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Precalculus

5.4 Right Triangle Trigonometry

Precalculus5.4 Right Triangle Trigonometry
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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Functions
    1. Introduction to Functions
    2. 1.1 Functions and Function Notation
    3. 1.2 Domain and Range
    4. 1.3 Rates of Change and Behavior of Graphs
    5. 1.4 Composition of Functions
    6. 1.5 Transformation of Functions
    7. 1.6 Absolute Value Functions
    8. 1.7 Inverse Functions
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Key Concepts
    12. Review Exercises
    13. Practice Test
  3. 2 Linear Functions
    1. Introduction to Linear Functions
    2. 2.1 Linear Functions
    3. 2.2 Graphs of Linear Functions
    4. 2.3 Modeling with Linear Functions
    5. 2.4 Fitting Linear Models to Data
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Key Concepts
    9. Review Exercises
    10. Practice Test
  4. 3 Polynomial and Rational Functions
    1. Introduction to Polynomial and Rational Functions
    2. 3.1 Complex Numbers
    3. 3.2 Quadratic Functions
    4. 3.3 Power Functions and Polynomial Functions
    5. 3.4 Graphs of Polynomial Functions
    6. 3.5 Dividing Polynomials
    7. 3.6 Zeros of Polynomial Functions
    8. 3.7 Rational Functions
    9. 3.8 Inverses and Radical Functions
    10. 3.9 Modeling Using Variation
    11. Key Terms
    12. Key Equations
    13. Key Concepts
    14. Review Exercises
    15. Practice Test
  5. 4 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    1. Introduction to Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    2. 4.1 Exponential Functions
    3. 4.2 Graphs of Exponential Functions
    4. 4.3 Logarithmic Functions
    5. 4.4 Graphs of Logarithmic Functions
    6. 4.5 Logarithmic Properties
    7. 4.6 Exponential and Logarithmic Equations
    8. 4.7 Exponential and Logarithmic Models
    9. 4.8 Fitting Exponential Models to Data
    10. Key Terms
    11. Key Equations
    12. Key Concepts
    13. Review Exercises
    14. Practice Test
  6. 5 Trigonometric Functions
    1. Introduction to Trigonometric Functions
    2. 5.1 Angles
    3. 5.2 Unit Circle: Sine and Cosine Functions
    4. 5.3 The Other Trigonometric Functions
    5. 5.4 Right Triangle Trigonometry
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Key Concepts
    9. Review Exercises
    10. Practice Test
  7. 6 Periodic Functions
    1. Introduction to Periodic Functions
    2. 6.1 Graphs of the Sine and Cosine Functions
    3. 6.2 Graphs of the Other Trigonometric Functions
    4. 6.3 Inverse Trigonometric Functions
    5. Key Terms
    6. Key Equations
    7. Key Concepts
    8. Review Exercises
    9. Practice Test
  8. 7 Trigonometric Identities and Equations
    1. Introduction to Trigonometric Identities and Equations
    2. 7.1 Solving Trigonometric Equations with Identities
    3. 7.2 Sum and Difference Identities
    4. 7.3 Double-Angle, Half-Angle, and Reduction Formulas
    5. 7.4 Sum-to-Product and Product-to-Sum Formulas
    6. 7.5 Solving Trigonometric Equations
    7. 7.6 Modeling with Trigonometric Equations
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Key Concepts
    11. Review Exercises
    12. Practice Test
  9. 8 Further Applications of Trigonometry
    1. Introduction to Further Applications of Trigonometry
    2. 8.1 Non-right Triangles: Law of Sines
    3. 8.2 Non-right Triangles: Law of Cosines
    4. 8.3 Polar Coordinates
    5. 8.4 Polar Coordinates: Graphs
    6. 8.5 Polar Form of Complex Numbers
    7. 8.6 Parametric Equations
    8. 8.7 Parametric Equations: Graphs
    9. 8.8 Vectors
    10. Key Terms
    11. Key Equations
    12. Key Concepts
    13. Review Exercises
    14. Practice Test
  10. 9 Systems of Equations and Inequalities
    1. Introduction to Systems of Equations and Inequalities
    2. 9.1 Systems of Linear Equations: Two Variables
    3. 9.2 Systems of Linear Equations: Three Variables
    4. 9.3 Systems of Nonlinear Equations and Inequalities: Two Variables
    5. 9.4 Partial Fractions
    6. 9.5 Matrices and Matrix Operations
    7. 9.6 Solving Systems with Gaussian Elimination
    8. 9.7 Solving Systems with Inverses
    9. 9.8 Solving Systems with Cramer's Rule
    10. Key Terms
    11. Key Equations
    12. Key Concepts
    13. Review Exercises
    14. Practice Test
  11. 10 Analytic Geometry
    1. Introduction to Analytic Geometry
    2. 10.1 The Ellipse
    3. 10.2 The Hyperbola
    4. 10.3 The Parabola
    5. 10.4 Rotation of Axes
    6. 10.5 Conic Sections in Polar Coordinates
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Key Concepts
    10. Review Exercises
    11. Practice Test
  12. 11 Sequences, Probability and Counting Theory
    1. Introduction to Sequences, Probability and Counting Theory
    2. 11.1 Sequences and Their Notations
    3. 11.2 Arithmetic Sequences
    4. 11.3 Geometric Sequences
    5. 11.4 Series and Their Notations
    6. 11.5 Counting Principles
    7. 11.6 Binomial Theorem
    8. 11.7 Probability
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Key Concepts
    12. Review Exercises
    13. Practice Test
  13. 12 Introduction to Calculus
    1. Introduction to Calculus
    2. 12.1 Finding Limits: Numerical and Graphical Approaches
    3. 12.2 Finding Limits: Properties of Limits
    4. 12.3 Continuity
    5. 12.4 Derivatives
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Key Concepts
    9. Review Exercises
    10. Practice Test
  14. A | Basic Functions and Identities
  15. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
  16. Index

