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Precalculus

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PrecalculusKey Concepts
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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Functions
    1. Introduction to Functions
    2. 1.1 Functions and Function Notation
    3. 1.2 Domain and Range
    4. 1.3 Rates of Change and Behavior of Graphs
    5. 1.4 Composition of Functions
    6. 1.5 Transformation of Functions
    7. 1.6 Absolute Value Functions
    8. 1.7 Inverse Functions
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Key Concepts
    12. Review Exercises
    13. Practice Test
  3. 2 Linear Functions
    1. Introduction to Linear Functions
    2. 2.1 Linear Functions
    3. 2.2 Graphs of Linear Functions
    4. 2.3 Modeling with Linear Functions
    5. 2.4 Fitting Linear Models to Data
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Key Concepts
    9. Review Exercises
    10. Practice Test
  4. 3 Polynomial and Rational Functions
    1. Introduction to Polynomial and Rational Functions
    2. 3.1 Complex Numbers
    3. 3.2 Quadratic Functions
    4. 3.3 Power Functions and Polynomial Functions
    5. 3.4 Graphs of Polynomial Functions
    6. 3.5 Dividing Polynomials
    7. 3.6 Zeros of Polynomial Functions
    8. 3.7 Rational Functions
    9. 3.8 Inverses and Radical Functions
    10. 3.9 Modeling Using Variation
    11. Key Terms
    12. Key Equations
    13. Key Concepts
    14. Review Exercises
    15. Practice Test
  5. 4 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    1. Introduction to Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    2. 4.1 Exponential Functions
    3. 4.2 Graphs of Exponential Functions
    4. 4.3 Logarithmic Functions
    5. 4.4 Graphs of Logarithmic Functions
    6. 4.5 Logarithmic Properties
    7. 4.6 Exponential and Logarithmic Equations
    8. 4.7 Exponential and Logarithmic Models
    9. 4.8 Fitting Exponential Models to Data
    10. Key Terms
    11. Key Equations
    12. Key Concepts
    13. Review Exercises
    14. Practice Test
  6. 5 Trigonometric Functions
    1. Introduction to Trigonometric Functions
    2. 5.1 Angles
    3. 5.2 Unit Circle: Sine and Cosine Functions
    4. 5.3 The Other Trigonometric Functions
    5. 5.4 Right Triangle Trigonometry
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Key Concepts
    9. Review Exercises
    10. Practice Test
  7. 6 Periodic Functions
    1. Introduction to Periodic Functions
    2. 6.1 Graphs of the Sine and Cosine Functions
    3. 6.2 Graphs of the Other Trigonometric Functions
    4. 6.3 Inverse Trigonometric Functions
    5. Key Terms
    6. Key Equations
    7. Key Concepts
    8. Review Exercises
    9. Practice Test
  8. 7 Trigonometric Identities and Equations
    1. Introduction to Trigonometric Identities and Equations
    2. 7.1 Solving Trigonometric Equations with Identities
    3. 7.2 Sum and Difference Identities
    4. 7.3 Double-Angle, Half-Angle, and Reduction Formulas
    5. 7.4 Sum-to-Product and Product-to-Sum Formulas
    6. 7.5 Solving Trigonometric Equations
    7. 7.6 Modeling with Trigonometric Equations
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Key Concepts
    11. Review Exercises
    12. Practice Test
  9. 8 Further Applications of Trigonometry
    1. Introduction to Further Applications of Trigonometry
    2. 8.1 Non-right Triangles: Law of Sines
    3. 8.2 Non-right Triangles: Law of Cosines
    4. 8.3 Polar Coordinates
    5. 8.4 Polar Coordinates: Graphs
    6. 8.5 Polar Form of Complex Numbers
    7. 8.6 Parametric Equations
    8. 8.7 Parametric Equations: Graphs
    9. 8.8 Vectors
    10. Key Terms
    11. Key Equations
    12. Key Concepts
    13. Review Exercises
    14. Practice Test
  10. 9 Systems of Equations and Inequalities
    1. Introduction to Systems of Equations and Inequalities
    2. 9.1 Systems of Linear Equations: Two Variables
    3. 9.2 Systems of Linear Equations: Three Variables
    4. 9.3 Systems of Nonlinear Equations and Inequalities: Two Variables
    5. 9.4 Partial Fractions
    6. 9.5 Matrices and Matrix Operations
    7. 9.6 Solving Systems with Gaussian Elimination
    8. 9.7 Solving Systems with Inverses
    9. 9.8 Solving Systems with Cramer's Rule
    10. Key Terms
    11. Key Equations
    12. Key Concepts
    13. Review Exercises
    14. Practice Test
  11. 10 Analytic Geometry
    1. Introduction to Analytic Geometry
    2. 10.1 The Ellipse
    3. 10.2 The Hyperbola
    4. 10.3 The Parabola
    5. 10.4 Rotation of Axes
    6. 10.5 Conic Sections in Polar Coordinates
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Key Concepts
    10. Review Exercises
    11. Practice Test
  12. 11 Sequences, Probability and Counting Theory
    1. Introduction to Sequences, Probability and Counting Theory
    2. 11.1 Sequences and Their Notations
    3. 11.2 Arithmetic Sequences
    4. 11.3 Geometric Sequences
    5. 11.4 Series and Their Notations
    6. 11.5 Counting Principles
    7. 11.6 Binomial Theorem
    8. 11.7 Probability
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Key Concepts
    12. Review Exercises
    13. Practice Test
  13. 12 Introduction to Calculus
    1. Introduction to Calculus
    2. 12.1 Finding Limits: Numerical and Graphical Approaches
    3. 12.2 Finding Limits: Properties of Limits
    4. 12.3 Continuity
    5. 12.4 Derivatives
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Key Concepts
    9. Review Exercises
    10. Practice Test
  14. A | Basic Functions and Identities
  15. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
  16. Index

