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Principles of Finance

17.2 The Costs of Debt and Equity Capital

Principles of Finance17.2 The Costs of Debt and Equity Capital

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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Introduction to Finance
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 1.1 What Is Finance?
    3. 1.2 The Role of Finance in an Organization
    4. 1.3 Importance of Data and Technology
    5. 1.4 Careers in Finance
    6. 1.5 Markets and Participants
    7. 1.6 Microeconomic and Macroeconomic Matters
    8. 1.7 Financial Instruments
    9. 1.8 Concepts of Time and Value
    10. Summary
    11. Key Terms
    12. Multiple Choice
    13. Review Questions
    14. Video Activity
  3. 2 Corporate Structure and Governance
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 2.1 Business Structures
    3. 2.2 Relationship between Shareholders and Company Management
    4. 2.3 Role of the Board of Directors
    5. 2.4 Agency Issues: Shareholders and Corporate Boards
    6. 2.5 Interacting with Investors, Intermediaries, and Other Market Participants
    7. 2.6 Companies in Domestic and Global Markets
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Video Activity
  4. 3 Economic Foundations: Money and Rates
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 3.1 Microeconomics
    3. 3.2 Macroeconomics
    4. 3.3 Business Cycles and Economic Activity
    5. 3.4 Interest Rates
    6. 3.5 Foreign Exchange Rates
    7. 3.6 Sources and Characteristics of Economic Data
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Problems
    14. Video Activity
  5. 4 Accrual Accounting Process
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 4.1 Cash versus Accrual Accounting
    3. 4.2 Economic Basis for Accrual Accounting
    4. 4.3 How Does a Company Recognize a Sale and an Expense?
    5. 4.4 When Should a Company Capitalize or Expense an Item?
    6. 4.5 What Is “Profit” versus “Loss” for the Company?
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Review Questions
    11. Problems
    12. Video Activity
  6. 5 Financial Statements
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 5.1 The Income Statement
    3. 5.2 The Balance Sheet
    4. 5.3 The Relationship between the Balance Sheet and the Income Statement
    5. 5.4 The Statement of Owner’s Equity
    6. 5.5 The Statement of Cash Flows
    7. 5.6 Operating Cash Flow and Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF)
    8. 5.7 Common-Size Statements
    9. 5.8 Reporting Financial Activity
    10. Summary
    11. Key Terms
    12. CFA Institute
    13. Multiple Choice
    14. Review Questions
    15. Problems
    16. Video Activity
  7. 6 Measures of Financial Health
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 6.1 Ratios: Condensing Information into Smaller Pieces
    3. 6.2 Operating Efficiency Ratios
    4. 6.3 Liquidity Ratios
    5. 6.4 Solvency Ratios
    6. 6.5 Market Value Ratios
    7. 6.6 Profitability Ratios and the DuPont Method
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Problems
    14. Video Activity
  8. 7 Time Value of Money I: Single Payment Value
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 7.1 Now versus Later Concepts
    3. 7.2 Time Value of Money (TVM) Basics
    4. 7.3 Methods for Solving Time Value of Money Problems
    5. 7.4 Applications of TVM in Finance
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. CFA Institute
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Review Questions
    11. Problems
    12. Video Activity
  9. 8 Time Value of Money II: Equal Multiple Payments
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 8.1 Perpetuities
    3. 8.2 Annuities
    4. 8.3 Loan Amortization
    5. 8.4 Stated versus Effective Rates
    6. 8.5 Equal Payments with a Financial Calculator and Excel
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. CFA Institute
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Problems
    12. Video Activity
  10. 9 Time Value of Money III: Unequal Multiple Payment Values
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 9.1 Timing of Cash Flows
    3. 9.2 Unequal Payments Using a Financial Calculator or Microsoft Excel
    4. Summary
    5. Key Terms
    6. CFA Institute
    7. Multiple Choice
    8. Review Questions
    9. Problems
    10. Video Activity
  11. 10 Bonds and Bond Valuation
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 10.1 Characteristics of Bonds
    3. 10.2 Bond Valuation
    4. 10.3 Using the Yield Curve
    5. 10.4 Risks of Interest Rates and Default
    6. 10.5 Using Spreadsheets to Solve Bond Problems
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. CFA Institute
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  12. 11 Stocks and Stock Valuation
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 11.1 Multiple Approaches to Stock Valuation
    3. 11.2 Dividend Discount Models (DDMs)
    4. 11.3 Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) Model
    5. 11.4 Preferred Stock
    6. 11.5 Efficient Markets
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. CFA Institute
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  13. 12 Historical Performance of US Markets
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 12.1 Overview of US Financial Markets
    3. 12.2 Historical Picture of Inflation
    4. 12.3 Historical Picture of Returns to Bonds
    5. 12.4 Historical Picture of Returns to Stocks
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Review Questions
    10. Video Activity
  14. 13 Statistical Analysis in Finance
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 13.1 Measures of Center
    3. 13.2 Measures of Spread
    4. 13.3 Measures of Position
    5. 13.4 Statistical Distributions
    6. 13.5 Probability Distributions
    7. 13.6 Data Visualization and Graphical Displays
    8. 13.7 The R Statistical Analysis Tool
    9. Summary
    10. Key Terms
    11. CFA Institute
    12. Multiple Choice
    13. Review Questions
    14. Problems
    15. Video Activity
  15. 14 Regression Analysis in Finance
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 14.1 Correlation Analysis
    3. 14.2 Linear Regression Analysis
    4. 14.3 Best-Fit Linear Model
    5. 14.4 Regression Applications in Finance
    6. 14.5 Predictions and Prediction Intervals
    7. 14.6 Use of R Statistical Analysis Tool for Regression Analysis
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  16. 15 How to Think about Investing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 15.1 Risk and Return to an Individual Asset
    3. 15.2 Risk and Return to Multiple Assets
    4. 15.3 The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)
    5. 15.4 Applications in Performance Measurement
    6. 15.5 Using Excel to Make Investment Decisions
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. CFA Institute
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  17. 16 How Companies Think about Investing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 16.1 Payback Period Method
    3. 16.2 Net Present Value (NPV) Method
    4. 16.3 Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Method
    5. 16.4 Alternative Methods
    6. 16.5 Choosing between Projects
    7. 16.6 Using Excel to Make Company Investment Decisions
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Problems
    14. Video Activity
  18. 17 How Firms Raise Capital
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 17.1 The Concept of Capital Structure
    3. 17.2 The Costs of Debt and Equity Capital
    4. 17.3 Calculating the Weighted Average Cost of Capital
    5. 17.4 Capital Structure Choices
    6. 17.5 Optimal Capital Structure
    7. 17.6 Alternative Sources of Funds
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Problems
    14. Video Activity
  19. 18 Financial Forecasting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 18.1 The Importance of Forecasting
    3. 18.2 Forecasting Sales
    4. 18.3 Pro Forma Financials
    5. 18.4 Generating the Complete Forecast
    6. 18.5 Forecasting Cash Flow and Assessing the Value of Growth
    7. 18.6 Using Excel to Create the Long-Term Forecast
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  20. 19 The Importance of Trade Credit and Working Capital in Planning
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 19.1 What Is Working Capital?
    3. 19.2 What Is Trade Credit?
    4. 19.3 Cash Management
    5. 19.4 Receivables Management
    6. 19.5 Inventory Management
    7. 19.6 Using Excel to Create the Short-Term Plan
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Video Activity
  21. 20 Risk Management and the Financial Manager
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 20.1 The Importance of Risk Management
    3. 20.2 Commodity Price Risk
    4. 20.3 Exchange Rates and Risk
    5. 20.4 Interest Rate Risk
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. CFA Institute
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Review Questions
    11. Problems
    12. Video Activity
  22. Index

