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Prealgebra 2e

4.1 Visualize Fractions

Prealgebra 2e4.1 Visualize Fractions
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Whole Numbers
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Introduction to Whole Numbers
    3. 1.2 Add Whole Numbers
    4. 1.3 Subtract Whole Numbers
    5. 1.4 Multiply Whole Numbers
    6. 1.5 Divide Whole Numbers
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Concepts
    9. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  3. 2 The Language of Algebra
    1. Introduction to the Language of Algebra
    2. 2.1 Use the Language of Algebra
    3. 2.2 Evaluate, Simplify, and Translate Expressions
    4. 2.3 Solving Equations Using the Subtraction and Addition Properties of Equality
    5. 2.4 Find Multiples and Factors
    6. 2.5 Prime Factorization and the Least Common Multiple
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Concepts
    9. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  4. 3 Integers
    1. Introduction to Integers
    2. 3.1 Introduction to Integers
    3. 3.2 Add Integers
    4. 3.3 Subtract Integers
    5. 3.4 Multiply and Divide Integers
    6. 3.5 Solve Equations Using Integers; The Division Property of Equality
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Concepts
    9. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  5. 4 Fractions
    1. Introduction to Fractions
    2. 4.1 Visualize Fractions
    3. 4.2 Multiply and Divide Fractions
    4. 4.3 Multiply and Divide Mixed Numbers and Complex Fractions
    5. 4.4 Add and Subtract Fractions with Common Denominators
    6. 4.5 Add and Subtract Fractions with Different Denominators
    7. 4.6 Add and Subtract Mixed Numbers
    8. 4.7 Solve Equations with Fractions
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Concepts
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  6. 5 Decimals
    1. Introduction to Decimals
    2. 5.1 Decimals
    3. 5.2 Decimal Operations
    4. 5.3 Decimals and Fractions
    5. 5.4 Solve Equations with Decimals
    6. 5.5 Averages and Probability
    7. 5.6 Ratios and Rate
    8. 5.7 Simplify and Use Square Roots
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Concepts
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  7. 6 Percents
    1. Introduction to Percents
    2. 6.1 Understand Percent
    3. 6.2 Solve General Applications of Percent
    4. 6.3 Solve Sales Tax, Commission, and Discount Applications
    5. 6.4 Solve Simple Interest Applications
    6. 6.5 Solve Proportions and their Applications
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Concepts
    9. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  8. 7 The Properties of Real Numbers
    1. Introduction to the Properties of Real Numbers
    2. 7.1 Rational and Irrational Numbers
    3. 7.2 Commutative and Associative Properties
    4. 7.3 Distributive Property
    5. 7.4 Properties of Identity, Inverses, and Zero
    6. 7.5 Systems of Measurement
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Concepts
    9. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  9. 8 Solving Linear Equations
    1. Introduction to Solving Linear Equations
    2. 8.1 Solve Equations Using the Subtraction and Addition Properties of Equality
    3. 8.2 Solve Equations Using the Division and Multiplication Properties of Equality
    4. 8.3 Solve Equations with Variables and Constants on Both Sides
    5. 8.4 Solve Equations with Fraction or Decimal Coefficients
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Concepts
    8. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  10. 9 Math Models and Geometry
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Use a Problem Solving Strategy
    3. 9.2 Solve Money Applications
    4. 9.3 Use Properties of Angles, Triangles, and the Pythagorean Theorem
    5. 9.4 Use Properties of Rectangles, Triangles, and Trapezoids
    6. 9.5 Solve Geometry Applications: Circles and Irregular Figures
    7. 9.6 Solve Geometry Applications: Volume and Surface Area
    8. 9.7 Solve a Formula for a Specific Variable
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Concepts
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  11. 10 Polynomials
    1. Introduction to Polynomials
    2. 10.1 Add and Subtract Polynomials
    3. 10.2 Use Multiplication Properties of Exponents
    4. 10.3 Multiply Polynomials
    5. 10.4 Divide Monomials
    6. 10.5 Integer Exponents and Scientific Notation
    7. 10.6 Introduction to Factoring Polynomials
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Concepts
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  12. 11 Graphs
    1. Graphs
    2. 11.1 Use the Rectangular Coordinate System
    3. 11.2 Graphing Linear Equations
    4. 11.3 Graphing with Intercepts
    5. 11.4 Understand Slope of a Line
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Concepts
    8. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  13. A | Cumulative Review
  14. B | Powers and Roots Tables
  15. C | Geometric Formulas
  16. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
  17. Index

