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Principles of Management

6.1 Importance of International Management

Principles of Management6.1 Importance of International Management
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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Managing and Performing
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 What Do Managers Do?
    3. 1.2 The Roles Managers Play
    4. 1.3 Major Characteristics of the Manager's Job
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    7. Chapter Review Questions
    8. Management Skills Application Exercises
    9. Managerial Decision Exercises
    10. Critical Thinking Case
  3. 2 Managerial Decision-Making
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Overview of Managerial Decision-Making
    3. 2.2 How the Brain Processes Information to Make Decisions: Reflective and Reactive Systems
    4. 2.3 Programmed and Nonprogrammed Decisions
    5. 2.4 Barriers to Effective Decision-Making
    6. 2.5 Improving the Quality of Decision-Making
    7. 2.6 Group Decision-Making
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    10. Chapter Review Questions
    11. Management Skills Application Exercises
    12. Managerial Decision Exercises
    13. Critical Thinking Case
  4. 3 The History of Management
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 The Early Origins of Management
    3. 3.2 The Italian Renaissance
    4. 3.3 The Industrial Revolution
    5. 3.4 Taylor-Made Management
    6. 3.5 Administrative and Bureaucratic Management
    7. 3.6 Human Relations Movement
    8. 3.7 Contingency and System Management
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    11. Chapter Review Questions
    12. Managerial Decision Exercises
  5. 4 External and Internal Organizational Environments and Corporate Culture
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 The Organization's External Environment
    3. 4.2 External Environments and Industries
    4. 4.3 Organizational Designs and Structures
    5. 4.4 The Internal Organization and External Environments
    6. 4.5 Corporate Cultures
    7. 4.6 Organizing for Change in the 21st Century
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    10. Chapter Review Questions
    11. Management Skills Application Exercises
    12. Managerial Decision Exercises
    13. Critical Thinking Case
  6. 5 Ethics, Corporate Responsibility, and Sustainability
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Ethics and Business Ethics Defined
    3. 5.2 Dimensions of Ethics: The Individual Level
    4. 5.3 Ethical Principles and Responsible Decision-Making
    5. 5.4 Leadership: Ethics at the Organizational Level
    6. 5.5 Ethics, Corporate Culture, and Compliance
    7. 5.6 Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
    8. 5.7 Ethics around the Globe
    9. 5.8 Emerging Trends in Ethics, CSR, and Compliance
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    12. Chapter Review Questions
    13. Management Skills Application Exercises
    14. Managerial Decision Exercises
    15. Critical Thinking Case
  7. 6 International Management
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Importance of International Management
    3. 6.2 Hofstede's Cultural Framework
    4. 6.3 The GLOBE Framework
    5. 6.4 Cultural Stereotyping and Social Institutions
    6. 6.5 Cross-Cultural Assignments
    7. 6.6 Strategies for Expanding Globally
    8. 6.7 The Necessity of Global Markets
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    11. Chapter Review Questions
    12. Management Skills Application Exercises
    13. Managerial Decision Exercises
    14. Critical Thinking Case
  8. 7 Entrepreneurship
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Entrepreneurship
    3. 7.2 Characteristics of Successful Entrepreneurs
    4. 7.3 Small Business
    5. 7.4 Start Your Own Business
    6. 7.5 Managing a Small Business
    7. 7.6 The Large Impact of Small Business
    8. 7.7 The Small Business Administration
    9. 7.8 Trends in Entrepreneurship and Small-Business Ownership
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    12. Chapter Review Questions
    13. Management Skills Application Exercises
    14. Managerial Decision Exercises
    15. Critical Thinking Case
  9. 8 Strategic Analysis: Understanding a Firm’s Competitive Environment
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Gaining Advantages by Understanding the Competitive Environment
    3. 8.2 Using SWOT for Strategic Analysis
    4. 8.3 A Firm's External Macro Environment: PESTEL
    5. 8.4 A Firm's Micro Environment: Porter's Five Forces
    6. 8.5 The Internal Environment
    7. 8.6 Competition, Strategy, and Competitive Advantage
    8. 8.7 Strategic Positioning
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    11. Chapter Review Questions
    12. Management Skills Application Exercises
    13. Managerial Decision Exercises
    14. Critical Thinking Case
  10. 9 The Strategic Management Process: Achieving and Sustaining Competitive Advantage
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Strategic Management
    3. 9.2 Firm Vision and Mission
    4. 9.3 The Role of Strategic Analysis in Formulating a Strategy
    5. 9.4 Strategic Objectives and Levels of Strategy
    6. 9.5 Planning Firm Actions to Implement Strategies
    7. 9.6 Measuring and Evaluating Strategic Performance
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    10. Chapter Review Questions
