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Precalculus

Key Terms

PrecalculusKey Terms
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Functions
    1. Introduction to Functions
    2. 1.1 Functions and Function Notation
    3. 1.2 Domain and Range
    4. 1.3 Rates of Change and Behavior of Graphs
    5. 1.4 Composition of Functions
    6. 1.5 Transformation of Functions
    7. 1.6 Absolute Value Functions
    8. 1.7 Inverse Functions
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Key Concepts
    12. Review Exercises
    13. Practice Test
  3. 2 Linear Functions
    1. Introduction to Linear Functions
    2. 2.1 Linear Functions
    3. 2.2 Graphs of Linear Functions
    4. 2.3 Modeling with Linear Functions
    5. 2.4 Fitting Linear Models to Data
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Key Concepts
    9. Review Exercises
    10. Practice Test
  4. 3 Polynomial and Rational Functions
    1. Introduction to Polynomial and Rational Functions
    2. 3.1 Complex Numbers
    3. 3.2 Quadratic Functions
    4. 3.3 Power Functions and Polynomial Functions
    5. 3.4 Graphs of Polynomial Functions
    6. 3.5 Dividing Polynomials
    7. 3.6 Zeros of Polynomial Functions
    8. 3.7 Rational Functions
    9. 3.8 Inverses and Radical Functions
    10. 3.9 Modeling Using Variation
    11. Key Terms
    12. Key Equations
    13. Key Concepts
    14. Review Exercises
    15. Practice Test
  5. 4 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    1. Introduction to Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    2. 4.1 Exponential Functions
    3. 4.2 Graphs of Exponential Functions
    4. 4.3 Logarithmic Functions
    5. 4.4 Graphs of Logarithmic Functions
    6. 4.5 Logarithmic Properties
    7. 4.6 Exponential and Logarithmic Equations
    8. 4.7 Exponential and Logarithmic Models
    9. 4.8 Fitting Exponential Models to Data
    10. Key Terms
    11. Key Equations
    12. Key Concepts
    13. Review Exercises
    14. Practice Test
  6. 5 Trigonometric Functions
    1. Introduction to Trigonometric Functions
    2. 5.1 Angles
    3. 5.2 Unit Circle: Sine and Cosine Functions
    4. 5.3 The Other Trigonometric Functions
    5. 5.4 Right Triangle Trigonometry
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Key Concepts
    9. Review Exercises
    10. Practice Test
  7. 6 Periodic Functions
    1. Introduction to Periodic Functions
    2. 6.1 Graphs of the Sine and Cosine Functions
    3. 6.2 Graphs of the Other Trigonometric Functions
    4. 6.3 Inverse Trigonometric Functions
    5. Key Terms
    6. Key Equations
    7. Key Concepts
    8. Review Exercises
    9. Practice Test
  8. 7 Trigonometric Identities and Equations
    1. Introduction to Trigonometric Identities and Equations
    2. 7.1 Solving Trigonometric Equations with Identities
    3. 7.2 Sum and Difference Identities
    4. 7.3 Double-Angle, Half-Angle, and Reduction Formulas
    5. 7.4 Sum-to-Product and Product-to-Sum Formulas
    6. 7.5 Solving Trigonometric Equations
    7. 7.6 Modeling with Trigonometric Equations
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Key Concepts
    11. Review Exercises
    12. Practice Test
  9. 8 Further Applications of Trigonometry
    1. Introduction to Further Applications of Trigonometry
    2. 8.1 Non-right Triangles: Law of Sines
    3. 8.2 Non-right Triangles: Law of Cosines
    4. 8.3 Polar Coordinates
    5. 8.4 Polar Coordinates: Graphs
    6. 8.5 Polar Form of Complex Numbers
    7. 8.6 Parametric Equations
    8. 8.7 Parametric Equations: Graphs
    9. 8.8 Vectors
    10. Key Terms
    11. Key Equations
    12. Key Concepts
    13. Review Exercises
    14. Practice Test
  10. 9 Systems of Equations and Inequalities
    1. Introduction to Systems of Equations and Inequalities
    2. 9.1 Systems of Linear Equations: Two Variables
    3. 9.2 Systems of Linear Equations: Three Variables
    4. 9.3 Systems of Nonlinear Equations and Inequalities: Two Variables
    5. 9.4 Partial Fractions
    6. 9.5 Matrices and Matrix Operations
    7. 9.6 Solving Systems with Gaussian Elimination
    8. 9.7 Solving Systems with Inverses
    9. 9.8 Solving Systems with Cramer's Rule
    10. Key Terms
    11. Key Equations
    12. Key Concepts
    13. Review Exercises
    14. Practice Test
  11. 10 Analytic Geometry
    1. Introduction to Analytic Geometry
    2. 10.1 The Ellipse
    3. 10.2 The Hyperbola