Learning Objectives

By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Understand the meaning of fractions
  • Model improper fractions and mixed numbers
  • Convert between improper fractions and mixed numbers
  • Model equivalent fractions
  • Find equivalent fractions
  • Locate fractions and mixed numbers on the number line
  • Order fractions and mixed numbers
Be Prepared 4.1

Before you get started, take this readiness quiz.

Simplify: 5·2+1.5·2+1.
If you missed this problem, review Example 2.8.

Be Prepared 4.2

Fill in the blank with << or >:−2__−5>:−2__−5
If you missed this problem, review Example 3.2.

Understand the Meaning of Fractions

Andy and Bobby love pizza. On Monday night, they share a pizza equally. How much of the pizza does each one get? Are you thinking that each boy gets half of the pizza? That’s right. There is one whole pizza, evenly divided into two parts, so each boy gets one of the two equal parts.

In math, we write 1212 to mean one out of two parts.

An image of a round pizza sliced vertically down the center, creating two equal pieces. Each piece is labeled as one half.

On Tuesday, Andy and Bobby share a pizza with their parents, Fred and Christy, with each person getting an equal amount of the whole pizza. How much of the pizza does each person get? There is one whole pizza, divided evenly into four equal parts. Each person has one of the four equal parts, so each has 1414 of the pizza.

An image of a round pizza sliced vertically and horizontally, creating four equal pieces. Each piece is labeled as one fourth.

On Wednesday, the family invites some friends over for a pizza dinner. There are a total of 1212 people. If they share the pizza equally, each person would get 112112 of the pizza.

An image of a round pizza sliced into twelve equal wedges. Each piece is labeled as one twelfth.

Fractions

A fraction is written ab,ab, where aa and bb are integers and b0.b0. In a fraction, aa is called the numerator and bb is called the denominator.

A fraction is a way to represent parts of a whole. The denominator bb represents the number of equal parts the whole has been divided into, and the numerator aa represents how many parts are included. The denominator, b,b, cannot equal zero because division by zero is undefined.

In Figure 4.2, the circle has been divided into three parts of equal size. Each part represents 1313 of the circle. This type of model is called a fraction circle. Other shapes, such as rectangles, can also be used to model fractions.

A circle is divided into three equal wedges. Each piece is labeled as one third.
Figure 4.2

Manipulative Mathematics

Doing the Manipulative Mathematics activity Model Fractions will help you develop a better understanding of fractions, their numerators and denominators.

What does the fraction 2323 represent? The fraction 2323 means two of three equal parts.

A circle is divided into three equal wedges. Two of the wedges are shaded.

Example 4.1

Name the fraction of the shape that is shaded in each of the figures.

In part “a”, a circle is divided into eight equal wedges. Five of the wedges are shaded. In part “b”, a square is divided into nine equal pieces. Two of the pieces are shaded.
Try It 4.1

Name the fraction of the shape that is shaded in each figure:

In part “a”, a circle is divided into eight equal wedges. Three of the wedges are shaded. In part “b”, a square is divided into nine equal pieces. Four of the pieces are shaded.
Try It 4.2

Name the fraction of the shape that is shaded in each figure:

In part “a”, a circle is divided into five equal wedges. Three of the wedges are shaded. In part “b”, a square is divided into four equal pieces. Three of the pieces are shaded.

Example 4.2

Shade 3434 of the circle.

An image of a circle.
Try It 4.3

Shade 6868 of the circle.

