones, T. (1999). Does stakeholder orientation matter? The relationship between stakeholder management models and firm financial performance. Academy of Management Journal, 42, No. 5,October, pp. 488–506.
59. Freeman, R. E. (1999). Divergent stakeholder theory. Academy of Management Review, 24, 233–236.
60. Weiss, J.W. (2014). Business Ethics, A Stakeholder and Issues Management Approach, 6th ed. Oakland, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers; and Bowie, N., and Duska, R. (1991). Business ethics, 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:Prentice Hall.
61. Freeman, R. E. and Gilbert, D. R., Jr. (1988). Corporate strategy and the search for ethics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
62. Donaldson T. and L. Preston. (1995), The Stakeholder Theory of the Corporation: Concepts, Evidence, and Implications Academy of Manage Review, January 1,Vol. 20 no. 1, pp. 65-91 ; and Weiss, J.W. (2014). Business Ethics, A Stakeholder and Issues Management Approach, 6th ed. Oakland, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
63. Falck, O. and S. Heblich, “. (2007). Corporate Social Responsibility: Doing Well By Doing Good, Business Horizons 50 (2007): 247–254.
64. Curtis C. Verschoor and Elizabeth A. Murphy, “The Financial Performance of Large U.S. Firms and Those with Global Prominence: How Do the Best Corporate Citizen Rate?” Business and Society Review 107, no. 2 (Fall 2002), 371–381.
65. Dvorak, P. (2007). Theory & Practice: Finding the Best Measure of ‘Corporate Citizenship, The Wall Street Journal, July 2, B3 ; and Greening, D. and D.Turban. (2000). Corporate Social Performance as a Competitive Advantage in Attracting a Quality Workforce, Business and Society 39, no. 3, September, 254.
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67. Weiss, J.W. (2014). Business Ethics, A Stakeholder and Issues Management Approach, 6th ed. Oakland, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
68. Cassin, R. (2017). Halliburton pays $29 million to settle Angola FCPA offenses, http://www.fcpablog.com/blog/2017/7/27/halliburton-pays-29-million-to-settle-angola-fcpa-offenses.html
69. Weiss, J.W. (2014). Business Ethics, A Stakeholder and Issues Management Approach, 6th ed. Oakland, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
70. Vijay Govindarajan, reported in Gail Dutton, “Building a Global Brain,” Management Review (May 1999), 34–38.
71. United nations Global Compact, “The Ten principles of the united Nations Global Compact”, https://www.unglobalcompact.org/what-is-gc/mission/principles.
72. Donaldson, T. and T. Dunfee(2000). A Review of Donaldson and Dunfee's Ties That Bind: A Social Contracts Approach to Business Ethics, Journal of Business Ethics, December, volume 28, issue 4, pp 383–387.
73. Hanna, D. (2016). Where can corporate culture and national cultures meet? https://www.insidehr.com.au/where-can-corporate-culture-and-national-cultures-meet/
74. Wittenberg-Cox, A. (2017). How Royal DSM Is Improving Its Geographic and Gender Diversity, https://hbr.org/2017/07/how-royal-dsm-is-improving-its-geographic-and-gender-diversity.
75. Ibid.
76. Vijay Govindarajan, reported in Gail Dutton, “Building a Global Brain,” Management Review (May 1999), 34–38.
77. Homer H. Johnson, “Does It Pay to Be Good? Social Responsibility and Financial Performance,” Business Horizons (November–December 2003), 34–40
78. Ethisphere, “ Advancing Business Integrity for Compatitive Advantage”, https://ethisphere.com/?gclid=EAIaIQobChMI_JSz4IOS2QIVzQOGCh2cXwXFEAAYASAAEgIaAfD_BwE.
79. The Wall Street Journal/CFO Journal Deloitte, 2018, https://deloitte.wsj.com/riskandcompliance/2018/06/04/whistleblower-programs-who-should-be-in-charge-3/
80. Kaptein, M. (2017). The Moral Entrepreneur: A New Component of Ethical Leadership, Journal of Business Ethics. May, Pp. 1-16.
81. Brown, M and Trevino L., “Ethical leadership: A review and future directions”, The Leadership Quarterly, December 2006, Pages 595-616.
82. Ibid.
83. Kaptein, M. (2017). The Moral Entrepreneur: A New Component of Ethical Leadership, Journal of Business Ethics. May, Pp. 1-16.
84. Brown, M and Trevino L., “Ethical leadership: A review and future directions”, The Leadership Quarterly, December 2006, Pages 595-616.
85. Gregory, T., “Small Catholic University, Big Muslim Enrollment Try To Build Bridges”, The Chicago Tribune, January 14, 2017, http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-benedictine-university-muslims-met-20170115-story.html.
86. Smith, “Could Your Leadership Style be Influencing Bad Behavior?”, INSEAD Knowledge, October 14, 2014, https://knowledge.insead.edu/leadership-organisations/could-your-leadership-style-be-influencing-bad-behaviour-3638.
87. van Prooijen, A.M. and Ellemers, N, “Does it pay to be moral? How indicators of morality and competence enhance organizational and work team attractiveness”, British Journal of Management 26 (2), 225-236