    11. Management Skills Application Exercises
    12. Managerial Decision Exercises
    13. Critical Thinking Case
  11. 10 Organizational Structure and Change
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Organizational Structures and Design
    3. 10.2 Organizational Change
    4. 10.3 Managing Change
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    7. Chapter Review Questions
    8. Management Skills Application Exercises
    9. Managerial Decision Exercises
    10. Critical Thinking Case
  12. 11 Human Resource Management
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 An Introduction to Human Resource Management
    3. 11.2 Human Resource Management and Compliance
    4. 11.3 Performance Management
    5. 11.4 Influencing Employee Performance and Motivation
    6. 11.5 Building an Organization for the Future
    7. 11.6 Talent Development and Succession Planning
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    10. Chapter Review Questions
    11. Management Skills Application Exercises
    12. Managerial Decision Exercises
    13. Critical Thinking Case
  13. 12 Diversity in Organizations
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 An Introduction to Workplace Diversity
    3. 12.2 Diversity and the Workforce
    4. 12.3 Diversity and Its Impact on Companies
    5. 12.4 Challenges of Diversity
    6. 12.5 Key Diversity Theories
    7. 12.6 Benefits and Challenges of Workplace Diversity
    8. 12.7 Recommendations for Managing Diversity
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    11. Chapter Review Questions
    12. Management Skills Application Exercises
    13. Managerial Decision Exercises
    14. Critical Thinking Case
  14. 13 Leadership
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 The Nature of Leadership
    3. 13.2 The Leadership Process
    4. 13.3 Leader Emergence
    5. 13.4 The Trait Approach to Leadership
    6. 13.5 Behavioral Approaches to Leadership
    7. 13.6 Situational (Contingency) Approaches to Leadership
    8. 13.7 Substitutes for and Neutralizers of Leadership
    9. 13.8 Transformational, Visionary, and Charismatic Leadership
    10. 13.9 Leadership Needs in the 21st Century
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    13. Chapter Review Questions
    14. Management Skills Application Exercises
    15. Managerial Decision Exercises
    16. Critical Thinking Case
  15. 14 Work Motivation for Performance
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 Motivation: Direction and Intensity
    3. 14.2 Content Theories of Motivation
    4. 14.3 Process Theories of Motivation
    5. 14.4 Recent Research on Motivation Theories
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    8. Chapter Review Questions
    9. Management Skills Application Exercises
    10. Managerial Decision Exercises
    11. Critical Thinking Case
  16. 15 Managing Teams
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 Teamwork in the Workplace
    3. 15.2 Team Development Over Time
    4. 15.3 Things to Consider When Managing Teams
    5. 15.4 Opportunities and Challenges to Team Building
    6. 15.5 Team Diversity
    7. 15.6 Multicultural Teams
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    10. Chapter Review Questions
    11. Management Skills Application Exercises
    12. Managerial Decision Exercises
    13. Critical Thinking Case
  17. 16 Managerial Communication
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 The Process of Managerial Communication
    3. 16.2 Types of Communications in Organizations
    4. 16.3 Factors Affecting Communications and the Roles of Managers
    5. 16.4 Managerial Communication and Corporate Reputation
    6. 16.5 The Major Channels of Management Communication Are Talking, Listening, Reading, and Writing
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    9. Chapter Review Questions
    10. Management Skills Application Exercises
    11. Managerial Decision Exercises
    12. Critical Thinking Case
  18. 17 Organizational Planning and Controlling
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Is Planning Important
    3. 17.2 The Planning Process
    4. 17.3 Types of Plans
    5. 17.4 Goals or Outcome Statements
    6. 17.5 Formal Organizational Planning in Practice
    7. 17.6 Employees' Responses to Planning
    8. 17.7 Management by Objectives: A Planning and Control Technique
    9. 17.8 The Control- and Involvement-Oriented Approaches to Planning and Controlling
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    12. Chapter Review Questions
    13. Management Skills Application Exercises
    14. Managerial Decision Exercises
    15. Critical Thinking Case
  19. 18 Management of Technology and Innovation
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 MTI—Its Importance Now and In the Future
    3. 18.2 Developing Technology and Innovation
    4. 18.3 External Sources of Technology and Innovation
    5. 18.4 Internal Sources of Technology and Innovation
    6. 18.5 Management Entrepreneurship Skills for Technology and Innovation
    7. 18.6 Skills Needed for MTI
    8. 18.7 Managing Now for Future Technology and Innovation
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    11. Chapter Review Questions
    12. Management Skills Application Exercises
    13. Managerial Decision Exercises
    14. Critical Thinking Case
  20. References
  21. Index
  1. Why is it important to understand and appreciate the importance of international management in today’s world?