A circle is divided into eight equal pieces.
Try It 4.4

Shade 2525 of the rectangle.

A rectangle is divided vertically into five equal pieces.

In Example 4.1 and Example 4.2, we used circles and rectangles to model fractions. Fractions can also be modeled as manipulatives called fraction tiles, as shown in Figure 4.3. Here, the whole is modeled as one long, undivided rectangular tile. Beneath it are tiles of equal length divided into different numbers of equally sized parts.

One long, undivided rectangular tile is shown, labeled “1”. Below it is a rectangular tile of the same size and shape that has been divided vertically into two equal pieces, each labeled as one half. Below that is another rectangular tile that has been divided into three equal pieces, each labeled as one third. Below that is another rectangular tile that has been divided into four equal pieces, each labeled as one fourth. Below that is another rectangular tile that has been divided into six pieces, each labeled as one sixth.
Figure 4.3

We’ll be using fraction tiles to discover some basic facts about fractions. Refer to Figure 4.3 to answer the following questions:

How many 1212 tiles does it take to make one whole tile? It takes two halves to make a whole, so two out of two is 22=1.22=1.
How many 1313 tiles does it take to make one whole tile? It takes three thirds, so three out of three is 33=1.33=1.
How many 1414 tiles does it take to make one whole tile? It takes four fourths, so four out of four is 44=1.44=1.
How many 1616 tiles does it take to make one whole tile? It takes six sixths, so six out of six is 66=1.66=1.
What if the whole were divided into 2424 equal parts? (We have not shown fraction tiles to represent this, but try to visualize it in your mind.) How many 124124 tiles does it take to make one whole tile? It takes 2424 twenty-fourths, so 2424=1.2424=1.

It takes 2424 twenty-fourths, so 2424=1.2424=1.

This leads us to the Property of One.

Property of One

Any number, except zero, divided by itself is one.

aa=1(a0)aa=1(a0)

Manipulative Mathematics

Doing the Manipulative Mathematics activity "Fractions Equivalent to One" will help you develop a better understanding of fractions that are equivalent to one

Example 4.3

Use fraction circles to make wholes using the following pieces:

  1. 44 fourths
  2. 55 fifths
  3. 66 sixths
Try It 4.5

Use fraction circles to make wholes with the following pieces: 33 thirds.

Try It 4.6

Use fraction circles to make wholes with the following pieces: 88 eighths.

What if we have more fraction pieces than we need for 11 whole? We’ll look at this in the next example.

Example 4.4

Use fraction circles to make wholes using the following pieces:

  1. 33 halves
  2. 88 fifths
  3. 77 thirds
Try It 4.7

Use fraction circles to make wholes with the following pieces: 55 thirds.

Try It 4.8

Use fraction circles to make wholes with the following pieces: 55 halves.

Model Improper Fractions and Mixed Numbers

In Example 4.4 (b), you had eight equal fifth pieces. You used five of them to make one whole, and you had three fifths left over. Let us use fraction notation to show what happened. You had eight pieces, each of them one fifth, 15,15, so altogether you had eight fifths, which we can write as 85.85. The fraction 8585 is one whole, 1,1, plus three fifths, 35,35, or 135,135, which is read as one and three-fifths.

The number 135135 is called a mixed number. A mixed number consists of a whole number and a fraction.

Mixed Numbers

A mixed number consists of a whole number aa and a fraction bcbc where c0.c0. It is written as follows.

abcc0abcc0

Fractions such as 54,32,55,54,32,55, and 7373 are called improper fractions. In an improper fraction, the numerator is greater than or equal to the denominator, so its value is greater than or equal to one. When a fraction has a numerator that is smaller than the denominator, it is called a proper fraction, and its value is less than one. Fractions such as 12,37,12,37, and 11181118 are proper fractions.

Proper and Improper Fractions

The fraction abab is a proper fraction if a<ba<b and an improper fraction if ab.ab.