International Management

1. Pankaj Ghemawat, “Globalization in the age of Trump,” Harvard Business Review, July-August, 2017, pp. 712-716.
2. Divesh Kaul, “Eliminating trade barriers through preferential trade agreements: perspectives from South Asia,” Tulane Journal of International and Comparative Law, Vol 25, pp. 355-402.
3. https://www.wto.org/
4. Bloomberg BusinessWeek,”Now on EBay: Russian micro-multinationals,” 3-20-17, businessweek.com
5. Geert Hofstede, “Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors and institutions across nations,” 2nd edition, 2001, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
6. Geert Hofstede, “Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors and institutions across nations,” 2nd edition, 2001, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
7. Bradley L. Kirkman, Kevin B. Lowe and Cristina B. Gibson, “A quarter century of culture’s consequences: A review of empirical research incorporating Hofstede’s cultural values framework,” Journal of International Business Studies, Vol 37 , pp. 285-320.
8. R.J. House, P.J. Hanges, M. Javidan, P.W. Dorfman and V. Gupta (eds), 2004, Culture, Leadership and Organizations: The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
9. Mansour Javidan, Peter W. Dorfman, Mary Sully de Luque, and Robert J. House, 2006, “In the eye of the beholder: Cross-cultural lessons in leadership for project GLOBE,” The Academy of Management Perspectives, February, 20(1), pp. 67–90
10. Erin Meyer, “Being the boss in Brussels, Boston and Beijing,” Harvard Business Review, July-August, 2017, pp. 70-77.
11. Joyce S. Osland and Allan Bird, “Beyond sophisticated stereotyping: Cultural sensemaking in context,” Academy of Management Executive, Vol 14, 2000, pp. 65-77.
12. Vas Taras, Piers Steel and Bradley L. Kirkman, “Does country equate with culture? Beyond geography in the search for cultural boundaries,” Management International Review, 2016, Vol. 56, pp. 455-487.
13. Turner, J. H. 1997. The Institutional Order. New York: Addison-Wesley, 6.
14. M.E. Olsen, “Societal dynamics: Exploring macrosociology,” pp. 375, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
15. K. Praveen Parboteeah and John B. Cullen, “Social institutions and work centrality: Explorations beyond national culture,” Organization Science, 2003, Vol 14, pp. 137-148.
16. K. Praveen Parboteeah, John B. Cullen and Martin Hoegl, “Managers’ gender role attitudes: A country institutional approach,” Journal of International Business Studies, 2008, Vol. 39, pp. 795-813.
17. Fisher, Mary P. 1999. Living Religions, 7th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall 273.
18. Pew Research: http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/04/05/christians-remain-worlds-largest-religious-group-but-they-are-declining-in-europe/
19. Fisher, Mary P. 1999. Living Religions, 7th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
20. Parboteeeah, K.P, Walter, S., Block, J. 2015. When faith meets innovation: Religion, entrepreneurial opportunities, and entrepreneurial activity. Journal of Business Ethics, 130, 447-465.
21. Jacob Eisenberg, Hyun-Jung Lee, Frank Bruck, Barbara Brenner, Marie-Therese Claes, Jacek Mironski and Roger Bell, “Can business schools make students culturally competent? Effects of cross-cultural management courses on cultural intelligence,” Academy of Management Learning and Education, 2013, Vol. 12, pp. 603-621.
22. Jase R. Ramsey and Melanie Lorenz, “Exploring the impact of cross-cultural management on cultural intelligence, student satisfaction, and commitment,” Academy of Management Learning and Education, 2016, Vol. 15, pp. 79-99.
23. Tomasz Lenartowicz, James P. Johnson and Robert Konopaske, “The application of learning theories to improve cross-cultural training programs in MNCs,” International Journal of Human Resource Management, 2014, Vol. 25, pp. 1697-1719.
24. Tomasz Lenartowicz, James P. Johnson and Robert Konopaske, “The application of learning theories to improve cross-cultural training programs in MNCs,” International Journal of Human Resource Management, 2014, Vol. 25, pp. 1697-1719.
25. Tomasz Lenartowicz, James P. Johnson and Robert Konopaske, “The application of learning theories to improve cross-cultural training programs in MNCs,” International Journal of Human Resource Management, 2014, Vol. 25, pp. 1697-1719.
26. Shira Mor, Michael Morris and Johann Joh, “Identifying and training adaptive cross-cultural management skilss: The crucial role of cultural metacognition,” Academy of Management Learning and Education, 2013, Vol. 12, pp. 453-475.
27. Rita Bennett, Anne Aston and Tracy Colquhoun, “Cross-cultural training: A critical step in ensuring the success of international assignments,” Human Resource Management, Summer/Fall 2000, Vol. 39, pp. 239-250.
28. Yu-lin Wang and Emma Tran, “Effects of cross-cultural and language training on expatriates’ adjustment and job performance in Vietnam,” Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 2012, Vol. 50, pp. 327-350.
29. Molinsky, A, “The mistakes most managers make with cross-cultural training,” Harvard Business Review, January 15, 2015, pp. 2-4.
30. Alain Verbeke and Christian G. Asmussen, “Global, local, or regional? The locus of MNE strategies,” Journal of Management Studies, 2016, Vol. 53, pp. 1051-1075.
31. Ellen Hughes Cromwick, “Ford Motor company’s global electrification strategy,” Business Economics, 2011, Vol. 46, pp. 167-170.
32. http://www.mcdonaldsindia.net/
33. https://www.bayer.com/en/crop-science-division.aspx
34. Maya Townsend, Lisa Coen and Kittie Watson, “From regional to global: Using a network strategy to align a multinational organization,” People+Strategy, Spring 2017, Vol. 40, pp. 32-38.
35. https://www.bcgperspectives.com/content/articles/globalization_growth_time_reengage_retreat_emerging_markets/
36. U.S Department of Commerce, “A basic guide to exporting,” 11th edition, 2015, https://www.export.gov/article?id=Why-Companies-should-export
37. U.S Department of Commerce, “A basic guide to exporting,” 11th edition, 2015, https://www.export.gov/article?id=Why-Companies-should-export
38. https://www.export.gov/welcome
39. Daniel Simonet, “Entry modes of European firms in Vietnam,” Emerging Markets Journal, 2012, Vol 2, pp. 10-29.
40. Priya S. Lakshmi, BB Mani Latha, H. Chiathra, T. Kavya and Roopika Ashwanth, “Study on food franchise in India: With special reference to Bangalore,” International Journal of Research in Commerce and Management, 2015, Vol. 6, pp. 80-83.
41. Priya S. Lakshmi, BB Mani Latha, H. Chiathra, T. Kavya and Roopika Ashwanth, “Study on food franchise in India: With special reference to Bangalore,” International Journal of Research in Commerce and Management, 2015, Vol. 6, pp. 80-83.
42. Rajesh Kumar, “Managing ambiguity in strategic alliances,” California Management Review, Summer 2014, Vol. 56, pp. 82-102.
43. PWC, 2015, “Courting China Inc: Expectations, pitfalls, and success factors of Sino-foreign business partnerships in China,” https://www.pwc.com.au/asia-practice/assets/courting-china-aug15.pdf
44. Minjung Kim, “The effects of strategic alliances on firm productivity in South Korea,” Applied Economics, 2015, Vol. 47, pp. 5034-5044.
45. Economist, “Not lovin’ it,” 2017, September 30, pp. 60.
46. Sylvie Chetty and Colin Campbell-Hunt, “A strategic approach to internationalization: A traditional versus a “born-global” approach,” Journal of International Marketing, 2004, Vol 12, pp. 57-81.
47. Sylvie Chetty and Colin Campbell-Hunt, “A strategic approach to internationalization: A traditional versus a “born-global” approach,” Journal of International Marketing, 2004, Vol 12, pp. 57-81.
48. Economist, “Why does Kenya lead the world in mobile money,” 2015, March 2nd, Online Edition.
49. Kieran Monks, “M-PESA: Kenya’s mobile money success story turns 10,” CNN, February 24, http://www.cnn.com/2017/02/21/africa/mpesa-10th-anniversary/index.html
50. Eliane Choquette, Morten Rask, Davide Sala and Phillipp Schroder, “Born globals - is there fire behind the smoke,” International Business Review, Vol. 26, pp. 448-460.
51. Sylvie Chetty and Colin Campbell-Hunt, “A strategic approach to internationalization: A traditional versus a “born-global” approach,” Journal of International Marketing, 2004, Vol 12, pp. 57-81.
52. Lidia Danik and Izabela Kowalik, “Success factors and development barriers perceived by the Polish born global companies. Empirical study results,” Journal for East European Management Studies, 2015, Vol. 20, pp. 360-390.
53. Andreas P. Petrou, “Foreign market entry strategies in retail banking: Choosing an entry mode in a landscape of constraints,” Long Range Planning, 2009, Vol. 42, pp. 614-632.
54. Lidia Danik and Izabela Kowalik, “Success factors and development barriers perceived by the Polish born global companies. Empirical study results,” Journal for East European Management Studies, 2015, Vol. 20, pp. 360-390.