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • Calculate the after-tax cost of debt capital.
  • Explain why the return to debt holders is not the same as the cost to the firm.
  • Calculate the cost of equity capital.

The costs of debt and equity capital are what company lenders (those who allow the firm to use their capital) expect in return for providing that capital. Just as current market values of debt and equity should be used in determining their weights in the capital structure, current market values of debt and equity should be used in determining the costs of those types of financing.

Cost of Debt Capital

A company’s cost of debt is the interest rate it would have to pay to refinance its existing debt. Because a firm’s existing debt trades in the marketplace, its price changes according to market conditions. The overall credit environment can change due to changing macroeconomic conditions, causing a change in the price of debt securities. In addition, as there are changes in the overall riskiness of the firm and its ability to repay its creditors, the price of the debt securities issued by the firm will change.

The market price of a company’s existing bonds implies a yield to maturity. Recall that the yield to maturity is the return that current purchasers of the debt will earn if they hold the bond to maturity and receive all of the payments promised by the borrowing firm.

Yield to Maturity and the Cost of Debt

Bluebonnet’s debt is selling for 97% of its face value. This means that for every $100 of face value, investors are currently paying $97 for an outstanding bond issued by Bluebonnet Industries. This debt has a coupon rate of 6%, paid semiannually, and the bonds mature in 15 years.

Because the bonds are selling at a discount, the yield that investors who purchase these bonds will receive if they hold the bond to maturity exceeds 6%. The purchasers of these bonds will receive a coupon payment of $100 × 0.062=$3$100 × 0.062=$3 every six months for the next 15 years. They will also receive the $100 face value when the bonds mature in 15 years. To calculate the yield to maturity of these bonds using your financial calculator, input the information shown in Table 17.1.

Step Description Enter Display
1 Enter number of coupon payments 30 N N = 30.00
2 Enter the price paid for the bond 97 +/- PV PV = -97.00
3 Enter the coupon payment 3 PMT PMT = 3.00
4 Enter the face value of the bond 100 FV FV = 100.00
5 Compute the semiannual rate CPT I/Y I/Y = 3.156
6 Multiply 3.156 by 2 to get YTM × 2 =× 2 =   6.312
Table 17.1 Calculator Steps for Finding the Yield to Maturity1

The yield to maturity (YTM) of Bluebonnet Industries bonds is 6.312%. This YTM should be used in estimating the firm’s overall cost of capital, not the coupon rate of 6% that is stated on the outstanding bonds. The coupon rate on the existing bonds is a historical rate, set under economic conditions that may have been different from the current market conditions. The YTM of 6.312% represents what investors are currently requiring to purchase the debt issued by the company.

