4.1 The Organization's External Environment
- Define the external environment of organizations
Organizations must react and adapt to many forces in their internal and external environments. The context of the firms such as size and geographic location impact how environmental forces affect each organization differently. An understanding of the forces and they currently affecting organizations and pressuring structural change is crucial.
4.2 External Environments and Industries
- Identify contemporary external forces pressuring organizations
An understanding of the various industries and organizations ‘fit’ with different types of environment in crucial. There are small and large organizations that face environments that are either stable of unstable and managing the organization by recognizing their environment is a crucial skill.
4.3 Organizational Designs and Structures
- Identify different types of organizational structures, and their strengths and weaknesses
An understanding of Mechanistic vs Organic Structures and Systems and how they differ and how these major concepts help classify different organizational structures is crucial to recognizing organizational structures. Finally, the issue of organizational complexity and its impact on organizational structure needs to be understood.
You should be able to discuss the evolution of different types of Organizational Structures. You should understand and identify the six types of organizational structures, and the advantages and disadvantages of each: Functional, Divisional, Matrix, Geographic, Networked Team, and Virtual.
4.4 The Internal Organization and External Environments
- Explain how organizations organize to meet external market threats and opportunities
You should understand and identify the six types of organizational structures, and the advantages and disadvantages of each structure:
- Networked Team
You should also understand why the internal dimensions of an organization matter with regard to how it fits with its external environment.
4.5 Corporate Cultures
- Identify the fit between organizational cultures and the external environment
You should be able to identify and differentiate between the four types of organizational cultures and the fit of each with the external environment and describe the CVF framework. Finally, you can identify the internal dimensions of organizations, the interconnection among the dimensions, and how these affect the ‘fit’ with external environments.
4.6 Organizing for Change in the 21st Century
- Identify environmental trends, demands, and opportunities facing organizations.
Among the trends in the external environment: (1) persistent inequality and unfairness, (2) domestic and international political tensions, (3) environmental dangers, and (4) cyber vulnerabilities. Another trend is that organizations will no longer solely be judged only for their financial performance, or even the quality of their products or services. Rather, they will be evaluated on the basis of their impact on society at large—transforming them from business enterprises into social enterprises.