Entrepreneurship

1. Shannon McMahon, “Stepping into a Fortune,” San Diego Union-Tribune, April 5, 2005, p. C4.
2. Dashel Pierson, “10 Things You Should Know about Surfing in the Olympics,” Surfline, http://www.surfline.com, August 5, 2016.
3. Steve Chapple, “Reef Brand’s Co-founder Eyes the Horizon,” San Diego Union Tribune, https://www.sandiegouniontribune.com, December 13, 2013.
4. Andrew Morse, “An Entrepreneur Finds Tokyo Shares Her Passion for Bagels,” The Wall Street Journal, October 18, 2005, p. B1.
5. Barbara Farfan, “Amazon.com’s Mission Statement”, The Balance. April 15, 2018, https://www.thebalance.com/amazon-mission-statement-4068548.
6. “About StartupNation,” https://startupnation.com, accessed February 1, 2018; Jim Morrison, “Entrepreneurs,” American Way Magazine, October 15, 2005, p. 94.
7. Martha Irvine, “More 20-Somethings Are Blazing Own Paths in Business,” San Diego Union-Tribune, November 22, 2004, p. C6.
8. Keith McFarland, “What Makes Them Tick,” Inc. 500, October 19, 2005, http://www.inc.com.
9. Ibid.
10. U.S. Small Business Administration, “Make Sure You Meet SBA Size Standards,” https://www.sba.gov, accessed February 1, 2018.
11. “Who We Are,” http://www.kauffman.org, accessed February 1, 2018; “Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation,” http://en.wikipedia.org, accessed February 1, 2018.
12. “Annual Survey of Entrepreneurs,” https://www.census.gov, accessed February 1, 2018.
13. “The Kauffman Index,” http://www.kauffman.org, accessed February 2, 2018.
14. Adapted from “They’ve Founded Million Dollar Companies and They’re not Even 30,”https://www.inc.com/30-under-30.
15. McFarland, “What Makes Them Tick.”
16. “The Kauffman Index,” http://www.kauffman.org, accessed February 2, 2018.
17. Andrew Blackman, “Know When to Give Up,” The Wall Street Journal, May 9, 2005, p. R9.
18. Michelle Prather, “Talk of the Town,” Entrepreneur Magazine, February 2003, http://www.entrepreneur.com.
19. Forbes, “Ten Best Cities for Entrepreneurs” https://www.forbes.com/pictures/feki45igde/10-best-cities-for-young-entrepreneurs/#5bc189726058.
20. Don Debelak, “Rookie Rules,” Business Start-Ups Magazine, http://www.entrepreneur.com, March 2, 2006.
21. McFarland, “What Makes Them Tick.”
22. Much of the statistical information for the SBA section is from the Small Business Administration website at http://www.sba.gov.
23. “SBA Lending Activity in FY 2017 Shows Consistent Growth,” https://www.sba.gov, October 13, 2017.
24. “Small Business Profile: 2016,” https://www.sba.gov, accessed February 2, 2018.
25. “The State of Women-Owned Businesses: 2017,” http://about.americanexpress.com, accessed February 2, 2018.
26. Ibid.
27. Steve Strauss, “Boomers’ Role in Entrepreneurship Is, Well, Booming,” USA Today, https://www.usatoday.com, August 25, 2017.
28. Scott Hanson, “Baby Boomers Are Rewriting Retirement History,” Kiplinger, https://www.kiplinger.com, January 3, 2018.
29. “SBA Lending Activity in FY 2017 Shows Consistent Growth.”
30. SBA Office of Advocacy, “Annual Report of the Office of Economic Research: 2016,” https://www.sba.gov, accessed February 2, 2018.
31. Lora Kolodny, “This Start-up Fled the High Cost of Silicon Valley to Help Non-Tech Workers Get an Education,” CNBC, https://www.cnbc.com, September 6, 2017.
32. Tamara Chuang, “4 Silicon Valley Venture Firms Invest $21 Million in Denver’s Guild Education,” The Denver Post, https://www.denverpost.com, September 6, 2017.
33. PwC/CB Insights, “MoneyTree Report Q3 2017,” https://www.pwc.com, accessed February 2, 2018.
34. Ibid.

Strategic Analysis: Understanding a Firm’s Competitive Environment

1. PDR (2016). Lauri Goodman Lampson, President + CEO. http://www.pdrcorp.com/lauri-goodman-lampson/ Accessed July 28, 2017.
2. Steelcase, (n.d.). Accenture Relocation Aids Collaboration. https://www.steelcase.com/research/articles/topics/real-estate-optimization/accenture/ Accessed July 28, 2017.
3. PDR (2016). Lauri Goodman Lampson President + CEO. http://www.pdrcorp.com/lauri-goodman-lampson/ Accessed July 28, 2017.
4. Steelcase (2011). Accenture Case Study. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y4oIlY3HJfo&t=219s Accessed July 28, 2017.
5. Paychex (2017). Company History. https://www.paychex.com/corporate/history.aspx Accessed July 28, 2017.
6. Chris Mooney (January 10, 2017). “America’s first ‘clean coal’ plant is now operational — and another is on the way.” The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2017/01/10/americas-first-clean-coal-plant-is-now-operational-and-another-is-on-the-way/?utm_term=.0020d0987631 Accessed July 28, 2017.
7. Smith, Geoffrey (2017). “Paris Wants to Ban the Combustion Engine by 2030.” Fortune. Oct. 12, 2017. http://fortune.com/2017/10/12/paris-combustion-engine-ban/
8. Trangbæk, Roar Rude (2016). “LEGO Group to invest 1 Billion DKK Boosting Search for Sustainable Materials.” https://www.lego.com/en-us/aboutus/news-room/2015/june/sustainable-materials-centre. Accessed July 29, 2017.
9. Brand Finance (2017). “Toys 25 2016.” http://brandfinance.com/images/upload/brand_finance_toys_25_2017_report_locked.pdf Accessed July 29, 2017.
10. Holodny, Elena (2016). TIMELINE: The tumultuous 155-year history of oil prices. Business Insider. http://www.businessinsider.com/timeline-155-year-history-of-oil-prices-2016-12 Accessed July 29, 2017.
11. Peters, Adele (2015). “Why LEGO is Spending Millions to Ditch Oil-Based Plastic.” Fast Company. https://www.fastcompany.com/3048017/why-lego-is-spending-millions-to-ditch-oil-based-plastic Accessed July 29, 2017.
12. Ridester (2017). “How Much do Uber Drivers Actually Make? The Inside Scoop.” Ridester.com. https://www.ridester.com/how-much-do-uber-drivers-make/ Accessed July 29, 2017.
13. Bensinger, Greg (2017). “Lyft Shifts Gears With New Driverless-Car Division; San Francisco company to hire hundreds of engineers and open new Silicon Valley office.” The Wall Street Journal. July 21, 2017.
14. Edelstein, Stephen (2017). “Lyft Finally Launches Its Boston Self-Driving Car Pilot Program.” The Drive. Dec. 17, 2017. http://www.thedrive.com/tech/16779/lyft-finally-launches-its-boston-self-driving-car-pilot-program
15. O’Kane, Sean (2018). “I took a gamble by riding in a self-driving Lyft in Las Vegas.” The Verge. January 8, 2018. https://www.theverge.com/2018/1/8/16860590/self-driving-lyft-las-vegas-ces-2018
16. Korosec, Kristen (2018). “Uber self-driving cars back on public roads, but in manual mode/” Tech Crunch. July 24, 2018. https://techcrunch.com/2018/07/24/uber-self-driving-cars-back-on-public-roads-but-in-manual-mode/

The Strategic Management Process: Achieving and Sustaining Competitive Advantage

1. Feldman, Amy (2016). “Costco For Millennials: How Chieh Huang Built Boxed, A Mobile Juggernaut With $100M+ In Revenue.” Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbestreptalks/2016/10/19/costco-for-millennials-how-chieh-huang-built-boxed-a-mobile-juggernaut-with-100m-in-revenue/#7870fb552adb Accessed September 4, 2017.
2. Mccausland, Christianna (2016). “Boxed founder Chieh Huang shares lessons in entrepreneurship.” Johns Hopkins Magazine. https://hub.jhu.edu/magazine/2016/summer/boxed-chieh-huang-interview/. Accessed September 4, 2017.
3. Huang, Chieh (2016). Interview on Mad Money, MSNBC. Available on Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3ANAe1vLAIw
4. The Marketing Blender (2017). “Best Examples of Company Vision and Mission Statements.” http://www.themarketingblender.com/vision-mission-statements/
5. Ibid.
6. CBInsights (2018). “Walmart’s Been On A Buying Spree. Which Company Could It Acquire Next?.” CBInsights.com. https://www.cbinsights.com/research/walmart-acquisition-targets/. Jan. 5, 2018.
7. Tesla (2017). “Tesla Gigafactory.” Tesla.com. https://www.tesla.com/gigafactory. Accessed September 4, 2017.

