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Principles of Finance

17.1 The Concept of Capital Structure

Principles of Finance17.1 The Concept of Capital Structure

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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Introduction to Finance
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 1.1 What Is Finance?
    3. 1.2 The Role of Finance in an Organization
    4. 1.3 Importance of Data and Technology
    5. 1.4 Careers in Finance
    6. 1.5 Markets and Participants
    7. 1.6 Microeconomic and Macroeconomic Matters
    8. 1.7 Financial Instruments
    9. 1.8 Concepts of Time and Value
    10. Summary
    11. Key Terms
    12. Multiple Choice
    13. Review Questions
    14. Video Activity
  3. 2 Corporate Structure and Governance
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 2.1 Business Structures
    3. 2.2 Relationship between Shareholders and Company Management
    4. 2.3 Role of the Board of Directors
    5. 2.4 Agency Issues: Shareholders and Corporate Boards
    6. 2.5 Interacting with Investors, Intermediaries, and Other Market Participants
    7. 2.6 Companies in Domestic and Global Markets
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Video Activity
  4. 3 Economic Foundations: Money and Rates
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 3.1 Microeconomics
    3. 3.2 Macroeconomics
    4. 3.3 Business Cycles and Economic Activity
    5. 3.4 Interest Rates
    6. 3.5 Foreign Exchange Rates
    7. 3.6 Sources and Characteristics of Economic Data
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Problems
    14. Video Activity
  5. 4 Accrual Accounting Process
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 4.1 Cash versus Accrual Accounting
    3. 4.2 Economic Basis for Accrual Accounting
    4. 4.3 How Does a Company Recognize a Sale and an Expense?
    5. 4.4 When Should a Company Capitalize or Expense an Item?
    6. 4.5 What Is “Profit” versus “Loss” for the Company?
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Review Questions
    11. Problems
    12. Video Activity
  6. 5 Financial Statements
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 5.1 The Income Statement
    3. 5.2 The Balance Sheet
    4. 5.3 The Relationship between the Balance Sheet and the Income Statement
    5. 5.4 The Statement of Owner’s Equity
    6. 5.5 The Statement of Cash Flows
    7. 5.6 Operating Cash Flow and Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF)
    8. 5.7 Common-Size Statements
    9. 5.8 Reporting Financial Activity
    10. Summary
    11. Key Terms
    12. CFA Institute
    13. Multiple Choice
    14. Review Questions
    15. Problems
    16. Video Activity
  7. 6 Measures of Financial Health
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 6.1 Ratios: Condensing Information into Smaller Pieces
    3. 6.2 Operating Efficiency Ratios
    4. 6.3 Liquidity Ratios
    5. 6.4 Solvency Ratios
    6. 6.5 Market Value Ratios
    7. 6.6 Profitability Ratios and the DuPont Method
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Problems
    14. Video Activity
  8. 7 Time Value of Money I: Single Payment Value
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 7.1 Now versus Later Concepts
    3. 7.2 Time Value of Money (TVM) Basics
    4. 7.3 Methods for Solving Time Value of Money Problems
    5. 7.4 Applications of TVM in Finance
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. CFA Institute
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Review Questions
    11. Problems
    12. Video Activity
  9. 8 Time Value of Money II: Equal Multiple Payments
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 8.1 Perpetuities
    3. 8.2 Annuities
    4. 8.3 Loan Amortization
    5. 8.4 Stated versus Effective Rates
    6. 8.5 Equal Payments with a Financial Calculator and Excel
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. CFA Institute
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Problems
    12. Video Activity
  10. 9 Time Value of Money III: Unequal Multiple Payment Values
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 9.1 Timing of Cash Flows
    3. 9.2 Unequal Payments Using a Financial Calculator or Microsoft Excel
    4. Summary
    5. Key Terms
    6. CFA Institute
    7. Multiple Choice
    8. Review Questions
    9. Problems
    10. Video Activity
  11. 10 Bonds and Bond Valuation
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 10.1 Characteristics of Bonds
    3. 10.2 Bond Valuation
    4. 10.3 Using the Yield Curve