After-Tax Cost of Debt

Although current debt holders demand to earn 6.312% to encourage them to lend to Bluebonnet Industries, the cost to the firm is less than 6.312%. This is because interest paid on debt is a tax-deductible expense. When a firm borrows money, the interest it pays is offset to some extent by the tax savings that occur because of this deductible expense.

The after-tax cost of debt is the net cost of interest on a company’s debt after taxes. This after-tax cost of debt is the firm’s effective cost of debt. The after-tax cost of debt is calculated as rd(1 - T)rd(1 - T), where rdrd is the before-tax cost of debt, or the return that the lenders receive, and T is the company’s tax rate. If Bluebonnet Industries has a tax rate of 21%, then the firm’s after-tax cost of debt is 6.312% 1 - 0.21 = 4.986%.6.312% 1 - 0.21 = 4.986%.

This means that for every $1,000 Bluebonnet borrows, the company will have to pay its lenders 1,0006.312% = $63.121,0006.312% = $63.12 in interest every year. The company can deduct $63.12 from its income, so this interest payment reduces the taxes the company must pay to the government by $63.12 (0.21) = $13.26%$63.12 (0.21) = $13.26%. Thus, Bluebonnet’s effective cost of debt is $63.12 - $13.26 = $49.86$63.12 - $13.26 = $49.86, or $49.86$1,000=4.986%$49.86$1,000=4.986%.

Think It Through

Calculating the After-Tax Cost of Debt

Royer Roasters has issued bonds that will mature in 18 years. The bonds have a coupon rate of 8%, and coupon payments are made semiannually. These bonds are currently selling at a price of $102.20 per $100 face value. Royer’s tax rate is 28%. What is Royer’s after-tax cost of debt?

Cost of Equity Capital

Companies can raise money by selling stock, or ownership shares, of the company. Stock is known as equity capital. The cost of common stock capital cannot be directly observed in the market; it must be estimated. Two primary methods for estimating the cost of common stock capital are the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) and the constant dividend growth model.

CAPM

The CAPM is based on using the firm’s systematic risk to estimate the expected returns that shareholders require to invest in the stock. According to the CAPM, the cost of equity (re) can be estimated using the formula

re = Risk-Free Rate + (Equity Beta × Market Risk Premium)re = Risk-Free Rate + (Equity Beta × Market Risk Premium)

For example, suppose that Bluebonnet Industries has an equity beta of 1.3. Because the beta is greater than one, the stock has more systematic risk than the average stock in the market. Assume that the rate on 10-year US Treasury notes is 3% and serves as a proxy for the risk-free rate. If the long-run average return for the stock market is 11%, the market risk premium is 11% - 3% = 8%;11% - 3% = 8%; this means that people who invest in the stock market are rewarded for the risk they are taking by being paid 8% more than they would have been paid if they had purchased US Treasury notes. Bluebonnet Industries cost of equity capital can be estimated as

re = 0.03 + 1.3 × 0.08 = 0.03 + 0.104 = 0.134 = 13.4%re = 0.03 + 1.3 × 0.08 = 0.03 + 0.104 = 0.134 = 13.4%

Constant Dividend Growth Model

The constant dividend growth model provides an alternative method of calculating a company’s cost of equity. The basic formula for the constant dividend growth model is

re = Dividend in One YearCurrent Stock Price + Dividend Growth Rate = Div1P0+gre = Dividend in One YearCurrent Stock Price + Dividend Growth Rate = Div1P0+g

Thus, three things are needed to complete this calculation: the current stock price, what the dividend will be in one year, and the growth rate of the dividend. The current price of the stock is easy to obtain by looking at the financial news. The other two items, the dividend next year and the growth rate of the dividend, will occur in the future and at the current time are not known with certainty; these two items must be estimated.

Suppose Bluebonnet paid a dividend of $1.50 per share to its shareholders last year. Also suppose that this dividend has been growing at a rate of 2% each year for the past several years and that growth rate is expected to continue into the future. Then, the dividend in one year can be expected to be $1.50(1 + 0.02) = $1.53$1.50(1 + 0.02) = $1.53. If the current stock price is $12.50 per share, then that cost of equity is estimated as

re = $1.53$12.50 + 0.02 = 0.1224 + 0.02 = 0.1424 = 14.24%re = $1.53$12.50 + 0.02 = 0.1224 + 0.02 = 0.1424 = 14.24%

Think It Through

Using the Constant Dividend Growth Model

What does an increase in the price of a company’s stock imply about the equity cost of capital for the company? To find out what the constant dividend growth model suggests, assume that the stock price for Bluebonnet Industries increases to $16.50 per share. If there is no expectation that the growth rate of the dividends will increase, what would the new estimated equity cost of capital be?

Footnotes

  • 1The specific financial calculator in these examples is the Texas Instruments BA II PlusTM Professional model, but you can use other financial calculators for these types of calculations.
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