Learning Objectives

In this section, you will:
  • Use right triangles to evaluate trigonometric functions.
  • Find function values for 30°( π 6 ), 30°( π 6 ), 45°( π 4 ), 45°( π 4 ), and 60°( π 3 ). 60°( π 3 ).
  • Use cofunctions of complementary angles.
  • Use the definitions of trigonometric functions of any angle.
  • Use right triangle trigonometry to solve applied problems.

We have previously defined the sine and cosine of an angle in terms of the coordinates of a point on the unit circle intersected by the terminal side of the angle:

cos t=x sin t=y cos t=x sin t=y

In this section, we will see another way to define trigonometric functions using properties of right triangles.

Using Right Triangles to Evaluate Trigonometric Functions

In earlier sections, we used a unit circle to define the trigonometric functions. In this section, we will extend those definitions so that we can apply them to right triangles. The value of the sine or cosine function of t t is its value at t t radians. First, we need to create our right triangle. Figure 1 shows a point on a unit circle of radius 1. If we drop a vertical line segment from the point (x,y) (x,y) to the x-axis, we have a right triangle whose vertical side has length y y and whose horizontal side has length x. x. We can use this right triangle to redefine sine, cosine, and the other trigonometric functions as ratios of the sides of a right triangle.

Graph of quarter circle with radius of 1 and angle of t. Point of (x,y) is at intersection of terminal side of angle and edge of circle.
Figure 1

We know

cos t= x 1 =x cos t= x 1 =x

Likewise, we know

sin t= y 1 =y sin t= y 1 =y

These ratios still apply to the sides of a right triangle when no unit circle is involved and when the triangle is not in standard position and is not being graphed using (x,y) (x,y) coordinates. To be able to use these ratios freely, we will give the sides more general names: Instead of x, x, we will call the side between the given angle and the right angle the adjacent side to angle t. t. (Adjacent means “next to.”) Instead of y, y, we will call the side most distant from the given angle the opposite side from angle t. t. And instead of 1, 1, we will call the side of a right triangle opposite the right angle the hypotenuse. These sides are labeled in Figure 2.

A right triangle with hypotenuse, opposite, and adjacent sides labeled.
Figure 2 The sides of a right triangle in relation to angle t. t.

Understanding Right Triangle Relationships

Given a right triangle with an acute angle of t, t,

sin(t)= opposite hypotenuse cos(t)= adjacent hypotenuse tan(t)= opposite adjacent sin(t)= opposite hypotenuse cos(t)= adjacent hypotenuse tan(t)= opposite adjacent

A common mnemonic for remembering these relationships is SohCahToa, formed from the first letters of “Sine is opposite over hypotenuse, Cosine is adjacent over hypotenuse, Tangent is opposite over adjacent.”

How To

Given the side lengths of a right triangle and one of the acute angles, find the sine, cosine, and tangent of that angle.