Organizational Structure and Change

1. For an in-depth exploration of the field of organizational development and change, see Cummings, Thomas G. and Worley, Christopher G., Organization Development and Change, 11th edition, Cengage Learning, 2019.
2. Katz, D. and Kahn, R. L., The Social Psychology of Organizations, 2nd edition, John Wiley and Sons, 1978; and Schein, Edgar, Organizational Psychology, 3rd edition, Prentice Hall, 1980.
3. Weber, Max, From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, Oxford University Press, 1958.
4. Brown, K. and Eisenhardt, M., “The Art of Continuous Change: Linking Complexity Theory and Time-Paced Evolution in Relentlessly Shifting Organizations”, Administrative Science Quarterly, 42, 1997, pp 1-34.
5. Kotter, J. and Schlesinger, L., “Choosing Strategies for Change”, Harvard Business Review, 57, 1979, pp. 106-114.
6. Setter, Craig Joseph and The Council for Six Sigma Certification, Six Sigma: A Complete Step-by-Step Guide, The Council for Six Sigma Certification, 2018.
7. Eisenbach, R., Watson, K., and Pillai, R., “Transformational Leadership in the Context of Organizational Change”, Journal of Organizational Change Management, 12, 1999, pp. 80-89.
8. Cummings, Thomas G. and Worley, Christopher G., Organization Development and Change, 11th edition, Cengage Learning, 2019.
9. Quinn, R. E. (2015). The Positive Organization: Breaking Free from Conventional Cultures, Constraints, and Beliefs (1 edition). Oakland: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
10. Lewin, K., Field Theory in Social Science, Harper & Row, 1951; and Kotter, J., Leading Change, Harvard Business School Press, 2012.
11. Cooperrider, David L., The Appreciative Inquiry Handbook: For Leaders of Change, Berrett-Kohler, 2008.
12. Olson, Edwin E. and Eoyang, Glenda H., Facilitating Organizational Change: Lessons from Complexity Science, Pfeiffer, 2001.
13. Bright, D. S. (2009). Appreciative Inquiry and Positive Organizational Scholarship: A Philosophy of Practice for Turbulent Times. OD Practitioner, 41(3), 2–7.
14. Whitney, D., & Trosten-Bloom, A. (2010). The Power of Appreciative Inquiry: A Practical Guide to Positive Change (Second Edition). Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
15. Burnes, B. (2005). Complexity theories and organizational change. International Journal of Management Reviews, 7(2), 73–90.
16. Owen, H. (2008). Open Space Technology: A User’s Guide (Third Edition). Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
17. Olson, E. E., & Eoyang, G. H. (2001). Facilitating Organization Change: Lessons From Complexity Science (1st ed.). Pfeiffer.
18. ibid.

Human Resource Management

1. Ulrich, Younger, Brockbank, Younger, HR From the Outside In, 2012. SHRM.org
2. “The Performance Management Revolution”, Harvard Business Review, October 2016).
3. Buckingham and Goodall, “Reinventing Performance Management”, Harvard Business Review, 2015.
4. Goler, Gale and Grant, “Let’s Not Kill Performance Evaluations Yet”, Harvard Business Review, Nov 2016.
5. Capelli and Tavis, “The Performance Management Revolution”, Harvard Business Review, 2016, p. 9-11.
6. Stephen Miller, “Study: Pay for Performance Pays Off”, Society for Human Resource Management, 2011.
7. 2015 World at Work “Compensation Programs and Practices Report”
8. Nohria, Groysberg, Lee, “Employee, Motivation: A Powerful New Model” Harvard Business Review, August 2008.
9. Fernandez-Araoz, Groysberg, Nohria, “The Definitive Guide to Recruiting in Good Times and Bad”, Harvard Business Review, 2009.
10. Ibid.
11. Effron and Ort, One Page Talent Management, Harvard Business School Press, 2010.

