Skip to ContentGo to accessibility pageKeyboard shortcuts menu
OpenStax Logo

burden of disease
the impact of a health problem based on population health metrics, or indicators, that refer to valid, reliable, and comparable measures of health status
disability-adjusted life years (DALYs)
the sum of years lost to a disease or health condition (the YLLs and YLDs), with each DALY representing the loss of one year of full health
Global Burden of Disease
a study conducted by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) that reflects the current health care needs and challenges worldwide
a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
health disparities
preventable differences in experiencing diseases, injuries, or opportunities
health equity
the expectation that everyone has a fair opportunity to attain their highest level of health
health indicators
health-related measures of data that are used to quantify and track an individual’s health status
health outcome
a change in the health status of an individual, group, or population that is attributable to a planned intervention or series of interventions, regardless of whether such an intervention was intended to change health status
health-related quality of life (HRQL)
the perceived physical and mental well-being of an individual or group
Healthy People 2030
an initiative of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to improve the health and well-being of all people in the United States that has produced a list of high-priority health issues and challenges focused on the year 2030
the number of new cases of a disease over a given time frame
leading health indicators (LHIs)
high-priority, modifiable issues addressing social determinants of health, health disparities, and health equity that have a significant effect on health outcomes
the state of being symptomatic or unhealthy due to a disease or condition; usually represented or estimated using prevalence or incidence
mortality rate
the number of deaths in a specified time frame
population health outcomes
broad topics related to a larger group or target population, such as mortality rates, life expectancy rates, prevalence of chronic conditions, or quality of life
the proportion of a population with a disease or condition over a given timeframe
quality-adjusted life years (QALYs)
the months or years of reasonable quality that an individual may gain following medical treatment for a condition
social determinants of health (SDOH)
non-health factors such as socioeconomic status, education, or environment that affect health
sustainable development goals (SDGs)
a call to action to address global challenges such as poverty, inequality, climate change, peace, and justice; aimed at all countries, including those that are developed and those that are developing
the subjective perception that life is going well; is important from a public health perspective, as it is an outcome
years of healthy life lost due to disability (YLD)
the number of healthy years one might lose from their life due to disability or sickness
years of life lost (YLL)
a measure of premature mortality that considers both the frequency of death and the age at which it occurs, calculated by multiplying number of deaths by a standard life expectancy

This book may not be used in the training of large language models or otherwise be ingested into large language models or generative AI offerings without OpenStax's permission.

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution License and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at
Citation information

© Apr 26, 2024 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.