  1. Find the sine as the ratio of the opposite side to the hypotenuse.
  2. Find the cosine as the ratio of the adjacent side to the hypotenuse.
  3. Find the tangent as the ratio of the opposite side to the adjacent side.

Example 1

Evaluating a Trigonometric Function of a Right Triangle

Given the triangle shown in Figure 3, find the value of cosα. cosα.

A right triangle with sid lengths of 8, 15, and 17. Angle alpha also labeled.
Figure 3

Try It #1

Given the triangle shown in Figure 4, find the value of sint. sint.

A right triangle with sides of 7, 24, and 25. Also labeled is angle t.
Figure 4

Relating Angles and Their Functions

When working with right triangles, the same rules apply regardless of the orientation of the triangle. In fact, we can evaluate the six trigonometric functions of either of the two acute angles in the triangle in Figure 5. The side opposite one acute angle is the side adjacent to the other acute angle, and vice versa.

Right triangle with angles alpha and beta. Sides are labeled hypotenuse, adjacent to alpha/opposite to beta, and adjacent to beta/opposite alpha.
Figure 5 The side adjacent to one angle is opposite the other.

We will be asked to find all six trigonometric functions for a given angle in a triangle. Our strategy is to find the sine, cosine, and tangent of the angles first. Then, we can find the other trigonometric functions easily because we know that the reciprocal of sine is cosecant, the reciprocal of cosine is secant, and the reciprocal of tangent is cotangent.

How To

Given the side lengths of a right triangle, evaluate the six trigonometric functions of one of the acute angles.

  1. If needed, draw the right triangle and label the angle provided.
  2. Identify the angle, the adjacent side, the side opposite the angle, and the hypotenuse of the right triangle.
  3. Find the required function:
    • sine as the ratio of the opposite side to the hypotenuse
    • cosine as the ratio of the adjacent side to the hypotenuse
    • tangent as the ratio of the opposite side to the adjacent side
    • secant as the ratio of the hypotenuse to the adjacent side
    • cosecant as the ratio of the hypotenuse to the opposite side
    • cotangent as the ratio of the adjacent side to the opposite side

Example 2

Evaluating Trigonometric Functions of Angles Not in Standard Position

Using the triangle shown in Figure 6, evaluate sinα, sinα, cosα, cosα, tanα, tanα, secα, secα, cscα, cscα, and cotα. cotα.

Right triangle with sides of 3, 4, and 5. Angle alpha is also labeled.
Figure 6

Try It #2

Using the triangle shown in Figure 7, evaluate sin t, sin t, cos t, cos t, tan t, tan t, sec t, sec t, csc t, csc t, and cot t. cot t.

Right triangle with sides 33, 56, and 65. Angle t is also labeled.
Figure 7

Finding Trigonometric Functions of Special Angles Using Side Lengths

We have already discussed the trigonometric functions as they relate to the special angles on the unit circle. Now, we can use those relationships to evaluate triangles that contain those special angles. We do this because when we evaluate the special angles in trigonometric functions, they have relatively friendly values, values that contain either no or just one square root in the ratio. Therefore, these are the angles often used in math and science problems. We will use multiples of 30°, 30°, 60°, 60°, and 45°, 45°, however, remember that when dealing with right triangles, we are limited to angles between  and 90°.  and 90°.

Suppose we have a 30°,60°,9 30°,60°,9 triangle, which can also be described as a π 6 ,  π 3 , π 2 π 6 ,  π 3 , π 2 triangle. The sides have lengths in the relation s, 3 s,2s. s, 3 s,2s. The sides of a 45°,45°,90° 45°,45°,90° triangle, which can also be described as a π 4 , π 4 , π 2 π 4 , π 4 , π 2 triangle, have lengths in the relation s,s, 2 s. s,s, 2 s. These relations are shown in Figure 8.

Two side by side graphs of circles with inscribed angles. First circle has angle of pi/3 inscribed. Second circle has angle of pi/4 inscribed.
Figure 8 Side lengths of special triangles

We can then use the ratios of the side lengths to evaluate trigonometric functions of special angles.

How To

Given trigonometric functions of a special angle, evaluate using side lengths.

  1. Use the side lengths shown in Figure 8 for the special angle you wish to evaluate.
  2. Use the ratio of side lengths appropriate to the function you wish to evaluate.