    5. 10.4 Risks of Interest Rates and Default
    6. 10.5 Using Spreadsheets to Solve Bond Problems
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. CFA Institute
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  12. 11 Stocks and Stock Valuation
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 11.1 Multiple Approaches to Stock Valuation
    3. 11.2 Dividend Discount Models (DDMs)
    4. 11.3 Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) Model
    5. 11.4 Preferred Stock
    6. 11.5 Efficient Markets
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. CFA Institute
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  13. 12 Historical Performance of US Markets
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 12.1 Overview of US Financial Markets
    3. 12.2 Historical Picture of Inflation
    4. 12.3 Historical Picture of Returns to Bonds
    5. 12.4 Historical Picture of Returns to Stocks
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Review Questions
    10. Video Activity
  14. 13 Statistical Analysis in Finance
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 13.1 Measures of Center
    3. 13.2 Measures of Spread
    4. 13.3 Measures of Position
    5. 13.4 Statistical Distributions
    6. 13.5 Probability Distributions
    7. 13.6 Data Visualization and Graphical Displays
    8. 13.7 The R Statistical Analysis Tool
    9. Summary
    10. Key Terms
    11. CFA Institute
    12. Multiple Choice
    13. Review Questions
    14. Problems
    15. Video Activity
  15. 14 Regression Analysis in Finance
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 14.1 Correlation Analysis
    3. 14.2 Linear Regression Analysis
    4. 14.3 Best-Fit Linear Model
    5. 14.4 Regression Applications in Finance
    6. 14.5 Predictions and Prediction Intervals
    7. 14.6 Use of R Statistical Analysis Tool for Regression Analysis
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  16. 15 How to Think about Investing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 15.1 Risk and Return to an Individual Asset
    3. 15.2 Risk and Return to Multiple Assets
    4. 15.3 The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)
    5. 15.4 Applications in Performance Measurement
    6. 15.5 Using Excel to Make Investment Decisions
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. CFA Institute
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  17. 16 How Companies Think about Investing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 16.1 Payback Period Method
    3. 16.2 Net Present Value (NPV) Method
    4. 16.3 Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Method
    5. 16.4 Alternative Methods
    6. 16.5 Choosing between Projects
    7. 16.6 Using Excel to Make Company Investment Decisions
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Problems
    14. Video Activity
  18. 17 How Firms Raise Capital
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 17.1 The Concept of Capital Structure
    3. 17.2 The Costs of Debt and Equity Capital
    4. 17.3 Calculating the Weighted Average Cost of Capital
    5. 17.4 Capital Structure Choices
    6. 17.5 Optimal Capital Structure
    7. 17.6 Alternative Sources of Funds
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Problems
    14. Video Activity
  19. 18 Financial Forecasting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 18.1 The Importance of Forecasting
    3. 18.2 Forecasting Sales
    4. 18.3 Pro Forma Financials
    5. 18.4 Generating the Complete Forecast
    6. 18.5 Forecasting Cash Flow and Assessing the Value of Growth
    7. 18.6 Using Excel to Create the Long-Term Forecast
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  20. 19 The Importance of Trade Credit and Working Capital in Planning
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 19.1 What Is Working Capital?
    3. 19.2 What Is Trade Credit?
    4. 19.3 Cash Management
    5. 19.4 Receivables Management
    6. 19.5 Inventory Management
    7. 19.6 Using Excel to Create the Short-Term Plan
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Video Activity
  21. 20 Risk Management and the Financial Manager
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 20.1 The Importance of Risk Management
    3. 20.2 Commodity Price Risk
    4. 20.3 Exchange Rates and Risk
    5. 20.4 Interest Rate Risk
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. CFA Institute
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Review Questions
    11. Problems
    12. Video Activity
  22. Index