Diversity in Organizations

1. McGrath, J. E., Berdahl, J.L., & Arrow, H. (1995). Traits, expectations, culture, and clout: The dynamics of diversity in work groups. In S.E. Jackson & M.N. Ruderman (Eds.), Diversity in Work Teams, 17-45. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
2. Thomas, R. R. 1991. Beyond race and gender. New York, NY: AMACOM.
3. Cox, Taylor H., and Stacy Blake. "Managing cultural diversity: Implications for organizational competitiveness." The Executive (1991): 45-56.
4. Pelled, L. H., Ledford, G. E., Jr., & Mohrman, S. A. (1999). Demographic dissimilarity and workplace inclusion. Journal of Management Studies, 36, 1013-1031.
5. Lambert, J.R., & Bell, M.P. (2013). Diverse forms of difference. In Q. Roberson (Ed.) Oxford Handbook of Diversity and Work (pp. 13 – 31). New York: Oxford University Press.
6. Harrison, D.A., Price, K.H., & Bell, M.P. (1998). Beyond relational demography: time and the effects of surface- and deep-level diversity on work group cohesion. Academy of Management Journal, 41(1), 96-107.
7. Lambert, J.R., & Bell, M.P. (2013). Diverse forms of difference. In Q. Roberson (Ed.) Oxford Handbook of Diversity and Work (pp. 13 – 31). New York: Oxford University Press.
8. Clair, J.A., Beatty, J.E., & Maclean, T.L. (2005). Out of sight but not out of mind: Managing invisible social identities in the workplace. Academy of Management Review, 30 (1), 78-95.
9. Philips, K.W., Rothbard, N.P., & Dumas, T.L. (2009). To disclose or not to disclose? Status distance and self-disclosure in diverse environments. Academy of Management Review, 34(4), 710-732.
10. Judy, R.W., D'Amico, C., & Geipel, G.L.(1997). Workforce 2020: Work and Workers in the 21st Century. Indianapolis, Ind: Hudson Institute.
11. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2017). Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2016. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/opub/reports/race-and-ethnicity/2016/home.htm
12. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2017). Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.t01.htm; DeWolf, M. (Mar 1 2017). 12 stats about working women. Retrieved from https://blog.dol.gov/2017/03/01/12-stats-about-working-women
13. Toosi, Mitra,"Labor force projections to 2024: the labor force is growing, but slowly," Monthly Labor Review, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, December 2015, https://doi.org/10.21916/mlr.2015.48.
14. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2017). Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2016. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/opub/reports/race-and-ethnicity/2016/home.htm
15. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2017). Table 2: Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and over by sex, 1977 to date 11. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/cps/cpsaat02.pdf.
16. Toosi, Mitra,"Labor force projections to 2024: the labor force is growing, but slowly," Monthly Labor Review, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, December 2015, https://doi.org/10.21916/mlr.2015.48.
17. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2017). Table 2: Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and over by sex, 1977 to date 11. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/cps/cpsaat02.pdf.
18. DeWolf, M. (2017). 12 stats about working women. U.S. Department of Labor Blog.
19. Eagly, A.H., & Karau, S.J.(2002). Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders. Psychological Review, 109 (3): 573-598.
20. EEOC, “Facts About Sexual Harassment.” Retrieved from https://www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/publications/fs-sex.cfm
21. Ibid.
22. EEOC, “Sexual Harassment.” Retrieved from https://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/sexual_harassment.cfm
23. Feldblum, C.R., & Lipnic, V.A. (2016).Report of the Co-Chairs of the EEOC Select Task Force on the Study of Harassment in the Workplace. Retrieved from https://www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/task_force/harassment/report.cfm
24. Hernandez, T.K. (2000). Sexual Harassment and Racial Disparity: The Mutual Construction of Gender and Race. Gender, Race and Justice (4J): 183 -224. Retrieved from http://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/faculty_scholarship/12
25. Toosi, Mitra,"Labor force projections to 2024: the labor force is growing, but slowly," Monthly Labor Review, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, December 2015, https://doi.org/10.21916/mlr.2015.48.
26. Ibid.
27. Ibid.
28. U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. African-Americans in the American Workforce. Retrieved from https://www1.eeoc.gov/eeoc/statistics/reports/american_experiences/african_americans.cfm?renderforprint=1
29. Quilian, L., Pager, D., Midtboen, A.H., & Hexel, O. (Oct 2017). Hiring discrimination against Black Americans hasn’t declined in 25 years. Harvard Business Review.
30. https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/sep/08/airbnb-discrimination-policy-changes-racial-discrimination
31. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2017). Table 11: Employed persons by detailed occupation, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/cps/tables.htm#charemp.
32. Ibid
33. Adams, S. (June 2014). White high school drop-outs are as likely to land jobs as black college students. Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/susanadams/2014/06/27/white-high-school-drop-outs-are-as-likely-to-land-jobs-as-black-college-students/#51715c547b8f
34. Pager, D. (2003). The mark of a criminal record. American Journal of Sociology, 108 (5): 937-975.
35. Bertrand, M. & Mullainathan, S. (2004). Are Emily and Greg more employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A field experiment on labor market discrimination. American Economic Review, 94 (4): 991-1013
36. Robinson, C. L., Taylor, T., Tomaskovic-Devey, D., Zimmer, C. & Irwin Jr., M.W. (2005). “Studying race or ethnic and sex segregation at the establishment level: Methodological issues and substantive opportunities using EEO-1 reports.” Work and Occupations 32(1): 5–38.
37. Kraiger, K., & Ford, J. K. (1985). A Meta-Analysis of Ratee Race Effects in Performance Ratings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70(1), 56-65.
38. Mays, V. M., Coleman, L. M., & Jackson, J. S. (1996). Perceived Race-Based Discrimination, Employment Status, and Job Stress in a National Sample of Black Women: Implications for Health Outcomes. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 1(3), 319–329.
39. Lopez, G., Ruiz, N.G., & Patten, E. (2017). Key facts about Asian Americans, a diverse and growing population. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/09/08/key-facts-about-asian-americans/; Flores, A. (Sep 18 2017). How the U.S. Hispanic population is changing. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/09/18/how-the-u-s-hispanic-population-is-changing/ft_17-09-18_hispanics_ushispanicpop/
40. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2017). Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2016. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/opub/reports/race-and-ethnicity/2016/home.htm
41. Tafoya, S. (2004). Shades of belonging. Pew Hispanic Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewhispanic.org/2004/12/06/shades-of-belonging/
42. Ibid.
43. Hispanics in the U.S. fast facts. (Mar 31 2017). CNN. Retrieved from https://www.cnn.com/2013/09/20/us/hispanics-in-the-u-s-/index.html
44. Ibid.
45. Liu, E. (May 30 2014). Why are Hispanics identifying as white? CNN.
46. Ibid.
47. Tafoya, S. (2004). Shades of Belonging. Washington D.C.: Pew Hispanic Center. Retrieved from http://pewhispanic.org/files/reports/35.pdf.
48. Taylor, P., Lopex, M.H., Martinez, J., & Velasco. G. (2012). When labels don’t fit: Hispanics and their views of identity. Retrieved from http://www.pewhispanic.org/2012/04/04/when-labels-dont-fit-hispanics-and-their-views-of-identity/
49. Flores, A. (Sep 18 2017). How the U.S. Hispanic population is changing. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/09/18/how-the-u-s-hispanic-population-is-changing/ft_17-09-18_hispanics_ushispanicpop/
50. Avery, D.R., McKay, P.F., Wilson, D.C., Tonidandel, S. (2007). Unequal attendance: The relationships between race, organizational diversity cues, and absenteeism. Personnel Psychology, 60: 875-902.
51. Lopez, G., Ruiz, N.G., & Patten, E. (2017). Key facts about Asian Americans, a diverse and growing population. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/09/08/key-facts-about-asian-americans/
52. Ibid.
53. Ibid.
54. Ono, K. A., & Pham, V. N. (2009). Asian Americans and the Media. Cambridge, England: Polity.; Paek, H.J., & Shah, H. (2003). Racial ideology, model minorities, and the ‘not so silent partner:” Stereotyping of Asian Americans in U.S. magazine advertising. Howard Journal of Communications, 14(4): 225-244.
55. Hernandez, T.K. (2000). Sexual Harassment and Racial Disparity: The Mutual Construction of Gender and Race. Gender, Race and Justice (4J): 183 -224. Retrieved from http://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/faculty_scholarship/12
56. Ibid.
57. Committee of 100: American attitudes toward Chinese Americans and Asian Americans. (2004, Summer). The Diversity Factor, 12(3): 38-44. Retrieved from http://www.committee100.org/publications/survey/C100survey.pdf
58. Hernandez, T.K. (2000). Sexual Harassment and Racial Disparity: The Mutual Construction of Gender and Race. Gender, Race and Justice (4J): 183 -224. Retrieved from http://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/faculty_scholarship/12
59. Committee of 100: American attitudes toward Chinese Americans and Asian Americans. (2004, Summer). The Diversity Factor, 12(3): 38-44. Retrieved from http://www.committee100.org/publications/survey/C100survey.pdf
60. Multiracial in America. (June 11 2015) Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2015/06/11/multiracial-in-america/
61. Ibid.
62. Ibid.
63. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2017). Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2016. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/opub/reports/race-and-ethnicity/2016/home.htm
64. Ibid.
65. Ibid.
66. Philips, K.W., Rothbard, N.P., & Dumas, T.L. (2009). To disclose or not to disclose? Status distance and self-disclosure in diverse environments. Academy of Management Review, 34(4), 710-732.
67. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2017). Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2016. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/opub/reports/race-and-ethnicity/2016/home.htm
68. Alley, D., & Crimmins, E. 2007. The demography of aging and work. In K. S. Shultz & G. A. Adams (Eds.), Aging and work in the 21st century: 7-23. New York: Psychology Press.
69. Cuddy, A. J. C., & Fiske, S. T. (2002). Doddering but dear: Process, content, and function in stereotyping of older persons. In T. D. Nelson (Ed.), Ageism: Stereotyping and prejudice against older persons (pp. 3–26). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.; Cuddy, A. J. C., Norton, M. I., & Fiske, S. T. (2005). This old stereotype: The pervasiveness and persistence of the elderly stereotype. Journal of Social Issues, 61, 267–285.
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77. R.B. Dunham. 1984. [Interview with Fred E. Fiedler.] Organizational behavior: People and processes in management. Homewood, IL: Irwin, 368; J. L. Kennedy, Jr. 1982. Middle LPC leaders and the contingency model of leadership effectiveness. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 30:1–14.
78. Chemens & Skrzpek, 1972; Vecchio, 1977.
79. House & Aditya. 1997; L.H. Peters, D.D. Hartke, & J.T. Pohlman. 1985. Fiedler’s contingency model of leadership: An application of the meta-analysis procedure of Schmidt and Hunter. Psychological Bulletin 97:274–285.
80. R.J. House. 1971. A path goal theory of leader effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly 16:324.
81. R. Hoojiberg. 1996. A multidimensional approach toward leadership: An extension of the concept of behavioral complexity. Human Relations 49(7):917–946.
82. R.J. House & T.R. Mitchell. 1974 (Autumn). Path-goal theory of leadership, Journal of Contemporary Business, 86; R.J. House & G. Dessler. 1974. The path-goal theory of leadership: Some post hoc and a priori tests. In J. Hunt & L. Larson (eds.). Contingency approaches to leadership. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
83. House & Mitchell, 1974; House & Dessler, 1974; R.T. Keller. 1989. A test of the path-goal theory of leadership with need for clarity as a moderator in research and development organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology 74:208–212.
84. G. Bristol. 2016. Why Diversity in the Workplace is Imperrative. Entrepreneur, March 25. (Accessed august 4, 2017) https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/270110
85. J.R. Meindl, S.B. Ehrlich, & J.M. Dukerich. 1985. The romance of leadership. Administrative Science Quarterly 30:78–102.
86. C. Robert, T. M. Probst, J. J. Martocchion, F. Drasgow, & J. J. Lawler. 2000. Empowerment and continuous improvement in the United States, Mexico, Poland, and India: Predicting fit on the basis of the dimensions of power distance and individualism. Journal of Applied Psychology 85:643–658.
87. P.W. Dorfman & S. Roonen. 1991. The universality of leadership theories: Challenges and paradoxes. Paper presented at the Academy of Management Meetings, Miami.
88. P.W. Dorfman, J.P. Howell, S. Hiblino, J.K. Lee, U. Tate, & A. Bautista. 1997. Leadership in Western and Asian countries: Commonalities and differences in effective leadership processes across cultures. Leadership Quarterly 8(3):233–274.
89. P.M. Podsakoff, B.P. Niehoff, S.B. MacKenzie, & M.L. Williams. 1993. Do substitutes for leadership really substitute for leadership: An empirical examination of Kerr and Jermier’s situational leadership model. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 54:1–44; S. Kerr. 1977. Substitutes for leadership: Some implications for organizational design. Organization and Administrative Sciences 8:135–146; S. Kerr & J.M. Jermier. 1978. Substitutes for leadership: Their meaning and measurement. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 22:375– 403; J. P. Howell & P. W. Dorfman. 1981. Substitutes for leadership: Test of a construct. Academy of Management Journal 24:714– 728; J.L. Pierce, R.B. Dunham, & L.L. Cummings. 1984. Sources of environmental structuring and participant responses. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 33:214–242.
90. D.G. Gardner, R.B. Dunham, L.L. Cummings, & J.L. Pierce. 1989. Focus of attention at work: Construct definition and empirical validation. Journal of Occupational Psychology 62:61–77.
91. D.G. Gardner, R.B. Dunham, L.L. Cummings, & J.L. Pierce. 1987. Focus of attention at work and leader-follower relationships. Journal of Occupational Behaviour 8:277–294.
92. G.A. Yukl. 1981. Leadership in organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
93. B. Kellerman. 1984. Leadership: Multidisciplinary perspectives. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall; F. L. Landy. 1985. Psychology of work behavior. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.
94. J.M. Burns. 1978. Leadership. New York: Harper & Row; B. M. Bass. 1985. Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
95. R.L. Daft. 2018. The Leadership Experience 7th edition. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
96. J. R. Baum, E. A. Locke, & S. A. Kirkpatrick. 1998. A longitudinal study of the relation of vision and vision communication to venture growth in entrepreneurial firms. Journal of Applied Psychology 83:43–54; J.M. Howell & P.J. Frost. 1989. A laboratory study of charismatic leadership. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 43:243–269.
97. Bennis, 1989.
98. T. A. Judge & J.E. Bono. 2000. Five-factor model of personality and transformational leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology 85:751–765.
99. R. Pillai, C.A. Schriesheim, & E.S. Williams. 1999. Fairness perceptions and trust as mediators for transformational and transactional leadership: A two-sample study. Journal of Management 25:897–933.
100. C.C. Manz & H.P. Sims, Jr. 1987. Leading workers to lead themselves: The external leadership of self-managed work teams. Administrative Science Quarterly 32:106–129.
101. Pillai, Schriesheim, & Williams, 1999.
102. Ibid., 901.
103. S.N. Eisenstadt. 1968. Max Weber: On charisma and institution building. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 46.
104. J.A. Conger & R.N. Kanungo. 1987. Toward a behavioral theory of charismatic leadership in organizational settings. Academy of Management Review 12:637–647; Howell & Frost, 1989.
105. R.J. House & M.L. Baetz. 1979. Leadership: Some empirical generalizations and new research directions. Research in Organizational Behavior 1:341–423; Conger and Kanungo, 1987.
106. Howell & Frost, 1989.
107. R. J. House. 1977. A 1976 theory of charismatic leadership. In J. G. Hunt & L. L. Larson (eds.). Leadership: The cutting edge. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
108. A. R. Willner. 1984. The spellbinders: Charismatic political leadership. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
109. Conger, 1993.
110. Ibid.
111. House & Aditya, 1997.