Manipulative Mathematics

Doing the Manipulative Mathematics activity "Model Improper Fractions" and "Mixed Numbers" will help you develop a better understanding of how to convert between improper fractions and mixed numbers.

Example 4.5

Name the improper fraction modeled. Then write the improper fraction as a mixed number.

Two circles are shown, both divided into three equal pieces. The circle on the left has all three pieces shaded. The circle on the right has one piece shaded.
Try It 4.9

Name the improper fraction. Then write it as a mixed number.

Two circles are shown, both divided into three equal pieces. The circle on the left has all three pieces shaded. The circle on the right has two pieces shaded.
Try It 4.10

Name the improper fraction. Then write it as a mixed number.

Two circles are shown, both divided into eight equal pieces. The circle on the left has all eight pieces shaded. The circle on the right has five pieces shaded.

Example 4.6

Draw a figure to model 118.118.

Try It 4.11

Draw a figure to model 76.76.

Try It 4.12

Draw a figure to model 65.65.

Example 4.7

Use a model to rewrite the improper fraction 116116 as a mixed number.

Try It 4.13

Use a model to rewrite the improper fraction as a mixed number: 97.97.

Try It 4.14

Use a model to rewrite the improper fraction as a mixed number: 74.74.

Example 4.8

Use a model to rewrite the mixed number 145145 as an improper fraction.

Try It 4.15

Use a model to rewrite the mixed number as an improper fraction: 138.138.

Try It 4.16

Use a model to rewrite the mixed number as an improper fraction: 156.156.

Convert between Improper Fractions and Mixed Numbers

In Example 4.7, we converted the improper fraction 116116 to the mixed number 156156 using fraction circles. We did this by grouping six sixths together to make a whole; then we looked to see how many of the 1111 pieces were left. We saw that 116116 made one whole group of six sixths plus five more sixths, showing that 116=156.116=156.

The division expression 116116 (which can also be written as 611611) tells us to find how many groups of 66 are in 11.11. To convert an improper fraction to a mixed number without fraction circles, we divide.

Example 4.9

Convert 116116 to a mixed number.

Try It 4.17

Convert the improper fraction to a mixed number: 137.137.

Try It 4.18

Convert the improper fraction to a mixed number: 149.149.

How To

Convert an improper fraction to a mixed number.

  1. Step 1. Divide the denominator into the numerator.
  2. Step 2. Identify the quotient, remainder, and divisor.
  3. Step 3. Write the mixed number as quotient remainderdivisorremainderdivisor.

Example 4.10

Convert the improper fraction 338338 to a mixed number.

Try It 4.19

Convert the improper fraction to a mixed number: 237.237.

Try It 4.20

Convert the improper fraction to a mixed number: 4811.4811.

In Example 4.8, we changed 145145 to an improper fraction by first seeing that the whole is a set of five fifths. So we had five fifths and four more fifths.

55+45=9555+45=95

Where did the nine come from? There are nine fifths—one whole (five fifths) plus four fifths. Let us use this idea to see how to convert a mixed number to an improper fraction.

Example 4.11

Convert the mixed number 423423 to an improper fraction.

Try It 4.21

Convert the mixed number to an improper fraction: 357.357.

Try It 4.22

Convert the mixed number to an improper fraction: 278.278.

How To

Convert a mixed number to an improper fraction.

  1. Step 1. Multiply the whole number by the denominator.
  2. Step 2. Add the numerator to the product found in Step 1.
  3. Step 3. Write the final sum over the original denominator.

Example 4.12

Convert the mixed number 10271027 to an improper fraction.

Try It 4.23

Convert the mixed number to an improper fraction: 4611.4611.

Try It 4.24

Convert the mixed number to an improper fraction: 1113.1113.

Model Equivalent Fractions

Let’s think about Andy and Bobby and their favorite food again. If Andy eats 1212 of a pizza and Bobby eats 2424 of the pizza, have they eaten the same amount of pizza? In other words, does 12=24?12=24? We can use fraction tiles to find out whether Andy and Bobby have eaten equivalent parts of the pizza.

