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allostatic load (AL)
the body’s physiologic “wear and tear” due to an individual’s exposure to stressors that accumulate throughout the lifespan
eugenics
the erroneous theory that humans can be improved through selective breeding of populations
health equity
a condition in which everyone has a fair opportunity to attain their highest level of health
internalized racism
when members of a stigmatized race accept negative messages about their abilities and overall worth with self-devaluation, resignation, and hopelessness
Jim Crow era
a period during which laws perpetuating institutional racism and the denial of Black Americans’ constitutional rights were enforced across the southern United States, lasted from 1877 to about 1965
mass incarceration
extreme rates of incarceration, particularly affecting large numbers of young Black men, in the U.S. prison system
occupational segregation
the practice of separating workers by race into certain industries, resulting in a disproportionate representation of one race in a sector of the workforce
personally mediated racism
prejudice and discrimination where individuals or communities make assumptions about other individuals or communities based solely on race
racial profiling
assuming or suspecting a person of criminal behavior based on race alone
racism
the unfair treatment of individuals based on race
redlining
the system of denying borrowers access to mortgage loans based on the location of properties in disadvantaged neighborhoods that were often comprised of minority populations
residential racial segregation
the practice of keeping racial communities separate based on where people live
restrictive racial covenants
racist restrictions that prevented Black individuals from homeownership through a legal agreement initiated by prior homeowners
scientific racism
belief that White Europeans are superior to non-White people
structural racism
a process resulting in a gap in access to societal opportunities based on race that results in institutional policies, systems, laws, and practices that limit opportunities, resources, and power
white flight
the White American exodus from the cities to the suburbs, leaving BIPOC individuals behind, that occurred during the 1950s
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