Example 3

Evaluating Trigonometric Functions of Special Angles Using Side Lengths

Find the exact value of the trigonometric functions of π 3 , π 3 , using side lengths.

Try It #3

Find the exact value of the trigonometric functions of π 4 , π 4 , using side lengths.

Using Equal Cofunction of Complements

If we look more closely at the relationship between the sine and cosine of the special angles relative to the unit circle, we will notice a pattern. In a right triangle with angles of π 6 π 6 and π 3 , π 3 , we see that the sine of π 3 , π 3 , namely 3 2 , 3 2 , is also the cosine of π 6 , π 6 , while the sine of π 6 , π 6 , namely 1 2 , 1 2 , is also the cosine of π 3 . π 3 .

sin π 3 =cos π 6 = 3 s 2s = 3 2 sin π 6 =cos π 3 = s 2s = 1 2 sin π 3 =cos π 6 = 3 s 2s = 3 2 sin π 6 =cos π 3 = s 2s = 1 2

See Figure 9

A graph of circle with angle pi/3 inscribed.
Figure 9 The sine of π 3 π 3 equals the cosine of π 6 π 6 and vice versa.

This result should not be surprising because, as we see from Figure 9, the side opposite the angle of π 3 π 3 is also the side adjacent to π 6 , π 6 , so sin( π 3 ) sin( π 3 ) and cos( π 6 ) cos( π 6 ) are exactly the same ratio of the same two sides, 3 s 3 s and 2s. 2s. Similarly, cos( π 3 ) cos( π 3 ) and sin( π 6 ) sin( π 6 ) are also the same ratio using the same two sides, s s and 2s. 2s.

The interrelationship between the sines and cosines of π 6 π 6 and π 3 π 3 also holds for the two acute angles in any right triangle, since in every case, the ratio of the same two sides would constitute the sine of one angle and the cosine of the other. Since the three angles of a triangle add to π, π, and the right angle is π 2 , π 2 , the remaining two angles must also add up to π 2 . π 2 . That means that a right triangle can be formed with any two angles that add to π 2 π 2 —in other words, any two complementary angles. So we may state a cofunction identity: If any two angles are complementary, the sine of one is the cosine of the other, and vice versa. This identity is illustrated in Figure 10.

Right triangle with angles alpha and beta. Equivalence between sin alpha and cos beta. Equivalence between sin beta and cos alpha.
Figure 10 Cofunction identity of sine and cosine of complementary angles

Using this identity, we can state without calculating, for instance, that the sine of π 12 π 12 equals the cosine of 5π 12 , 5π 12 , and that the sine of 5π 12 5π 12 equals the cosine of π 12 . π 12 . We can also state that if, for a certain angle t, t, cos t= 5 13 , cos t= 5 13 , then sin( π 2 t )= 5 13 sin( π 2 t )= 5 13 as well.

Cofunction Identities

The cofunction identities in radians are listed in Table 1.

cost=sin( π 2 t ) cost=sin( π 2 t ) sint=cos( π 2 t ) sint=cos( π 2 t )
tant=cot( π 2 t ) tant=cot( π 2 t ) cott=tan( π 2 t ) cott=tan( π 2 t )
sect=csc( π 2 t ) sect=csc( π 2 t ) csct=sec( π 2 t ) csct=sec( π 2 t )
Table 1

How To

Given the sine and cosine of an angle, find the sine or cosine of its complement.

  1. To find the sine of the complementary angle, find the cosine of the original angle.
  2. To find the cosine of the complementary angle, find the sine of the original angle.

Example 4

Using Cofunction Identities

If sint= 5 12 , sint= 5 12 , find ( cos π 2 t ). ( cos π 2 t ).

Try It #4

If csc( π 6 )=2, csc( π 6 )=2, find sec( π 3 ). sec( π 3 ).

Using Trigonometric Functions

In previous examples, we evaluated the sine and cosine in triangles where we knew all three sides. But the real power of right-triangle trigonometry emerges when we look at triangles in which we know an angle but do not know all the sides.

How To

Given a right triangle, the length of one side, and the measure of one acute angle, find the remaining sides.

  1. For each side, select the trigonometric function that has the unknown side as either the numerator or the denominator. The known side will in turn be the denominator or the numerator.
  2. Write an equation setting the function value of the known angle equal to the ratio of the corresponding sides.
  3. Using the value of the trigonometric function and the known side length, solve for the missing side length.