Equivalent Fractions

Equivalent fractions are fractions that have the same value.

Fraction tiles serve as a useful model of equivalent fractions. You may want to use fraction tiles to do the following activity. Or you might make a copy of Figure 4.3 and extend it to include eighths, tenths, and twelfths.

Start with a 1212 tile. How many fourths equal one-half? How many of the 1414 tiles exactly cover the 1212 tile?

One long, undivided rectangle is shown. Below it is a rectangle divided vertically into two pieces, each labeled as one half. Below that is a rectangle divided vertically into four pieces, each labeled as one fourth.

Since two 1414 tiles cover the 1212 tile, we see that 2424 is the same as 12,12, or 24=12.24=12.

How many of the 1616 tiles cover the 1212 tile?

One long, undivided rectangle is shown. Below it is a rectangle divided vertically into two pieces, each labeled as one half. Below that is a rectangle divided vertically into six pieces, each labeled as one sixth.

Since three 1616 tiles cover the 1212 tile, we see that 3636 is the same as 12.12.

So, 36=12.36=12. The fractions are equivalent fractions.

Manipulative Mathematics

Doing the activity "Equivalent Fractions" will help you develop a better understanding of what it means when two fractions are equivalent.

Example 4.13

Use fraction tiles to find equivalent fractions. Show your result with a figure.

  1. How many eighths equal one-half?
  2. How many tenths equal one-half?
  3. How many twelfths equal one-half?
Try It 4.25

Use fraction tiles to find equivalent fractions: How many eighths equal one-fourth?

Try It 4.26

Use fraction tiles to find equivalent fractions: How many twelfths equal one-fourth?

Find Equivalent Fractions

We used fraction tiles to show that there are many fractions equivalent to 12.12. For example, 24,36,24,36, and 4848 are all equivalent to 12.12. When we lined up the fraction tiles, it took four of the 1818 tiles to make the same length as a 1212 tile. This showed that 48=12.48=12. See Example 4.13.

We can show this with pizzas, too. Figure 4.4(a) shows a single pizza, cut into two equal pieces with 1212 shaded. Figure 4.4(b) shows a second pizza of the same size, cut into eight pieces with 4848 shaded.

Two pizzas are shown. The pizza on the left is divided into 2 equal pieces. 1 piece is shaded. The pizza on the right is divided into 8 equal pieces. 4 pieces are shaded.
Figure 4.4

This is another way to show that 1212 is equivalent to 48.48.

How can we use mathematics to change 1212 into 48?48? How could you take a pizza that is cut into two pieces and cut it into eight pieces? You could cut each of the two larger pieces into four smaller pieces! The whole pizza would then be cut into eight pieces instead of just two. Mathematically, what we’ve described could be written as:

1 times 4 over 2 times 4 is written with the 4s in red. This is set equal to 4 over 8.

These models lead to the Equivalent Fractions Property, which states that if we multiply the numerator and denominator of a fraction by the same number, the value of the fraction does not change.

Equivalent Fractions Property

If a,b,a,b, and cc are numbers where b0b0 and c0,c0, then

ab=a·cb·cab=a·cb·c

When working with fractions, it is often necessary to express the same fraction in different forms. To find equivalent forms of a fraction, we can use the Equivalent Fractions Property. For example, consider the fraction one-half.

The top line says that 1 times 3 over 2 times 3 equals 3 over 6, so one half equals 3 sixths. The next line says that 1 times 2 over 2 times 2 equals 2 over 4, so one half equals 2 fourths. The last line says that 1 times 10 over 2 times 10 equals 10 over 20, so one half equals 10 twentieths.

So, we say that 12,24,36,12,24,36, and 10201020 are equivalent fractions.

Example 4.14

Find three fractions equivalent to 25.25.

Try It 4.27

Find three fractions equivalent to 35.35.

Try It 4.28

Find three fractions equivalent to 45.45.