Work Motivation for Performance

1. J.E. Hunter & R.E. Hunter. 1984. Validity and utility of alternative predictors of job performance. Psychological Bulletin 96: 72–98.
2. Statistics on the prevalence of this choice are available. “Calling in Well: A Look at leave Time Tracking Trends,” actiTIME website, June 2016, https://www.actitime.com/human-resources/leave-time-tracking-trends.php.
3. H. A. Murray. 1938. Explorations in personality. New York: Oxford University Press.
4. Murray also hypothesized that people would differ in the degree to which they felt these needs. His list of secondary needs became a basis for his theory of personality.
5. Representative references include J.W. Atkinson & D.C. McClelland. 1948. The projective expression of needs. II. The effect of different intensities of the hunger drive on thematic apperception. Journal of Experimental Psychology 38:643–658; D.C. McClelland, J.W. Atkinson, R.A. Clark, & E.L. Lowell. 1953. The achievement motive. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts; R.C. DeCharms. 1957. Affiliation motivation and productivity in small groups. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 55:222– 276; D.C. McClelland. 1961. The achieving society. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand; and D.C. McClelland. 1975. Power: The inner experience. New York: Irvington.
6. In fact, McClelland argued that the success of entire societies is dependent on its achievement needs.
7. D. C. McClelland. 1970. The two faces of power. Journal of International Affairs 24:29–47.
8. A.H. Maslow. 1943. A theory of human motivation. Psychological Bulletin 50:370–396; A.H. Maslow. 1954. Motivation and personality. New York: Harper & Row; A. H. Maslow. 1965. Eupsychian management. Homewood, IL: Irwin.
9. D. McGregor. 1960. The human side of enterprise. New York: McGraw-Hill; D. McGregor. 1967. The professional manager. New York: McGraw-Hill.
10. Maslow, 1943, 382.
11. C.P. Alderfer. 1972. Existence, relatedness, and growth: Human needs in organizational settings. New York: Free Press.
12. D.T. Hall & K.E. Nougaim. 1968. An examination of Maslow’s need hierarchy in an organizational setting. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 3:12–35; E.E. Lawler, III & J.L. Suttle. 1972. A causal correlational test of the need hierarchy concept. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 7:265–287; M.A. Wahba & L.G. Bridwell. 1973. Maslow reconsidered: A review of research on the need hierarchy theory. Proceedings of the thirty-third annual meeting of the Academy of Management, 514–520.
13. C.P. Alderfer. 1972. Existence, relatedness, and growth: Human needs and organizational settings. New York: Free Press.
14. Note that Herzberg’s theory has often been labeled the “two-factor theory” because it focuses on two continua. This name, however, implies that only two factors are involved, which is not correct. Herzberg prefers not to use the term “two-factor theory” because his two sets of needs identify a much larger number of needs.
15. F. Herzberg, B. Mausner, & B. Snyderman. 1959. The motivation to work. New York: Wiley; F. Herzberg. 1966. Work and the nature of man. New York: Crowell; F. Herzberg. 1968. One more time: How do you motivate employees? Harvard Business Review 46:54–62.
16. R.B. Dunham, J.L. Pierce, & J.W. Newstrom. 1983. Job context and job content: A conceptual perspective. Journal of Management 9:187–202.
17. R.M. Ryan & E.L. Deci. 2000. Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist 55:68–78.
18. B.F. Skinner. 1953. Science and human behavior. New York: Free Press; B.F. Skinner. 1969. Contingencies of reinforcement. East Norwalk, CT: Appleton Century-Crofts; B.F. Skinner. 1971. Beyond freedom and dignity. New York: Bantam Books.
19. Ibid.
20. R. W. Kempen & R. V. Hall. 1977. Reduction of industrial absenteeism: Results of a behavioral approach. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management 20:1–21.
21. J.S. Adams. 1965. Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 2). New York: Academic Press; G.C. Homans. 1961. Social behavior: Its elementary forms. New York: Harcourt, Brace, & World.
22. Ibid.
23. J. Kane & E.E. Lawler, III. 1979. Performance appraisal effectiveness. In B. Staw (ed.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 1). Greenwood, CT: JAI Press.
24. E.E. Lawler, III. 1972. Secrecy and the need to know. In M. Dunnette, R. House, & H. Tosi (eds.), Readings in managerial motivation and compensation. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.
25. I.R. Andrews. 1967. Wage inequity and job performance: An experimental study. Journal of Applied Psychology 51:39–45; J.S. Adams. 1963a. Towards an understanding of inequity. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology 67:422–436; J.S. Adams. 1963b. Wage inequities, productivity and work quality. Industrial Relations 3:9–16.
26. R.C. Huseman., J.D. Hatfield, & E.W. Miles. 1987. A new perspective on equity theory: The equity sensitivity construct. Academy of Management Review 12:222–234; E.W. Miles, J.D. Hatfield, & R.C. Huseman. 1989. The equity sensitivity construct: Potential implications for worker performance. Journal of Management 15:581–588.
27. R.J. Bies. 1987. The predicament of justice: The management of moral outrage. In B.M. Staw & L.L. Cummings (eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 9). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 289–319; J. Greenberg. 1987. A taxonomy of organizational justice theories. Academy of Management Review 12:9–22.
28. E.L. Locke. 1978. The ubiquity of the technique of goal setting in theories of and approaches to employee motivation. Academy of Management Review 3:594–601; F.W. Taylor. 1911. The principles of scientific management. New York: Norton; K. Lewin. 1935. A dynamic theory of personality. New York: McGraw-Hill; K. Lewin. 1938. The conceptual representation and the measurement of psychological forces. Durham, NC: Duke University Press; K. Lewin, T. Dembo, L. Festinger, & P.S. Sears. 1944. Level of aspiration. In J. McVicker Hunt (ed.), Personality and behavior disorders. New York: Ronald Press, 333–378; P. Drucker. 1954. The practice of management. New York: Wiley; D. McGregor. 1957. An uneasy look at performance appraisal. Harvard Business Review 35:89–94; E.A. Locke. 1968. Toward a theory of task motivation and incentives. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 3:157–189; E.A. Locke, K.N. Shaw, L.M. Saari, & G.P. Latham. 1981. Goal setting and task performance: 1969– 1980. Psychological Bulletin 90:125–152; G. P. Latham & E.A. Locke. 1984. Goal setting: A motivational technique that works! Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
29. C.C. Pinder. 1984. Work motivation: Theory, issues, and applications. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.
30. Locke, 1979.
31. T.R. Mitchell & W.S. Silver. 1990. Individual and group goals when workers are interdependent: Effects on task strategies and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology 75:185–193.
32. A. Bandura. 1977. Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review 84:191–215; A. Bandura. 1986b. The explanatory and predictive scope of self- efficacy theory. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 4:359– 373; A. Bandura. 1997. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
33. D.G. Gardner & J.L. Pierce. 1998. Self-esteem and self-efficacy within the organizational context: An empirical comparison. Group and Organization Management 23:48–70.
34. Locke, 1978.
35. M.L. Ambrose & C.T. Kulik. 1999. Old friends, new faces: Motivation research in the 1990s. Journal of Management 25: 231–292.
36. Chad H. Iddekinge, Herman Aguinis, Jeremy D. Mackey, Philip S. DeOrtentiis, “A Meta-Analysis of the Interactive, additive, and Relative Effects of Cognitive Ability and Motivation on Performance,” Journal of Management, Vol. 44, No. 1, January, 2018.

