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Principles of Management

18.6 Skills Needed for MTI

Principles of Management18.6 Skills Needed for MTI
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Managing and Performing
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 What Do Managers Do?
    3. 1.2 The Roles Managers Play
    4. 1.3 Major Characteristics of the Manager's Job
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    7. Chapter Review Questions
    8. Management Skills Application Exercises
    9. Managerial Decision Exercises
    10. Critical Thinking Case
  3. 2 Managerial Decision-Making
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Overview of Managerial Decision-Making
    3. 2.2 How the Brain Processes Information to Make Decisions: Reflective and Reactive Systems
    4. 2.3 Programmed and Nonprogrammed Decisions
    5. 2.4 Barriers to Effective Decision-Making
    6. 2.5 Improving the Quality of Decision-Making
    7. 2.6 Group Decision-Making
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    10. Chapter Review Questions
    11. Management Skills Application Exercises
    12. Managerial Decision Exercises
    13. Critical Thinking Case
  4. 3 The History of Management
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 The Early Origins of Management
    3. 3.2 The Italian Renaissance
    4. 3.3 The Industrial Revolution
    5. 3.4 Taylor-Made Management
    6. 3.5 Administrative and Bureaucratic Management
    7. 3.6 Human Relations Movement
    8. 3.7 Contingency and System Management
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    11. Chapter Review Questions
    12. Managerial Decision Exercises
  5. 4 External and Internal Organizational Environments and Corporate Culture
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 The Organization's External Environment
    3. 4.2 External Environments and Industries
    4. 4.3 Organizational Designs and Structures
    5. 4.4 The Internal Organization and External Environments
    6. 4.5 Corporate Cultures
    7. 4.6 Organizing for Change in the 21st Century
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    10. Chapter Review Questions
    11. Management Skills Application Exercises
    12. Managerial Decision Exercises
    13. Critical Thinking Case
  6. 5 Ethics, Corporate Responsibility, and Sustainability
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Ethics and Business Ethics Defined
    3. 5.2 Dimensions of Ethics: The Individual Level
    4. 5.3 Ethical Principles and Responsible Decision-Making
    5. 5.4 Leadership: Ethics at the Organizational Level
    6. 5.5 Ethics, Corporate Culture, and Compliance
    7. 5.6 Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
    8. 5.7 Ethics around the Globe
    9. 5.8 Emerging Trends in Ethics, CSR, and Compliance
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    12. Chapter Review Questions
    13. Management Skills Application Exercises
    14. Managerial Decision Exercises
    15. Critical Thinking Case
  7. 6 International Management
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Importance of International Management
    3. 6.2 Hofstede's Cultural Framework
    4. 6.3 The GLOBE Framework
    5. 6.4 Cultural Stereotyping and Social Institutions
    6. 6.5 Cross-Cultural Assignments
    7. 6.6 Strategies for Expanding Globally
    8. 6.7 The Necessity of Global Markets
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    11. Chapter Review Questions
    12. Management Skills Application Exercises
    13. Managerial Decision Exercises
    14. Critical Thinking Case
  8. 7 Entrepreneurship
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Entrepreneurship
    3. 7.2 Characteristics of Successful Entrepreneurs
    4. 7.3 Small Business
    5. 7.4 Start Your Own Business
    6. 7.5 Managing a Small Business
    7. 7.6 The Large Impact of Small Business
    8. 7.7 The Small Business Administration
    9. 7.8 Trends in Entrepreneurship and Small-Business Ownership
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    12. Chapter Review Questions
    13. Management Skills Application Exercises
    14. Managerial Decision Exercises
    15. Critical Thinking Case
  9. 8 Strategic Analysis: Understanding a Firm’s Competitive Environment
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Gaining Advantages by Understanding the Competitive Environment
    3. 8.2 Using SWOT for Strategic Analysis
    4. 8.3 A Firm's External Macro Environment: PESTEL
    5. 8.4 A Firm's Micro Environment: Porter's Five Forces
    6. 8.5 The Internal Environment
    7. 8.6 Competition, Strategy, and Competitive Advantage
    8. 8.7 Strategic Positioning
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    11. Chapter Review Questions
    12. Management Skills Application Exercises
    13. Managerial Decision Exercises
    14. Critical Thinking Case
  10. 9 The Strategic Management Process: Achieving and Sustaining Competitive Advantage
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Strategic Management
    3. 9.2 Firm Vision and Mission
    4. 9.3 The Role of Strategic Analysis in Formulating a Strategy
    5. 9.4 Strategic Objectives and Levels of Strategy
    6. 9.5 Planning Firm Actions to Implement Strategies
    7. 9.6 Measuring and Evaluating Strategic Performance
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    10. Chapter Review Questions
    11. Management Skills Application Exercises