International management is a critical area for any serious student of management because of globalization, the worldwide phenomenon whereby the countries of the world are becoming more interconnected and where trade barriers among nations are disappearing. Companies of all kinds are no longer limited to producing and selling their goods and services in domestic markets. In fact, companies are encouraged to explore global markets to stay competitive and are thus likely to have business activity anywhere in the world. Globalization is being facilitated by several key factors, and companies that want to succeed in this environment must understand the key factors that are making the business world more globally connected.

Globalization Factor 1: Lowering Trade Barriers

The first critical factor is the lowering of trade barriers through trade agreements, government policies through which countries agree to eliminate cross-border barriers to trade and to promote global integration. To understand the importance of trade agreements, it is necessary to note that countries have long used tariffs to protect local industries and companies. Tariffs are taxes that are added to the price of imported international products. Because these tariffs are usually passed along to the consumer in the form of higher prices, imposing tariffs on imported goods gives domestic companies a price advantage and protects them from foreign competition.2 The goal of most trade agreements has been to reduce or eliminate tariffs and other barriers to make cross-border trade easier.

One of the more significant worldwide trade agreements are the rules members in the World Trade Organization (WTO) agree to.3 The WTO is the only truly global organization that deals with the rules of trade around the world. It was established January 1, 1995, and had 164 country members as of July 2016. The WTO serves many functions, but the four most important are 1) providing the mechanism for countries to negotiate trade agreements, 2) monitoring such agreements, 3) providing the means to handle trade disputes, and 4) providing training to less-developed countries to implement agreements.

Globalization Factor 2: Foreign Direct Investment

Foreign direct investment (FDI) refers to deliberate efforts of a country or company to invest in another country through the form of ownership positions in companies in another country. In 2017, global FDI flows amounted to USD $1.52 trillion.

Exhibit 6.2 shows the top 15 recipients of FDI in 2016. As you can see, many of the world’s developed economies, such as the U.S., Germany, Canada, and France, are among the top recipients of FDI. However, it is also important to note that many emerging markets, such as China, Brazil, Mexico, and India, figure prominently on this list. Emerging markets, defined as those markets in nondeveloped countries that present tremendous potential for multinationals, have played a critical role in the global business environment for the last decade. Countries such as Brazil, India, China, and South Africa have all experienced tremendous growth and are driving business trends.

A vertical bar graph shows the top 15 recipients of Foreign direct investment in 2016
Exhibit 6.2 Foreign Direct Investment Inflows from Other Countries Based on: UNCTAD, 2016, World Investment Report, 2016.