7.1 Solving Trigonometric Equations with Identities

  • There are multiple ways to represent a trigonometric expression. Verifying the identities illustrates how expressions can be rewritten to simplify a problem.
  • Graphing both sides of an identity will verify it. See Example 1.
  • Simplifying one side of the equation to equal the other side is another method for verifying an identity. See Example 2 and Example 3.
  • The approach to verifying an identity depends on the nature of the identity. It is often useful to begin on the more complex side of the equation. See Example 4.
  • We can create an identity by simplifying an expression and then verifying it. See Example 5.
  • Verifying an identity may involve algebra with the fundamental identities. See Example 6 and Example 7.
  • Algebraic techniques can be used to simplify trigonometric expressions. We use algebraic techniques throughout this text, as they consist of the fundamental rules of mathematics. See Example 8, Example 9, and Example 10.

7.2 Sum and Difference Identities

  • The sum formula for cosines states that the cosine of the sum of two angles equals the product of the cosines of the angles minus the product of the sines of the angles. The difference formula for cosines states that the cosine of the difference of two angles equals the product of the cosines of the angles plus the product of the sines of the angles.
  • The sum and difference formulas can be used to find the exact values of the sine, cosine, or tangent of an angle. See Example 1 and Example 2.
  • The sum formula for sines states that the sine of the sum of two angles equals the product of the sine of the first angle and cosine of the second angle plus the product of the cosine of the first angle and the sine of the second angle. The difference formula for sines states that the sine of the difference of two angles equals the product of the sine of the first angle and cosine of the second angle minus the product of the cosine of the first angle and the sine of the second angle. See Example 3.
  • The sum and difference formulas for sine and cosine can also be used for inverse trigonometric functions. See Example 4.
  • The sum formula for tangent states that the tangent of the sum of two angles equals the sum of the tangents of the angles divided by 1 minus the product of the tangents of the angles. The difference formula for tangent states that the tangent of the difference of two angles equals the difference of the tangents of the angles divided by 1 plus the product of the tangents of the angles. See Example 5.
  • The Pythagorean Theorem along with the sum and difference formulas can be used to find multiple sums and differences of angles. See Example 6.
  • The cofunction identities apply to complementary angles and pairs of reciprocal functions. See Example 7.
  • Sum and difference formulas are useful in verifying identities. See Example 8 and Example 9.
  • Application problems are often easier to solve by using sum and difference formulas. See Example 10 and Example 11.