Example 5

Finding Missing Side Lengths Using Trigonometric Ratios

Find the unknown sides of the triangle in Figure 11.

A right triangle with sides a, c, and 7. Angle of 30 degrees is also labeled.
Figure 11

Try It #5

A right triangle has one angle of π 3 π 3 and a hypotenuse of 20. Find the unknown sides and angle of the triangle.

Using Right Triangle Trigonometry to Solve Applied Problems

Right-triangle trigonometry has many practical applications. For example, the ability to compute the lengths of sides of a triangle makes it possible to find the height of a tall object without climbing to the top or having to extend a tape measure along its height. We do so by measuring a distance from the base of the object to a point on the ground some distance away, where we can look up to the top of the tall object at an angle. The angle of elevation of an object above an observer relative to the observer is the angle between the horizontal and the line from the object to the observer's eye. The right triangle this position creates has sides that represent the unknown height, the measured distance from the base, and the angled line of sight from the ground to the top of the object. Knowing the measured distance to the base of the object and the angle of the line of sight, we can use trigonometric functions to calculate the unknown height. Similarly, we can form a triangle from the top of a tall object by looking downward. The angle of depression of an object below an observer relative to the observer is the angle between the horizontal and the line from the object to the observer's eye. See Figure 12.

Diagram of a radio tower with line segments extending from the top and base of the tower to a point on the ground some distance away. The two lines and the tower form a right triangle. The angle near the top of the tower is the angle of depression. The angle on the ground at a distance from the tower is the angle of elevation.
Figure 12

How To

Given a tall object, measure its height indirectly.

  1. Make a sketch of the problem situation to keep track of known and unknown information.
  2. Lay out a measured distance from the base of the object to a point where the top of the object is clearly visible.
  3. At the other end of the measured distance, look up to the top of the object. Measure the angle the line of sight makes with the horizontal.
  4. Write an equation relating the unknown height, the measured distance, and the tangent of the angle of the line of sight.
  5. Solve the equation for the unknown height.

Example 6

Measuring a Distance Indirectly

To find the height of a tree, a person walks to a point 30 feet from the base of the tree. She measures an angle of 57° 57° between a line of sight to the top of the tree and the ground, as shown in Figure 13. Find the height of the tree.

A tree with angle of 57 degrees from vantage point. Vantage point is 30 feet from tree.
Figure 13

Try It #6

How long a ladder is needed to reach a windowsill 50 feet above the ground if the ladder rests against the building making an angle of 5π 12 5π 12 with the ground? Round to the nearest foot.

Visit this website for additional practice questions from Learningpod.

5.4 Section Exercises

Verbal

1.

For the given right triangle, label the adjacent side, opposite side, and hypotenuse for the indicated angle.

A right triangle.
2.

When a right triangle with a hypotenuse of 1 is placed in the unit circle, which sides of the triangle correspond to the x- and y-coordinates?

3.

The tangent of an angle compares which sides of the right triangle?

4.

What is the relationship between the two acute angles in a right triangle?

5.

Explain the cofunction identity.

Algebraic

For the following exercises, use cofunctions of complementary angles.

6.

cos(34°)=sin(__°) cos(34°)=sin(__°)

7.

cos( π 3 )=sin(___) cos( π 3 )=sin(___)

8.

csc(21°)=sec(___°) csc(21°)=sec(___°)

9.

tan( π 4 )=cot(__) tan( π 4 )=cot(__)

For the following exercises, find the lengths of the missing sides if side a a is opposite angle A, A, side b b is opposite angle B, B, and side c c is the hypotenuse.

10.

cosB= 4 5 ,a=10 cosB= 4 5 ,a=10

11.

sinB= 1 2 , a=20 sinB= 1 2 , a=20

12.

tanA= 5 12 ,b=6 tanA= 5 12 ,b=6

13.

tanA=100,b=100 tanA=100,b=100

14.

sinB= 1 3 , a=2 sinB= 1 3 , a=2

15.

a=5,A= 60 a=5,A= 60

16.

c=12,A= 45 c=12,A= 45

Graphical

For the following exercises, use Figure 14 to evaluate each trigonometric function of angle A. A.

A right triangle with sides 4 and 10 and angle of A labeled.
Figure 14
17.

sinA sinA

18.

cosA cosA

19.

tanA tanA

20.

cscA cscA

21.

secA secA

22.

cotA cotA

For the following exercises, use Figure 15 to evaluate each trigonometric function of angle A. A.