    12. Managerial Decision Exercises
    13. Critical Thinking Case
  11. 10 Organizational Structure and Change
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Organizational Structures and Design
    3. 10.2 Organizational Change
    4. 10.3 Managing Change
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    7. Chapter Review Questions
    8. Management Skills Application Exercises
    9. Managerial Decision Exercises
    10. Critical Thinking Case
  12. 11 Human Resource Management
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 An Introduction to Human Resource Management
    3. 11.2 Human Resource Management and Compliance
    4. 11.3 Performance Management
    5. 11.4 Influencing Employee Performance and Motivation
    6. 11.5 Building an Organization for the Future
    7. 11.6 Talent Development and Succession Planning
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    10. Chapter Review Questions
    11. Management Skills Application Exercises
    12. Managerial Decision Exercises
    13. Critical Thinking Case
  13. 12 Diversity in Organizations
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 An Introduction to Workplace Diversity
    3. 12.2 Diversity and the Workforce
    4. 12.3 Diversity and Its Impact on Companies
    5. 12.4 Challenges of Diversity
    6. 12.5 Key Diversity Theories
    7. 12.6 Benefits and Challenges of Workplace Diversity
    8. 12.7 Recommendations for Managing Diversity
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    11. Chapter Review Questions
    12. Management Skills Application Exercises
    13. Managerial Decision Exercises
    14. Critical Thinking Case
  14. 13 Leadership
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 The Nature of Leadership
    3. 13.2 The Leadership Process
    4. 13.3 Leader Emergence
    5. 13.4 The Trait Approach to Leadership
    6. 13.5 Behavioral Approaches to Leadership
    7. 13.6 Situational (Contingency) Approaches to Leadership
    8. 13.7 Substitutes for and Neutralizers of Leadership
    9. 13.8 Transformational, Visionary, and Charismatic Leadership
    10. 13.9 Leadership Needs in the 21st Century
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    13. Chapter Review Questions
    14. Management Skills Application Exercises
    15. Managerial Decision Exercises
    16. Critical Thinking Case
  15. 14 Work Motivation for Performance
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 Motivation: Direction and Intensity
    3. 14.2 Content Theories of Motivation
    4. 14.3 Process Theories of Motivation
    5. 14.4 Recent Research on Motivation Theories
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    8. Chapter Review Questions
    9. Management Skills Application Exercises
    10. Managerial Decision Exercises
    11. Critical Thinking Case
  16. 15 Managing Teams
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 Teamwork in the Workplace
    3. 15.2 Team Development Over Time
    4. 15.3 Things to Consider When Managing Teams
    5. 15.4 Opportunities and Challenges to Team Building
    6. 15.5 Team Diversity
    7. 15.6 Multicultural Teams
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    10. Chapter Review Questions
    11. Management Skills Application Exercises
    12. Managerial Decision Exercises
    13. Critical Thinking Case
  17. 16 Managerial Communication
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 The Process of Managerial Communication
    3. 16.2 Types of Communications in Organizations
    4. 16.3 Factors Affecting Communications and the Roles of Managers
    5. 16.4 Managerial Communication and Corporate Reputation
    6. 16.5 The Major Channels of Management Communication Are Talking, Listening, Reading, and Writing
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    9. Chapter Review Questions
    10. Management Skills Application Exercises
    11. Managerial Decision Exercises
    12. Critical Thinking Case
  18. 17 Organizational Planning and Controlling
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Is Planning Important
    3. 17.2 The Planning Process
    4. 17.3 Types of Plans
    5. 17.4 Goals or Outcome Statements
    6. 17.5 Formal Organizational Planning in Practice
    7. 17.6 Employees' Responses to Planning
    8. 17.7 Management by Objectives: A Planning and Control Technique
    9. 17.8 The Control- and Involvement-Oriented Approaches to Planning and Controlling
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    12. Chapter Review Questions
    13. Management Skills Application Exercises
    14. Managerial Decision Exercises
    15. Critical Thinking Case
  19. 18 Management of Technology and Innovation
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 MTI—Its Importance Now and In the Future
    3. 18.2 Developing Technology and Innovation
    4. 18.3 External Sources of Technology and Innovation
    5. 18.4 Internal Sources of Technology and Innovation
    6. 18.5 Management Entrepreneurship Skills for Technology and Innovation
    7. 18.6 Skills Needed for MTI
    8. 18.7 Managing Now for Future Technology and Innovation
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    11. Chapter Review Questions
    12. Management Skills Application Exercises
    13. Managerial Decision Exercises
    14. Critical Thinking Case
  20. References
  21. Index
  1. No matter what method is used, what skills do you need to successfully manage technology and innovation?

