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agenda setting
the identification of an issue or issues that require resolution and bringing these issues to the attention of community partners and concerned parties
cost-benefit analysis
analysis that compares the outcomes of the changes to the cost of implementing a policy
cycle of poverty
a series of events that occur between generations; once a person or family becomes impoverished, it is almost impossible to change their economic status, and external intervention is needed to break the cycle
directly observed therapy (DOT)
system in which medication is dispensed at a clinic or pharmacy to a client one dose at a time to ensure compliance for those who are at high risk for noncompliance (such as with clients who lack a permanent address)
evidence-based practice policies
policies developed from reliable data and statistics rather than intuition and personal opinion
four spheres of political action in nursing
the four areas in which nurses can effect change: workplace, government, community, and professional organizations
Health in All Policies (HiAP)
a collaborative approach to policy creation that integrates and articulates health considerations into policy development across sectors to improve the health of all communities and people
health policy
policies that describe a health goal and a way to accomplish it
health policy process
the steps or stages that are followed as a specific issue is identified and a plan of action intended to correct it is made
health policymaking
the formulation and establishment of policies and methods of achieving the policies by government bodies or other relevant organizations to address any of the varied aspects of health care, which includes public health and the health care system
institutional policy
rules that an organization has developed to govern the activities of anyone employed by or associated with the institution
the system of rules by which a country or community regulates the behavior and actions of its members
nursing policy
sets goals and boundaries for nursing practice
a course or principle of action adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual
policy adoption
the acceptance or ratification of a policy
policy development process
the steps or stages that are followed as a specific problem or concern generates a plan of action intended to correct it
policy evaluation
determining how a policy is working and whether the intended outcomes are happening
policy formulation
creating a plan to solve a previously identified problem
policy implementation
the process of putting a new policy into effect through planning and funding
preexisting conditions
health problems diagnosed before an insurance policy goes into effect and will therefore not be covered under the new insurance policy
public policy
local, state, or national laws and regulations
social capital
resources accessed through social connections or networking that decrease barriers to health care
social justice
the fair and equal treatment of individuals
social policy
policy decisions that promote the general welfare of the public
social support
both actual and perceived assistance from one’s friends, acquaintances, coworkers, and family
stage-sequential model
a process that uses five steps to create a policy; these include agenda setting, policy formulation, policy adoption, policy implementation, and policy evaluation

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