A right triangle with sides of 10 and 8 and angle of A labeled.
Figure 15
23.

sinA sinA

24.

cosA cosA

25.

tanA tanA

26.

cscA cscA

27.

secA secA

28.

cotA cotA

For the following exercises, solve for the unknown sides of the given triangle.

29.
A right triangle with sides of 7, b, and c labeled. Angles of B and 30 degrees also labeled.
30.
A right triangle with sides of 10, a, and c. Angles of 60 degrees and A also labeled.
31.
A right triangle with corners labeled A, B, and C. Hypotenuse has length of 15 times square root of 2. Angle B is 45 degrees.

Technology

For the following exercises, use a calculator to find the length of each side to four decimal places.

32.
A right triangle with sides of 10, a, and c. Angles of A and 62 degrees are also labeled.
33.
A right triangle with sides of 7, b, and c. Angles of 35 degrees and B are also labeled.
34.
A right triangle with sides of a, b, and 10 labeled. Angles of 65 degrees and B are also labeled.
35.
A right triangle with sides a, b, and 12. Angles of 10 degrees and B are also labeled.
36.
A right triangle with corners labeled A, B, and C. Sides labeled b, c, and 16.5. Angle of 81 degrees also labeled.
37.

b=15,B= 15 b=15,B= 15

38.

c=200,B= 5 c=200,B= 5

39.

c=50,B= 21 c=50,B= 21

40.

a=30,A= 27 a=30,A= 27

41.

b=3.5,A= 78 b=3.5,A= 78

Extensions

42.

Find x. x.

A triangle with angles of 63 degrees and 39 degrees and side x. Bisector in triangle with length of 82.
43.

Find x. x.

A triangle with angles of 36 degrees and 50 degrees and side x. Bisector in triangle with length of 85.
44.

Find x. x.

A right triangle with side of 115 and angle of 35 degrees. Within right triangle there is another right triangle with angle of 56 degrees. Side length difference between two triangles is x.
45.

Find x. x.

A right triangle with side of 119 and angle of 26 degrees. Within right triangle there is another right triangle with angle of 70 degrees instead of 26 degrees. Difference in side length between two triangles is x.
46.

A radio tower is located 400 feet from a building. From a window in the building, a person determines that the angle of elevation to the top of the tower is 36°, 36°, and that the angle of depression to the bottom of the tower is 23°. 23°. How tall is the tower?

47.

A radio tower is located 325 feet from a building. From a window in the building, a person determines that the angle of elevation to the top of the tower is 43°, 43°, and that the angle of depression to the bottom of the tower is 31°. 31°. How tall is the tower?

48.

A 200-foot tall monument is located in the distance. From a window in a building, a person determines that the angle of elevation to the top of the monument is 15°, 15°, and that the angle of depression to the bottom of the tower is . . How far is the person from the monument?

49.

A 400-foot tall monument is located in the distance. From a window in a building, a person determines that the angle of elevation to the top of the monument is 18°, 18°, and that the angle of depression to the bottom of the monument is . . How far is the person from the monument?

50.

There is an antenna on the top of a building. From a location 300 feet from the base of the building, the angle of elevation to the top of the building is measured to be 40°. 40°. From the same location, the angle of elevation to the top of the antenna is measured to be 43°. 43°. Find the height of the antenna.

51.

There is lightning rod on the top of a building. From a location 500 feet from the base of the building, the angle of elevation to the top of the building is measured to be 36°. 36°. From the same location, the angle of elevation to the top of the lightning rod is measured to be 38°. 38°. Find the height of the lightning rod.

Real-World Applications

52.

A 33-ft ladder leans against a building so that the angle between the ground and the ladder is 80°. 80°. How high does the ladder reach up the side of the building?  

53.

A 23-ft ladder leans against a building so that the angle between the ground and the ladder is 80°. 80°. How high does the ladder reach up the side of the building?

54.

The angle of elevation to the top of a building in New York is found to be 9 degrees from the ground at a distance of 1 mile from the base of the building. Using this information, find the height of the building.

55.

The angle of elevation to the top of a building in Seattle is found to be 2 degrees from the ground at a distance of 2 miles from the base of the building. Using this information, find the height of the building.

56.

Assuming that a 370-foot tall giant redwood grows vertically, if I walk a certain distance from the tree and measure the angle of elevation to the top of the tree to be 60°, 60°, how far from the base of the tree am I?

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