Managing Teams

1. Katzenbach and Smith, “The Discipline of Teams”, Harvard Business Review, July 2005.
2. Gratton and Erickson, “Eight Ways to Build Collaborative Teams”, Harvard Business Review, Nov 2007.
3. Bruce Tuckman, “Development Sequence in Small Groups”, 1965.
4. J.J. Gabarro, The Dynamics of Taking Charge, Harvard Business School Press, 1987, pp. 85-87.
5. Linda A. Hill, “Managing Your Team”, Harvard Business Review, 1995.
6. Linda A. Hill, “Exercising Influence”, Harvard Business Review, 1994.
7. Patrick Lencioni, The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, 2002, p. 188.
8. Capobianco, Davis and Kraus, Managing Conflict Dynamics: A Practical Approach, (2005)
9. David Rock and Heidi Grant, “Why Diverse Teams are Smarter”, Harvard Business Review, Nov 2016.
10. Ibid.
11. Lorenzo, Yoigt, Schetelig, Zawadzki, Welpe, Brosi, “The Mix that Matters: Innovation Through Diversity”, Boston Consulting Group, April 2017.
12. Brett, Behfar, Kern, “Managing Multicultural Teams”, Harvard Business Review, 2007.
13. Li and Liao, “Cultural Competence: Why it Matters and How You Can Acquire It”, IESE Insight, 2015.
14. Earley and Mosakowski, “Cultural Intelligence”, Harvard Business Review article 2004.

Managerial Communication

1. C. Shannon and W. Weaver, The Mathematical Theory of Communication, University of Illinois Press, 1948.
2. R. E. Quinn, S. R. Faerman, M. P. Thompson, M.R. McGrath, and D. S. Bright, Becoming a Master Manager, Sixth edition, Wiley, 2015, Page 48.
3. F. M. Jablin and Linda L. Putnam, The New Handbook of Organizational Communication, Sage, 2005.
4. D. L. Worthington and G. D. Bodie, The Sourcebook of Listening Research: Methodology and Measures, Wiley, 2018.
5. Mintzberg, H. (1973). The Nature of Managerial Work. New York: Harper & Row, p. 31.
6. Ibid, p. 166-167.
7. Ibid, p. 167.
8. McGregor, J. (2008). “Bezos: How Frugality Drives Innovation,” BusinessWeek, April 28, 2008, pp. 64–66.
9. Mintzberg, H. (1990). “The Manager’s Job: Folklore and Fact.” Harvard Business Review, March–April 1990, pp. 166–167.
10. Ibid.
11. Ibid
12. H. Mintzberg, Mintzberg on Management: Inside our Strange World of Organizations, Free Press, 2007.
13. Mintzberg, H. (1990). “The Manager’s Job: Folklore and Fact.” Harvard Business Review, March–April 1990, pp. 166–167.
14. Drucker, P. F. (1954). The Practice of Management. New York: Harper & Row.
15. Eccles, R. G. & Noria, N. (1992). Beyond the Hype: Rediscovering the Essence of Management. Boston: The Harvard Business School Press, p. 205.
16. Ibid, p. 211.
17. Ibid, p. 209.
18. Ziegler, B. (1994). “Video Conference Calls Change Business,” Wall Street Journal, October 13, 1994, pp. B1, B12.
19. Rankin, P. T. (1952). The Measurement of the Ability to Understand Spoken Language. (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1926). Dissertation Abstracts 12, No. 6 (1952), pp. 847–848; Nichols, R. G. & Stevens, L. (1957). Are You Listening? New York: McGraw-Hill; and Wolvin, A. D. & Coakley, C. G. (1982). Listening. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown and Co.; and Werner, E. K. (1975). A Study of Communication Time. (M.S. thesis, University of Maryland, College Park)
20. Kotter, J. P. (1999). “What Effective General Managers Really Do,” Harvard Business Review, March–April 1999, pp. 145–159
21. Berger, P. L. & Luckmann, T. (1966). The Social Construction of Reality. New York: Doubleday; and Searle, J. R. (1967). The Construction of Social Reality. New York: The Free Press, 1995.
22. Larkin, T. J. & Larkin, S. (1994). Communicating Change: Winning Employee Support for New Business Goals. New York: McGraw-Hill.
23. Ibid.