    4. 10.3 The Parabola
    5. 10.4 Rotation of Axes
    6. 10.5 Conic Sections in Polar Coordinates
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Key Concepts
    10. Review Exercises
    11. Practice Test
  12. 11 Sequences, Probability and Counting Theory
    1. Introduction to Sequences, Probability and Counting Theory
    2. 11.1 Sequences and Their Notations
    3. 11.2 Arithmetic Sequences
    4. 11.3 Geometric Sequences
    5. 11.4 Series and Their Notations
    6. 11.5 Counting Principles
    7. 11.6 Binomial Theorem
    8. 11.7 Probability
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Key Concepts
    12. Review Exercises
    13. Practice Test
  13. 12 Introduction to Calculus
    1. Introduction to Calculus
    2. 12.1 Finding Limits: Numerical and Graphical Approaches
    3. 12.2 Finding Limits: Properties of Limits
    4. 12.3 Continuity
    5. 12.4 Derivatives
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Key Concepts
    9. Review Exercises
    10. Practice Test
  14. A | Basic Functions and Identities
  15. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
  16. Index
adjacent side
in a right triangle, the side between a given angle and the right angle
angle
the union of two rays having a common endpoint
angle of depression
the angle between the horizontal and the line from the object to the observer’s eye, assuming the object is positioned lower than the observer
angle of elevation
the angle between the horizontal and the line from the object to the observer’s eye, assuming the object is positioned higher than the observer
angular speed
the angle through which a rotating object travels in a unit of time
arc length
the length of the curve formed by an arc
area of a sector
area of a portion of a circle bordered by two radii and the intercepted arc; the fraction θ 2π θ 2π multiplied by the area of the entire circle
cosecant
the reciprocal of the sine function: on the unit circle, csct= 1 y ,y0 csct= 1 y ,y0
cosine function
the x-value of the point on a unit circle corresponding to a given angle
cotangent
the reciprocal of the tangent function: on the unit circle, cott= x y ,y0 cott= x y ,y0
coterminal angles
description of positive and negative angles in standard position sharing the same terminal side
degree
a unit of measure describing the size of an angle as one-360th of a full revolution of a circle
hypotenuse
the side of a right triangle opposite the right angle
identities
statements that are true for all values of the input on which they are defined
initial side
the side of an angle from which rotation begins
linear speed
the distance along a straight path a rotating object travels in a unit of time; determined by the arc length
measure of an angle
the amount of rotation from the initial side to the terminal side
negative angle
description of an angle measured clockwise from the positive x-axis
opposite side
in a right triangle, the side most distant from a given angle
period
the smallest interval P P of a repeating function f fsuch that f(x+P)=f(x) f(x+P)=f(x)
positive angle
description of an angle measured counterclockwise from the positive x-axis
Pythagorean Identity
a corollary of the Pythagorean Theorem stating that the square of the cosine of a given angle plus the square of the sine of that angle equals 1
quadrantal angle
an angle whose terminal side lies on an axis
radian
the measure of a central angle of a circle that intercepts an arc equal in length to the radius of that circle
radian measure
the ratio of the arc length formed by an angle divided by the radius of the circle
ray
one point on a line and all points extending in one direction from that point; one side of an angle
reference angle
the measure of the acute angle formed by the terminal side of the angle and the horizontal axis
secant
the reciprocal of the cosine function: on the unit circle, sect= 1 x ,x0 sect= 1 x ,x0
sine function
the y-value of the point on a unit circle corresponding to a given angle
standard position
the position of an angle having the vertex at the origin and the initial side along the positive x-axis
tangent
the quotient of the sine and cosine: on the unit circle, tant= y x ,x0 tant= y x ,x0
terminal side
the side of an angle at which rotation ends
unit circle
a circle with a center at (0,0) (0,0) and radius 1.
vertex
the common endpoint of two rays that form an angle
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