Example 4.15

Find a fraction with a denominator of 2121 that is equivalent to 27.27.

Try It 4.29

Find a fraction with a denominator of 2121 that is equivalent to 67.67.

Try It 4.30

Find a fraction with a denominator of 100100 that is equivalent to 310.310.

Locate Fractions and Mixed Numbers on the Number Line

Now we are ready to plot fractions on a number line. This will help us visualize fractions and understand their values.

Manipulative Mathematics

Doing the Manipulative Mathematics activity "Number Line Part 33" will help you develop a better understanding of the location of fractions on the number line.

Let us locate 15,45,3,313,74,92,5,15,45,3,313,74,92,5, and 8383 on the number line.

We will start with the whole numbers 33 and 55 because they are the easiest to plot.

A number line is shown with the numbers 3, 4, and 5. There are red dots at 3 and at 5.

The proper fractions listed are 1515 and 45.45. We know proper fractions have values less than one, so 1515 and 4545 are located between the whole numbers 00 and 1.1. The denominators are both 5,5, so we need to divide the segment of the number line between 00 and 11 into five equal parts. We can do this by drawing four equally spaced marks on the number line, which we can then label as 15,25,35,15,25,35, and 45.45.

Now plot points at 1515 and 45.45.

A number line is shown. It shows 0, 1 fifth, 2 fifths, 3 fifths, 4 fifths, and 1. There are red dots at 1 fifth and at 4 fifths.

The only mixed number to plot is 313.313. Between what two whole numbers is 313?313? Remember that a mixed number is a whole number plus a proper fraction, so 313>3.313>3. Since it is greater than 3,3, but not a whole unit greater, 313313 is between 33 and 4.4. We need to divide the portion of the number line between 33 and 44 into three equal pieces (thirds) and plot 313313 at the first mark.

A number line is shown with whole number 0 through 5. Between 3 and 4, 3 and 1 third and 3 and 2 thirds are labeled. There is a red dot at 3 and 1 third.

Finally, look at the improper fractions 74,92,74,92, and 83.83. Locating these points will be easier if you change each of them to a mixed number.

74=134,92=412,83=22374=134,92=412,83=223

Here is the number line with all the points plotted.

A number line is shown with whole numbers 0 through 6. Between 0 and 1, 1 fifth and 4 fifths are labeled and shown with red dots. Between 1 and 2, 7 fourths is labeled and shown with a red dot. Between 2 and 3, 8 thirds is labeled and shown with a red dot. Between 3 and 4, 3 and 1 third is labeled and shown with a red dot. Between 4 and 5, 9 halves is labeled and shown with a red dot.

Example 4.16

Locate and label the following on a number line: 34,43,53,415,34,43,53,415, and 72.72.

Try It 4.31

Locate and label the following on a number line: 13,54,74,235,92.13,54,74,235,92.

Try It 4.32

Locate and label the following on a number line: 23,52,94,114,325.23,52,94,114,325.

In Introduction to Integers, we defined the opposite of a number. It is the number that is the same distance from zero on the number line but on the opposite side of zero. We saw, for example, that the opposite of 77 is −7−7 and the opposite of −7−7 is 7.7.

A number line is shown. It shows the numbers negative 7, 0 and 7. There are red dots at negative 7 and 7. The space between negative 7 and 0 is labeled as 7 units. The space between 0 and 7 is labeled as 7 units.

Fractions have opposites, too. The opposite of 3434 is 34.34. It is the same distance from 00 on the number line, but on the opposite side of 0.0.

A number line is shown. It shows the numbers negative 1, negative 3 fourths, 0, 3 fourths, and 1. There are red dots at negative 3 fourths and 3 fourths. The space between negative 3 fourths and 0 is labeled as 3 fourths of a unit. The space between 0 and 3 fourths is labeled as 3 fourths of a unit.