There are a number of skills needed to successfully manage technology and innovation in the organization. No matter what organization you are a part of, there are two skills the organization must develop to be successful—the ability to manage learning and knowledge processes, and the ability to analyze and forecast future trends. Individual skills that are critical to the organization’s success include leadership/followship and creative thinking.

Organizational skills involve how the firm puts people and resources together to create value—building capabilities. With the right capabilities, the organization can develop a competitive advantage. In the world of technology and innovation, the management of learning and knowledge processes is critical. The organization needs to have systems in place that allow it to collect data that can be analyzed to form information. The information needs to be used to gain knowledge and insight. At each step, learning takes place. Organizational learning is the acquisition of knowledge through the collection of data that is analyzed to gather information, which is then transferred and shared through communication among members of the organization. This communication process provides the foundation for knowledge acquisition and enhancement within the firm. There are two types of knowledge that must be managed: explicit knowledge (codified or written down as rules or guidelines) and tacit knowledge (which emerges from experience of an individual). Tacit knowledge can become explicit at some point if the expert is able to codify the knowledge for others. However, it is not always possible to codify tacit knowledge. For example, Henry Bessemer was sued by the patent purchasers who could not get his steel-making process to work. In the end Bessemer set up his own steel company because he knew how to gauge when to add and subtract heat based on the impurities in the iron ore, even though he could not convey it to his patent users. Bessemer’s company became one of the largest in the world and changed the face of steelmaking. After the introduction of the Bessemer process, steel and wrought iron became similarly priced, and some users, primarily railroads, turned to steel.7 The insights and experiences that are gained from the gathering of data and converting that data into information are key to successful MTI. Organizational knowledge is the sharing and utilization of the learning that takes place in the firm.

A photo shows Ben Fried speaking during a conference with papers held in his hand.
Exhibit 18.8 Ben Fried In today’s high-tech world, CIOs must possess not only the technical smarts to implement global IT infrastructures, integrate communications systems with partners, and protect customer data from insidious hackers, but they must also have strong business acumen. Google’s acclaimed tech chief Ben Fried manages the technology necessary to deliver more than nine billion searches daily, with an eye towards greater business efficiency, growth, and profits. Why is it important for CIOs to possess both technological and business expertise? (Credit: Enterprise 2.0 Conference/ flickr/ Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0))

The ability to forecast the future is another key organizational skill in the management of technology and innovation. This involves scanning the environment for trends and possible areas of value-creation opportunities. It also involves understanding the risk involved with newness in the firm and the risk involved in not seeking newness—both can cause the firm to lose value. Any method of forecasting comes with limitations. These include:

  1. Forecasting methods, by definition, are uncertain in their outcomes. Usually the firm is trying to develop scenarios concerning best, worst, and most likely outcomes. With this information, risk can be assessed.
  2. Forecasts are imperfect—the firm cannot predict all potential influences in the competitive marketplace. Bessemer knew he had a better process, but he did not predict the problems he had licensing his patent.
  3. Forecasts are at best an educated guess. Many forecast techniques rely on statistical analysis, but the numbers used in the analysis are forecasts themselves or rely on patterns of behavior continuing in the marketplace.
  4. With all the issues with forecasting, a company that produces excellent forecasts will most likely formulate better strategy and capture more value.

The knowledge-management system of the firm can help the ability of the firm to forecast. Experience and learning about industry and general environment trends can help individuals and teams forecast more accurately.

Individuals within the firm also need to have certain skills to enhance the management of technology and innovation processes. These skills include a balance of leadership and followship and the ability to think creatively.

A flowchart is shown to list the skills needed for the management of technology and innovation, M T I.
Exhibit 18.9 Needed Skills for MTI (Attribution: Copyright Rice University, OpenStax, under CC-BY 4.0 license)

Most individuals in the organization understand what leadership is. For MTI, it is important that the right person be in the leadership position when needed. For example, in new product development, the leader during the design phase is likely to be an engineer, the leader in the prototype development phase may be an engineer or a production person, and as the product is introduced to the marketplace the leader may be a marketing person. It is necessary for these individuals to communicate, and they may all be on a project team that is under the direction/coordination of a dedicated project manager. However, the leadership on the project shifts within the creation-to-market process. While leadership is critical, so is followship. Followship is the mirror image of leadership. Most will never have taken a class in followship. You cannot have leaders without followers. There is a skill set for leadership and a skill set for followship. It is the actions of followers that determine the success of a leader. The success of organizations is more the result of good followship than of great leadership. Leadership is influencing others, and followship is seeking or accepting influence. In the case of new product development outlined above, each of the individuals were leaders during some point in the project and each were followers during the project. Individuals spend a lot of time seeking and learning about leadership, but followship is also critical to organizational success. Innovative companies are often lead by a combination of two individuals who lead and follow each other. For example, Microsoft was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen. The names of firms started or built by two people are common: Sears & Roebuck, Proctor & Gamble, Marks and Spencer. The characteristics of a good follower include:

  1. They are truthful. Followers who tell the truth and leaders who listen are an unbeatable combination.
  2. They are supportive. Don’t blame your boss for an unpopular decision or policy. “I know this is an unpopular decision, but…” Absent person example of trust. [I call it confessing the sins of the boss in the hallway after the meeting.]
  3. They give the boss the benefit of their knowledge and experience. Your job is to make the organization successful.
  4. They take the Initiative to solve problems by providing solutions, not just issues.
  5. They keep the leader Informed. The higher a manager is in an organization, the more people are less inclined to talk openly with them. Great followers provide the good, the bad, and the ugly of information, knowledge, and experience.

Concept Check

  1. What is organizational learning?
  2. What are the differences between leadership and followship?
  3. What forecasting techniques are used in the management of technology and innovation?
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