7.3 Double-Angle, Half-Angle, and Reduction Formulas

  • Double-angle identities are derived from the sum formulas of the fundamental trigonometric functions: sine, cosine, and tangent. See Example 1, Example 2, Example 3, and Example 4.
  • Reduction formulas are especially useful in calculus, as they allow us to reduce the power of the trigonometric term. See Example 5 and Example 6.
  • Half-angle formulas allow us to find the value of trigonometric functions involving half-angles, whether the original angle is known or not. See Example 7, Example 8, and Example 9.

7.4 Sum-to-Product and Product-to-Sum Formulas

  • From the sum and difference identities, we can derive the product-to-sum formulas and the sum-to-product formulas for sine and cosine.
  • We can use the product-to-sum formulas to rewrite products of sines, products of cosines, and products of sine and cosine as sums or differences of sines and cosines. See Example 1, Example 2, and Example 3.
  • We can also derive the sum-to-product identities from the product-to-sum identities using substitution.
  • We can use the sum-to-product formulas to rewrite sum or difference of sines, cosines, or products sine and cosine as products of sines and cosines. See Example 4.
  • Trigonometric expressions are often simpler to evaluate using the formulas. See Example 5.
  • The identities can be verified using other formulas or by converting the expressions to sines and cosines. To verify an identity, we choose the more complicated side of the equals sign and rewrite it until it is transformed into the other side. See Example 6 and Example 7.

7.5 Solving Trigonometric Equations

  • When solving linear trigonometric equations, we can use algebraic techniques just as we do solving algebraic equations. Look for patterns, like the difference of squares, quadratic form, or an expression that lends itself well to substitution. See Example 1, Example 2, and Example 3.
  • Equations involving a single trigonometric function can be solved or verified using the unit circle. See Example 4, Example 5, and Example 6, and Example 7.
  • We can also solve trigonometric equations using a graphing calculator. See Example 8 and Example 9.
  • Many equations appear quadratic in form. We can use substitution to make the equation appear simpler, and then use the same techniques we use solving an algebraic quadratic: factoring, the quadratic formula, etc. See Example 10, Example 11, Example 12, and Example 13.
  • We can also use the identities to solve trigonometric equation. See Example 14, Example 15, and Example 16.
  • We can use substitution to solve a multiple-angle trigonometric equation, which is a compression of a standard trigonometric function. We will need to take the compression into account and verify that we have found all solutions on the given interval. See Example 17.
  • Real-world scenarios can be modeled and solved using the Pythagorean Theorem and trigonometric functions. See Example 18.

7.6 Modeling with Trigonometric Equations

  • Sinusoidal functions are represented by the sine and cosine graphs. In standard form, we can find the amplitude, period, and horizontal and vertical shifts. See Example 1 and Example 2.
  • Use key points to graph a sinusoidal function. The five key points include the minimum and maximum values and the midline values. See Example 3.
  • Periodic functions can model events that reoccur in set cycles, like the phases of the moon, the hands on a clock, and the seasons in a year. See Example 4, Example 5, Example 6 and Example 7.
  • Harmonic motion functions are modeled from given data. Similar to periodic motion applications, harmonic motion requires a restoring force. Examples include gravitational force and spring motion activated by weight. See Example 8.
  • Damped harmonic motion is a form of periodic behavior affected by a damping factor. Energy dissipating factors, like friction, cause the displacement of the object to shrink. See Example 9, Example 10, Example 11, Example 12, and Example 13.
  • Bounding curves delineate the graph of harmonic motion with variable maximum and minimum values. See Example 14.
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