Thinking of negative fractions as the opposite of positive fractions will help us locate them on the number line. To locate 158158 on the number line, first think of where 158158 is located. It is an improper fraction, so we first convert it to the mixed number 178178 and see that it will be between 11 and 22 on the number line. So its opposite, 158,158, will be between −1−1 and −2−2 on the number line.

A number line is shown. It shows the numbers negative 2, negative 1, 0, 1, and 2. Between negative 2 and negative 1, negative 1 and 7 eighths is labeled and marked with a red dot. The distance between negative 1 and 7 eighths and 0 is marked as 15 eighths units. Between 1 and 2, 1 and 7 eighths is labeled and marked with a red dot. The distance between 0 and 1 and 7 eighths is marked as 15 eighths units.

Example 4.17

Locate and label the following on the number line: 14,14,113,−113,52,14,14,113,−113,52, and 52.52.

Try It 4.33

Locate and label each of the given fractions on a number line:

23,23,214,−214,32,3223,23,214,−214,32,32

Try It 4.34

Locate and label each of the given fractions on a number line:

34,34,112,−112,73,7334,34,112,−112,73,73

Order Fractions and Mixed Numbers

We can use the inequality symbols to order fractions. Remember that a>ba>b means that aa is to the right of bb on the number line. As we move from left to right on a number line, the values increase.

Example 4.18

Order each of the following pairs of numbers, using << or >:>:

  1. 23____−123____−1
  2. −312____−3−312____−3
  3. 37____3837____38
  4. −2____−169−2____−169
Try It 4.35

Order each of the following pairs of numbers, using << or >:>:

  1. 13__113__1
  2. −112__2−112__2
  3. 23__1323__13
  4. −3__73−3__73
Try It 4.36

Order each of the following pairs of numbers, using << or >:>:

  1. −3__175−3__175
  2. −214__−2−214__−2
  3. 35__4535__45
  4. −4__103−4__103

Media Access Additional Online Resources

Section 4.1 Exercises

Practice Makes Perfect

In the following exercises, name the fraction of each figure that is shaded.

1.
In part “a”, a circle is divided into 4 equal pieces. 1 piece is shaded. In part “b”, a circle is divided into 4 equal pieces. 3 pieces are shaded. In part “c”, a circle is divided into 8 equal pieces. 3 pieces are shaded. In part “d”, a circle is divided into 8 equal pieces. 5 pieces are shaded.
2.
In part “a”, a circle is divided into 12 equal pieces. 7 pieces are shaded. In part “b”, a circle is divided into 12 equal pieces. 5 pieces are shaded. In part “c”, a square is divided into 9 equal pieces. 4 of the pieces are shaded. In part “d”, a square is divided into 9 equal pieces. 5 pieces are shaded.

In the following exercises, shade parts of circles or squares to model the following fractions.

3.

1212

4.

1313

5.

3434

6.

2525

7.

5656

8.

7878

9.

5858

10.

710710

In the following exercises, use fraction circles to make wholes using the following pieces.

11.

33 thirds

12.

88 eighths

13.

77 sixths

14.

44 thirds

15.

77 fifths

16.

77 fourths

In the following exercises, name the improper fractions. Then write each improper fraction as a mixed number.

17.
In part “a”, two circles are shown. Each is divided into 4 equal pieces. The circle on the left has all 4 pieces shaded. The circle on the right has 1 piece shaded. In part “b”, two circles are shown. Each is divided into 4 equal pieces. The circle on the left has all 4 pieces shaded. The circle on the right has 3 pieces shaded. In part “c”, two circles are shown. Each is divided into 8 equal pieces. The circle on the left has all 8 pieces shaded. The circle on the right has 3 pieces shaded.
18.
In part “a”, 2 circles are shown. Each is divided into 8 equal pieces. The circle on the left has all 8 pieces shaded. The circle on the right has 1 piece shaded. In part “b”, two squares are shown. Each is divided into 4 equal pieces. The square on the left has all 4 pieces shaded. The circle on the right has 1 piece shaded. In part “c”, two squares are shown. Each is divided into 9 equal pieces. The square on the left has all 9 pieces shaded. The square on the right has 2 pieces shaded.
19.
In part “a”, 3 circles are shown. Each is divided into 4 equal pieces. The first two circles have all 4 pieces shaded. The third circle has 3 pieces shaded. In part “b”, 3 circles are shown. Each is divided into 8 equal pieces. The first two circles have all 8 pieces shaded. The third circle has 3 pieces shaded.