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • Distinguish between the two major sources of capital appearing on a balance sheet.
  • Explain why there is a cost of capital.
  • Calculate the weights in a company’s capital structure.

The Basic Balance Sheet

In order to produce and sell its products or services, a company needs assets. If a firm will produce shirts, for example, it will need equipment such as sewing machines, cutting boards, irons, and a building in which to store its equipment. The company will also need some raw materials such as fabric, buttons, and thread. These items the company needs to conduct its operations are assets. They appear on the left-hand side of the balance sheet.

The company has to pay for these assets. The sources of the money the company uses to pay for these assets appear on the right-hand side of the balance sheet. The company’s sources of financing represent its capital. There are two broad types of capital: debt (or borrowing) and equity (or ownership).

Figure 17.2 is a representation of a basic balance sheet. Remember that the two sides of the balance sheet must be Assets=Liabilities + EquityAssets=Liabilities + Equity. Companies typically finance their assets through equity (selling ownership shares to stockholders) and debt (borrowing money from lenders). The debt that a firm uses is often referred to as financial leverage. The relative proportions of debt and equity that a firm uses in financing its assets is referred to as its capital structure.

A basic balance sheet shows that the current and long term assets of a company are equal to its debt, preferred stock, and common equity. In this figure, debt, preferred stock, and common equity are represented by equal sized rectangles. These three rectangles stacked together are the same size as the rectangle representing current and long term assets.
Figure 17.2 Basic Balance Sheet for Company with Debt, Preferred Stock, and Common Equity in Capital Structure

Attracting Capital

When a company raises money from investors, those investors forgo the opportunity to invest that money elsewhere. In economics terms, there is an opportunity cost to those who buy a company’s bonds or stock.

Suppose, for example, that you have $5,000, and you purchase Tesla stock. You could have purchased Apple stock or Disney stock instead. There were many other options, but once you chose Tesla stock, you no longer had the money available for the other options. You would only purchase Tesla stock if you thought that you would receive a return as large as you would have for the same level of risk on the other investments.

From Tesla’s perspective, this means that the company can only attract your capital if it offers an expected return high enough for you to choose it as the company that will use your money. Providing a return equal to what potential investors could expect to earn elsewhere for a similar risk is the cost a company bears in exchange for obtaining funds from investors. Just as a firm must consider the costs of electricity, raw materials, and wages when it calculates the costs of doing business, it must also consider the cost of attracting capital so that it can purchase its assets.

Weights in the Capital Structure

Most companies have multiple sources of capital. The firm’s overall cost of capital is a weighted average of its debt and equity costs of capital. The average of a firm’s debt and equity costs of capital, weighted by the fractions of the firm’s value that correspond to debt and equity, is known as the weighted average cost of capital (WACC).

The weights in the WACC are the proportions of debt and equity used in the firm’s capital structure. If, for example, a company is financed 25% by debt and 75% by equity, the weights in the WACC would be 25% on the debt cost of capital and 75% on the equity cost of capital. The balance sheet of the company would look like Figure 17.3.

These weights can be derived from the right-hand side of a market-value-based balance sheet. Recall that accounting-based book values listed on traditional financial statements reflect historical costs. The market-value balance sheet is similar to the accounting balance sheet, but all values are current market values.

A balance sheet shows that the market value of assets are equal to market value of debt and the market value of equity. In this figure, the market value of debt is represented by a rectangle that is 25% of the size of the market value of assets. The market value of equity is represented by a rectangle that is 75% of the size of the market value of assets. These two rectangles are stacked on top of each other and together are the same size as the rectangle representing market value of assets.
Figure 17.3 Balance Sheet of Company with Capital Structure of 25% Debt and 75% Equity

Just as the accounting balance sheet must balance, the market-value balance sheet must balance:

Market Value of Assets = Market Value of Debt + Market Value of EquityMarket Value of Assets = Market Value of Debt + Market Value of Equity

This equation reminds us that the values of a company’s debt and equity flow from the market value of the company’s assets.

Let’s look at an example of how a company would calculate the weights in its capital structure. Bluebonnet Industries has debt with a book (face) value of $5 million and equity with a book value of $3 million. Bluebonnet’s debt is trading at 97% of its face value. It has one million shares of stock, which are trading for $15 per share.

First, the market values of the company’s debt and equity must be determined. Bluebonnet’s debt is trading at a discount; its market value is 0.97×$5,000,000=$4,850,0000.97×$5,000,000=$4,850,000. The market value of Bluebonnet’s equity equals Number of Shares × Price per Share = 1,000,000  × $15 = $15,000,000Number of Shares × Price per Share = 1,000,000  × $15 = $15,000,000. Thus, the total market value of the company’s capital is $4,850,000 + $15,000,000 = $19,850,000$4,850,000 + $15,000,000 = $19,850,000. The weight of debt in Bluebonnet’s capital structure is $4,850,000$19,850,000=24.4%$4,850,000$19,850,000=24.4%. The weight of equity in its capital structure is $15,000,000$19,850,000=75.6%$15,000,000$19,850,000=75.6%.

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