An important consequence of the rise of emerging markets has been the growing importance of emerging market multinationals. Emerging market multinationals are influential companies from emerging markets that compete head-on with established multinationals and rewrite the rules of competition by using new business models. Consider the case of CEMEX, the Mexican cement manufacturer; Shoprite, the South African retailer; and WIPRO and Infosys, India’s leading software companies. These emerging market multinationals are industry leaders in their fields and are pushing more established multinationals to the competitive edge.

A photo shows the lateral view of a CEMEX’s freight train with cement tank wagons running along a railway track.
Exhibit 6.3 A CEMEX train in Germany Mexican company CEMEX, whose primary businesses are cement and concrete, has pursued a strategy of differentiation. It defines itself as a provider of solutions for builders and local governments, particularly in emerging economies and for those seeking environmental sustainability. As part of this evolution, CEMEX rebounded from a near bankruptcy during the 2008 economic crisis to regain its position as a leading company in the global construction materials industry. (Credit: Paul Smith/ flickr/ Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0))

The lowering of trade barriers and the increase in foreign direct investment indicate that global trade will continue to stay strong and contribute to globalization. Such trends suggest that companies will need to continue to contend with and take advantage of global opportunities. The rising competition from emerging markets and emerging market multinationals means that companies will need to continue to understand and manage the global environment to compete.

Globalization Factor 3: The Internet

Thanks to the pervasiveness of the Internet today, any company in the world can sell its products to anyone in the world. In fact, the developments in information technology and the reduction in costs of technological equipment mean that any multinational can reach anyone in the world. Social media, such as Twitter and Facebook, also provide a means for multinationals to build relationships with customers worldwide. Data also suggests that even countries that previously had little access to the Internet are now experiencing tremendous growth. To give you more insights on Internet growth, consider Exhibit 6.4.

A vertical bar graph titled “Internet Data” plots the amount of internet data consumed by people across the globe.
Exhibit 6.4 Internet Growth and Penetration Rates (% of population with access to Internet) Based on www.Internetworldstats.com

As Exhibit 6.4 shows, the pervasiveness of the Internet cannot be ignored. Collectively, Internet users amount to 3.8 billion individuals, representing half of the world’s population. Additionally, while the penetration rates in some regions such as Europe and North America are high, the rates of penetration in regions in Asia (46.7%) and Africa (31.2%) suggest that these countries have great potential. When coupled with the dizzying growth rates of the Internet in regions such as Africa (more than 8000% increase from 2000 to 2017), Latin America (2137%), and the Middle East (4374%), any multinationals have to appreciate the importance of the growth of the Internet.

What are the implications of this factor for international management? As mentioned earlier, companies located anywhere in the world will be able to find new markets and new ways to reach new customers. Consider the case of Russian entrepreneur Dmitrii Dvornikov, who was selling jewelry and table clocks made from Russian semiprecious stones.4 Until 2013, Dvornikov was not able to expand beyond local markets. However, he decided to list his products on eBay. This has allowed his business sales to grow by 30%. Such success was spurred by the implementation of software by eBay’s operators in Russia. This software enabled smaller companies to sell anywhere in the world. Such factors have greatly expanded e-commerce, the buying and selling of products using the Internet.

E-commerce doesn’t necessarily have to be between companies and individual customers. In fact, there are many other forms of e-commerce, such as business-to-consumer (e.g., eBay), business-to-business (B2B, where companies sell to each other), consumer-to-business (C2B, where consumers can sell to businesses), and consumer-to-consumer (C2C, where consumers can sell to other consumers). These forms of e-commerce are all contributing to making the global business world more interconnected.

It is critical for multinationals to appreciate the importance of the Internet. Not only can companies reach new consumers, but they can also improve their business models. Additionally, the Internet provides the opportunity to companies to build relationships with consumers worldwide.

Concept Check

  1. Describe the lowering of trade barriers and its impact on international business.
  2. What is foreign direct investment?
  3. What has the role of the Internet had on international business?
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