In the following exercises, draw fraction circles to model the given fraction.

20.

3333

21.

4444

22.

7474

23.

5353

24.

116116

25.

138138

26.

103103

27.

9494

In the following exercises, rewrite the improper fraction as a mixed number.

28.

3232

29.

5353

30.

114114

31.

135135

32.

256256

33.

289289

34.

42134213

35.

47154715

In the following exercises, rewrite the mixed number as an improper fraction.

36.

123123

37.

125125

38.

214214

39.

256256

40.

279279

41.

257257

42.

347347

43.

359359

In the following exercises, use fraction tiles or draw a figure to find equivalent fractions.

44.

How many sixths equal one-third?

45.

How many twelfths equal one-third?

46.

How many eighths equal three-fourths?

47.

How many twelfths equal three-fourths?

48.

How many fourths equal three-halves?

49.

How many sixths equal three-halves?

In the following exercises, find three fractions equivalent to the given fraction. Show your work, using figures or algebra.

50.

1414

51.

1313

52.

3838

53.

5656

54.

2727

55.

5959

In the following exercises, plot the numbers on a number line.

56.

23,54,12523,54,125

57.

13,74,13513,74,135

58.

14,95,11314,95,113

59.

710,52,138,3710,52,138,3

60.

213,−213213,−213

61.

134,−135134,−135

62.

34,34,123,−123,52,5234,34,123,−123,52,52

63.

25,25,134,−134,83,8325,25,134,−134,83,83

In the following exercises, order each of the following pairs of numbers, using << or >.>.

64.

−1__14−1__14

65.

−1__13−1__13

66.

−212__3−212__3

67.

−134__2−134__2

68.

512__712512__712

69.

910__310910__310

70.

−3__135−3__135

71.

−4__236−4__236

Everyday Math

72.

Music Measures A choreographed dance is broken into counts. A 1111 count has one step in a count, a 1212 count has two steps in a count and a 1313 count has three steps in a count. How many steps would be in a 1515 count? What type of count has four steps in it?

73.

Music Measures Fractions are used often in music. In 4444 time, there are four quarter notes in one measure.

  1. How many measures would eight quarter notes make?
  2. The song “Happy Birthday to You” has 2525 quarter notes. How many measures are there in “Happy Birthday to You?”
74.

Baking Nina is making five pans of fudge to serve after a music recital. For each pan, she needs 1212 cup of walnuts.

  1. How many cups of walnuts does she need for five pans of fudge?
  2. Do you think it is easier to measure this amount when you use an improper fraction or a mixed number? Why?

Writing Exercises

75.

Give an example from your life experience (outside of school) where it was important to understand fractions.

76.

Explain how you locate the improper fraction 214214 on a number line on which only the whole numbers from 00 through 1010 are marked.

Self Check

After completing the exercises, use this checklist to evaluate your mastery of the objectives of this section.

.

If most of your checks were:

…confidently. Congratulations! You have achieved the objectives in this section. Reflect on the study skills you used so that you can continue to use them. What did you do to become confident of your ability to do these things? Be specific.

…with some help. This must be addressed quickly because topics you do not master become potholes in your road to success. In math, every topic builds upon previous work. It is important to make sure you have a strong foundation before you move on. Whom can you ask for help? Your fellow classmates and instructor are good resources. Is there a place on campus where math tutors are available? Can your study skills be improved?

…no—I don’t get it! This is a warning sign and you must not ignore it. You should get help right away or you will quickly be overwhelmed. See your instructor as soon as you can to discuss your situation. Together you can come up with a plan to get you the help you need.

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