Organizational Planning and Controlling

1. G.A. Steiner. 1969. Top management planning. London: Macmillan, 6–7.
2. Prepare for Employees in the Boardroom. 2016 (September 10). The Telegraph, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/business/2016/09/10/prepare-for-employee-directors-in-the-boardroom/.
3. H. Koontz & C. O’Donnell. 1972. Principles of management: An analysis of managerial functions. New York: McGraw-Hill, 113–114.
4. B.E. Goetz. 1949. Management planning and control. New York: McGraw-Hill.
5. Dalton, D. R., Enz, C. A. (1987). Absenteeism in remission: Planning, policy, culture [Electronic version].Human Resource Planning, 10(2), 81-91. Retrieved July 24, 2017, from Cornell University School of Hotel Administration site: http://scholarship.sha.cornell.edu/articles/506.
6. H. Mintzberg. 1975 (July–Aug.). The manager’s job: Folklore and fact. Harvard Business Review, 51.
7. S.J. Carroll & D.J. Gillen. 1984. The classical management functions: Are they really outdated? Academy of Management Proceedings 44:132–136.
8. Williams, 1993.
9. T.A. Mahoney, T.H. Jerdee, & S.J. Carroll, Jr. 1963. Development of managerial performance: A research approach. Cincinnati: Southwestern; T.A. Mahoney, T.H. Jerdee, & S.J. Carroll, Jr. 1965. The jobs of management. California Management Review 4:97–110; J. A. Hass, A. M. Porat, & J. A. Vaughan. 1969. Actual vs. ideal time allocations reported by managers: A study of managerial behavior. Personnel Psychology 22:61–75; R.V. Penfield. 1975. Time allocation patterns and effectiveness of managers. Personnel Psychology 27:245–255.
10. Keri Calcagna, “Strong Reputations Help Companies Withstand Crises,” The Wall Street Journal, January 16, 2018, deloitte.wsj.com/cmo/2018/01/16/strong-reputations-help-companies-withstand-crises/.
11. P. Lorange & R.V. Vancil. 1977. Strategic planning systems. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall; Steiner, 1969.
12. K.G. Smith, E.A. Locke, & D. Barry. 1986. Goal setting, planning effectiveness and organizational performance: An experimental simulation. Unpublished manuscript, University of Maryland, College of Business and Management, College Park, Maryland.
13. Koontz & O’Donnell, 1972, 124–128.
14. Amy Edmondson, “Strategies for learning from Failure,” Harvard Business Review, April 2011 Issue, https://hbr.org/2011/04/strategies-for-learning-from-failure.
15. Steiner, 1969, 7; M.B. McCaskey. 1974. A contingency approach to planning: Planning with goals and planning without goals. Academy of Management Journal 17:281–291.
16. McCaskey, 1974.
17. Ryan Huang, “Six Sigma Killed Innovation in 3M,” ZD net, March 14, 2013, www.zdnet.com/article/six-sigma-killed-innovation-in-3m/; and T. J. Peters & R. J. Waterman, Jr. 1982. In search of excellence: Lessons from America’s best-run companies. New York: Harper & Row.
18. P.C. Earley, P. Wojnarock, & W. Prest. 1987. Task planning and energy expended: An exploration of how goals influence performance. Journal of Applied Psychology 47:107–104; P. C. Earley & B. Perry. 1987. Work plan availability and performance: An assessment of task strategy priming on subsequent task completion. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 39:279–302.
19. Smith, Locke, & Barry, 1986.
20. R.H. Kilman. 1984. Beyond the quick fix. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 50–51.
21. C. Perrow. 1961. The analysis of goals in complex organizations. American Sociological Review 26:854.
22. Richard L. Daft, Organization Theory and Design, Boston, MA, Cengage Learning, 2016, P. 54-56.
23. J.D. Thompson & W.J. McEwen. 1958. Organizational goals and environment. American Sociological Review 23:23–30.
24. Richard L. Daft, Organization Theory and Design, Boston, MA, Cengage Learning, 2016, P. 142-146.
25. P. F. Drucker. 1954. The practice of management. New York: Harper.
26. J. Hage. 1965. An axiomatic theory of organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly 10:289–320.
27. M.R. Richards. 1978. Organizational goal structures. St. Paul, MN: West, 27.
28. J.J. Reitz & L.N. Jewell. 1985. Managing, Glenview, IL.: Scott, Foresman, 66.
29. “U.S. Businesses Restructuring Operations to Reap Future Financial Success, Says Intelenet Global Services”. Broadwayworld.com, July 10, 2017; http://www.broadwayworld.com/bwwgeeks/article/US-Businesses-Restructuring-Operations-to-Reap-Future-Financial-Success-Says-Intelenet-Global-Services-20170710; H. Mintzberg, et al, Strategy Safari, Free Press, New York, N.Y., 2013; W. Lindsay & L. Rue. 1980. Impact of the organization environment on the long-range planning process: A contingency view. Academy of Management Journal 23:385–404; D. Herold. 1972. Long-range planning and organizational performance: A cross-validation study. Academy of Management Journal 15:91–102; C. Saunders & F.D. Tuggle. 1977. Toward a contingency theory of planning. Presented at the 37th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, Orlando, FL; S.S. Thune & R.J. House. 1970. Where long-range planning pays off. Business Horizons 13:81–87.
30. E.H. Bowman. 1976. Strategy and the weather. Sloan Management Review 17:53.
31. D.R. Wood & R.L. LaForge. 1979. The impact of comprehensive planning on financial performance. Academy of Management Journal 22:516–526.
32. Bill Taylor, “Companies That Do Right by Their Workers Start by Elevating Their Definition of Success,” Harvard Business Review, January 18, 2018, https://hbr.org/2018/01/companies-that-do-right-by-their-workers-start-by-elevating-their-definition-of-success.
33. E.A. Locke & G.P. Latham. 1990. A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall; E.A. Locke & G.P. Latham. 1984. Goal setting: A motivational technique that works! Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
34. E.A. Locke. 1982. Relation of goal performance with a short work period and multiple goal levels. Journal of Applied Psychology 67:512–514; G.P. Latham & J.J. Baaldes. 1975. The practical significance of Locke’s theory of goal setting. Journal of Applied Psychology 60:187–90; G.P. Latham & E.A. Locke. 1979. Goal setting—A motivational technique that works. Organizational Dynamics, 68–80.
35. E.A. Locke, K.N. Shaw, L.M. Saari, & G.P. Latham. 1981. Goal setting and task performance: 1969–1980. Psychological Bulletin 90:125–152.
36. Locke, 1982; H. Garland. 1983. Influence of ability-assigned goals, and normative information of personal goals and performance: A challenge to the goal attainability assumption. Journal of Applied Psychology 68:20–30; J. R. Hollenbeck & H.J. Klein. 1987. Goal commitment and the goal setting process: Problems, prospects, and proposals for future research. Journal of Applied Psychology 72:212–20.
37. Locke, Shaw, Saari, & Latham, 1981.
38. E.A. Locke, G.P. Latham, & M. Erez. 1988. The determinants of goal commitment. Academy of Management Review 13: 23–39.
39. Ibid.
40. R.R. Hackman & R. Wageman. 1995. Total quality management: Empirical, conceptual, and practical issues. Administrative Science Quarterly 40:309–342; W.E. Deming. 1993. The new economics for industry, government, education. Cambridge, MA: MIT Center for Advanced Engineering Study; W.E. Deming. 1986. Out of the crises. Cambridge, MA: MIT Center for Advanced Engineering Study.
41. P.W. Wright, J.M. George, S.R. Farnsworth, & G.C. McMahan. 1993. Productivity and extra-role behavior: The effects of goals and incentives on spontaneous helping. Journal of Applied Psychology 78:374–381.
42. R.M. Steers. 1977. Organizational effectiveness: A behavioral view. Santa Monica, CA: Goodyear, 20–23.
43. Locke & Latham, 1990.
44. K. Lewin. 1958. Psychology of success and failure. In C.L. Stacey and M. F. Demartino, Understanding human motivation. Cleveland: Allen.
45. Locke & Latham, 1990.
46. Deming, 1986.
47. Jay A. Conger. 1991 (Feb.). Inspiring others: The language of leadership. Academy of Management Executive 5(1):31–45.
48. See the following article for the findings from this work schedule change: J.L. Pierce & R.B. Dunham. 1992. The 12-hour work day: A 48-hour, 8-day week. Academy of Management Journal 35:1086–1098.
49. W.H. Newman. 1975. Constructive control. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice Hall, 6.
50. W.H. Newman. 1984. Managerial control. In J.E. Rosenzweig & F. E. Kast (eds.), Modules in management series. Chicago: Science Research Associates, 1-42; W.H. Newman, J.R. Logan, & W.H. Hegarty. 1985. Strategy, policy, and central management. Cincinnati: Southwestern; W.H. Sihler. 1979. Toward better management control systems. California Management Review, 14:33–39; E.P. Strong & R.D. Smith. 1968. Management control models. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
51. M.S. Taylor, C.D. Fisher, & D.R. Ilgen. 1984. Individuals’ reactions to performance feedback in organizations: A control theory perspective. In K. M. Rowland & G. R. Ferris (eds.), Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 81–124.
52. E.A. Locke & G.P. Latham. 1984. Goal setting: A motivational technique that works. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
53. Interview with Steven Kerr appearing in R.D. Dunham 1984. Organizational behavior: People and processes in management. Homewood, IL: Irwin, 147; S. Kerr. 1987. On the folly of rewarding A, while hoping for B. Academy of Management Journal 18: 769–783.
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Management of Technology and Innovation

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4. Teece D., Peterar M., Leih, S. (2016) “Dynamic capabilities and organizational agility: Risk, uncertainty, and strategy in the innovation economy” California Management Review. 58(4). Pp. 13-35.
5. Ries, E (2011). The Lean Startup: How Today’s Entrepreneurs Use Continuous Innovation to Create Radically Successful Businesses (New York, NY: Crown Business).
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8. Stoll, John D., “Why the Gas Station Isn’t a Model for Electric Cars,’ Wall Street Journal, August 13, 2017, http://www.businessinnovationbrief.com/exercises/technology/?open-article-id=7217183&article-title=4-strategic-thinking-exercises-to-envision-future-strategy&blog-domain=brainzooming.com&blog-title=brainzooming.
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